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ISupplement to the Building News, Janitary 10, 1879.] 









Lf{^lpRJE\<^ M 

BtiLDiNG News, January 10, 1870.] 

737692 I 



ABBEYS: Crowland, 224. 278; Dale, 
304, 341; Newbattle, 183; St. Alban's, 
see " Cathedra-ls ; " Sweetheart, 612 ; 
Tewkesburv, 23, 129, 305 ; Tborney, 224, 
2at; Thornton (St. Mary's), 52; Tin- 
tern, 184 

Abingdon : sewage farming at, 466 ; water 
supply, 280 

Absorbent power of woods, 714 

Abuses of Portland cement, uses and, 446 

Academy : 2 ; new President, 519 ; (elec- 
tion of), 525; prizes distribution, 605, 

Accessible drain trap, an, 230 

Aocoromodatiou, church, 24S 

Act of Vandalism, an, 278, 306 

Address of president R.I.B.A., 523, 526; 
and cumpetition^, 574, 599 

Esthetic effect, slate and copper roofs, 548 

Airreements: stamped, 148, 202, 229, 254, 
307, 358, 383, 410 ; unstamped, 94 

Air, steam, and gas engines, 381 

Albert : bridge, toll- compensation oaae, 
685 ; hall, proposed fine art exhibition 
at, 576 

Alderman's-walt, fatal fall of arch in, 230, 

Alfred the Great's palace, 501 

Alleged : incompleteness of arbitrator's 
award, 68 ; neglect (at Peterborough 
cathedral), 629 (by a surveyor) 439 

Almshouses, Clifton (Hills'), 437 

Alrewas and Wichnor, 103 

Alterations : at St, Mary-le-Bow ch., 469 ; 
to plans, 547 

Amalgamation of : London gas oompanies, 
175 ; water colour societies, 602 

Amateur painting on porcelain and pottery 
competition, 448 

America, hydraulic construction in, 5 

American : and British anonymous criti- 
cism, 572, 573, 600 ; institute of archi- 
tects, 679 ; jerry builders, 391 ; timber, 
307, 384, 410 

Ancient : buildings, restoration of, 677 ; 
capital of Ulysses, 317; Egyptians, 689 ; 
land survey, the most, 151 ; monuments 
bill, 6«4 

Animal representations, grotesque, 173 

Annual reports : iastitutiou of civil engi- 
neers, 694 ; science aud art department, 

Anonymous criticism, British and Ameri- 
can, 572, 573, 600 

Another : reredos case, 628 ; unsatisfactory 
competition, 600 

Anti-corrosive paste, Harrison's, 335 

Antiquaries, Newcastle society of, 487 

Antiquities : aud fine art, loan collection 
of Coruish, 304 ; Assyrian, Mr. Rassam's, 
255; Paris exhibition, 150, 205, 232, 283 

Antwerp fine arts palacg competn., Iu4 

Apocalyptic art, 331 

Approaches, southern, of Waterloo bridge, 

Arbitrator's : awa 

68 ; fees, 628 
Arch: 307; fatal fall of in Bishopsgate, 
230 233 
* Archffiological : 103, 1S3, 251, 264. 304, 318, 
341, 368, 407, 530 ; and art museum, 
Oxford (proposed), 714 ; association, 557, 
612, (at Wisbech), 197, 223 ; associations 
(Cambrian), 228, (Yorkshire) 228; con- 
gresses, 41; discoveries in St, Just and 
Sennen, 625 ; institute, royal, 65, (aud 
restoration) 123, (at Northampton) 99, 
124; societies (Berks), 290, (Bristol and 
Gloucester) 117, 130, (Bucks) 130, (Essex 
and Suffolk) 171, (Kent) 117, 130, (Leices- 
tersh.) 117, (Somerset) 228 
Archaeologists at Durham cathedral, 318 
Archieology in Northants, 530 
Arches, 307 

Architect : a well-paid amateur, 306. 357 ; 
diocesan, Sir E. Beckett as an, 255 ; of 
Wollaton hall, 712; or architect and sur- 
veyor, 688, 691 ; what is an, 333, 356 
Architects : and artists, awards to at Paris 
exhibition, 421; and corporations, 411 ; 
charges, 519, 68i ; commission, a medie- 
val, 264; institutes (American). 679; 
(Glasgow), 408; (royal British), 441, 46t, 
523, 526, 582, 636, 637; legal responsi- 
bilities of, 709 ; nowhere nowadays, 155 ; 
perils from informal instructions, 520, 
548 ; the confureuce of and surveyors to 
local au'.horilies, 2t 
Architectural : and medical profossinns, 
combititd aci ion of, 576 ; association, 394, 
447. 465, 497. 5.-i.=l. 609, 638,691, (black- 
balling at) 555, tiOl, 680. (ballotin..') -M, 
711.(diflcnAsions at) 711, (in York^liM . 
8, 15t. ls2, 2m8. (sketchbook) 175; h 
ciations( Leeds). 171, 487, 598. (Nortlinm 
175, 557 ; awards, University College, I'o ; 
misrepresentation, 418; museum (and 
Scott memorial), 42, (sketching club) 
602; re:*to rat ions, discussions on modern, 
602 ; scholars. Academy, 42 ; societies 
(Edinburgh), 4^7, (Exeter) 462 ; works, 
new German, 685 
Architecture : acaflemy lectures on, 685 ; 
domestic Rutlandshire, 76 ; Elizabethan, 
471 ; Englit>h, studies in, 465 ; in the City, 
312 ; Italian, 3*1 ; near Charing-cross, 
moflom,284; Piiriaian, at Paris exhibi- 
tion, 73 ; popular dictionary of, 8 
Are more metropolitan bridges wanted ? 

,For Index to Illustrationa see Page VII.] 

Arsenic in soot, 685 

Art : and the clergy, 421 ; apocalyptic, 331 ; 
at social science congress, 436 ; early 
Christian, 601 ; English, present tenden- 
cies of, 630 ; exhibitions, Sunday, 337 ; 
galleries, Liverpool, 290 ; H. Hcrkoiner 
on, 491 ; keramic, in Japan, 288 ; lec- 
tures and discussions, 495. 546, 575 ; loan 
collection (proposed in London), 3y5, 
(Paris exhibition) 150, 205, 232, 283 ; pro- 
motion, Taylor bequest, 384 ; relics (and 
religious emblems), 181, (royal English 
on continent) 316 ; representations of 
Death, 547 ; schools' competition, na- 
tional, 147. 207, 306 

Artificial marble, 75 

Artisans' dwellings : act, the, 63 ; designs 
for, 42 

Artists : and architects, awards to at Paris 
exhibition, 421 ; Cypriote, 121 ; exhibition 
by society of British, 579 

Arts : manufactures and mines, 90 ; Society 
of, and weod carving, 602 

Ash closets, self-acting cinder-sifting, 630 

Ashdown, the late John, 230, 255 

Ashford bd. schls. competitn., 76, 104 

Aske, improvements at, 515 

Associations; archaeological (British), 197. 
223, 557, 612, (Cambrian) 228, (Yorkshire) 
228 ; architectural, 8, 154, 182, 208, 394, 
447, 465, 497, 555, 601, 609. 638. 680, 6^i4. 
691,711. (Birmingham) 465, (Leeds) 171. 
487, 598, (Northern) 175, 557 ; brick and 
tile masters ( North Staff. ) . 42 ; Briti-:h, 
170, 180; diocesan (Chichester), 682; 
master builders (Liverpool), 547, (na- 
tional) 210 ; municipal and sanitary 
engineers and surveyors, 102 ; social 
science, 335, 436, 444 

Assurance offices : Gresham, Poultry, 694 ; 
Prudential, Holborn, 8 

Assvrian : antiquities, new, 255 ; bronzes, 

Aston public buildings competn, 8, 251, 257 

Asylums : Darenth imbecile, 682 ; Glouces- 
tershire, Bai-nwood, 422 ; supt. actinir as 
architect, 306 ; thi'ee counties', Baldock, 

Athos, Mount, monasteries of, 45 

Avonmouth dock, near Bristol, 499 

Awards: architectural, University coll., 
25 ; Paris exhibition, 421, 546 

Ayrshire lake dwelling, an, 5U0 

BAILEY, the late Chas., 384 
Bakers' ovens, 411 

Balloting at the Association, 684, 711 
Baltimore: foolhardy building at, 26; 

steam factory for brickmaking, 255 
Bangor cathedral : great bell, 548 ; memo- 
rial pulpit, 227 
Banking premises : Edinburgh, 252 ; Lof- 

tus-in-Cleveland, 22 ; Salisbury, 236 
Bankrupts' propertv, 628 
Barnack church, 128, 169 
Barnsley mechanic's inst. library, 76 
Barracks, Fulford, York. 305, 4S9 
Barrows, British, in North Wilt?, 341, 36S 
Basilica, exhumation of an Italian, 251 
Bath city architect and the new bridge, 576 
Baths, Camden Turkish, 558 
Battens, slating, 174 

Battersea : bridge toll-compensation case, 
685 ; Burlington colonnade at, 630 ; ves- 
try hall competition, 355 
Beckett, Sir E. : and Mr. G. E. Street, 393 ; 

as a diocesan architect, 255 
Bedford new shire hall, 437 
Belfast harbour, 499 
Belgium and England, bells of, 462 
Bells : Bangor cathedral, 548 ; Llandaff 
do., 4i0; of Belffium and England, 462 ; 
St. Paul's cathedral, 384 
Benevolent institutions : builders', 96, 499, 

576 ; builders' clerks, 340 
Berks archge. and archi. socy., 290 
Berlin transparent tableaux, .521 
Bidder, the late Geo. Parker, .334 
Bideford fine arts exhibition, 204 
Billingsgate, electric lighting at, 577 
Birkbeck bnildincr society. 69 
Birmingham ; and miiiland institute. 251 ; 
architectural assocn., 465 ; master 
buiUers* society, 491 ; sanitary progress 
in. 95 

Blackburn high-level water supply, 713 
Blackness of buildings, new theory as to, 

17 1 
I I ■ .|i ol pavilion and winter garden, 52 
' in 1 ■stiniog, cocoa hotel competn, 584 
i, sanitary matters at, 68 

house, Harrow school, 8 ; -up 



Board : room and offices, Holborn, 145 ; 
school drawings exhibition, London, 473 

Board schools : Ashford, 76, 104 ; Beau vale, 
332; Bclper, 171, 252; Cannock, 3i'7 ; 
Clee-with-Weelsby, 547; Croydon, 28; 
Fenton, 121 ; Glasgow, 175 ; Gloucester, 
463 ; Grt. Usworth, 277 ; Henllys. 492 ; 
Heworth, 515 ; Hinckley, 277 ; Liver- 
pool, 119, .332 ; Llandudno, 8, 228 ; Low 
FaU, 254; Nottingham, 28, 65, 317,368, 
394, 502; Paignton, 631; Rugby. 408; 
Smcthwick, 277 ; Soutliey, Fon-st of 
Dean, 422; Spalding, .355. 487; St. 
Mary's, Southampton, 171; Widues, 517 

Bodmin tovm hall competition, 65, 67, 94, 

119. 173, 201 
Bombay, panels for statue. 280 
Bones in Rothwell crypt, 126, 127 
Bootle, borings for water at, 253 
Borings, water : Bootle, 253 ; Turnford, 713 
Boulogne deep sea harbour, 253, 261 
Bow church, Cheapside, alterations to, 469 
Bowdon chapel competition. 109 
Bowers' process for preserv.ation of iron, 175 
Boyle, the late Robert, 308 
Boyi*' home, Shefford, 76 
Bradford, new hotels at, 252, 682 
Brassey, Thos., on science and .art, 3n8 
Brick! and tile masters (North Staff.) 
assocn., 42; machine. 440, 464 ; making 
by steam, 255; manuiacturers, damages 
against for smoke nuisance, 713 ; walls, 
efilorescence on, 91 
Brickfields, employment of children in, 202 
Bricks : of Tarying thickness, 120 ; salt 

stains in, 519 
Bridges : Forth, 70, 358 ; Glasgow harbour 
(rail way), 639; Gloucester-gate, 148 ; our 
metropolitan, are more wanted ? 633 ; 
Rochester, 264; Salford, 520; Severn, 
289 ; Waterloo, 308, 3S9 
Bridlington : drainage competition, 384 ; 

quay, sea defences competitn., 6S2 
Briyade depot, Hounslow, 683 
Brighton: building in, 123 ; picture exhi- 
bition, 281 ; redecoration at pavilion, 714 
Bristol : aud Gloucester archx-ological 
socy., 117, 130 ; operative conference, 
263; subui-ban, 285 
British: almanack and companion, 611; 
and American anonymous criticism, 572, 
573, 600; archaeological institute, 197, 223, 
557, 612 ; architects, royal institute, 441, 
464, 523, 526, 582, 636, 637 ; artists, 
society of, exhibition, 579 ; association, 
■ 170, 180 ; barrows in North Wilts, 341, 

368 ; watering places, 337 
Broach spire, 67 
Brompton oratory competition, 23, 69, 104, 

130, 146. 184.253, 278,502 
Bronzes, Assyrian, 473 
Broseley roofing tile, red, 464 
Brown oak, 712 
Brown's drain trap, 230 
Buckingham water-gate, neglected state of, 

Bucks archaaological society, 130 
Builder : a fraudulent, 603 ; committed to 

prison, 308 
Builders: benevolent institution, 96, 499, 
576; clerks do., 340; jerry, American, 
391; master (Birmingham socy.), 491. 
(Liverpool assocn.) 547, (national 
a«30cn.) 210; powers of vestries over, 
686 ; sand, sewage deposits as, 465 
Building : act, nice point under, 359 ; bye- 
laws, infringement of, 577; estates, 440; 
geometry applicable to works of. 679 ; 
haste in, 151 ; in Brighton, 123 ; in 
Oxford, a year's, 392 ; in Oxford- 
street, a sanitary, 393 ; materials (che- 
mistry of), 4, 47. (coloured) 9S, (of 
Wallachia and Moldavia) 49 ; News 
desiguing club, 303, 461, 518, 530, 571, 
5S4, 694 ; on stilts, 143 ; opei-ation=i, 
damag-es for. 412 ; rcguljitions, new, at 
Glasgow, 530; society c;ise. 713; trade 
(and Bristol operatives' couference), 263, 
(in West of England) 598; trades' direc- 
tory. 422 
Build'iues : ancient, restoration of, 677 ; 
early dates on, 600; in Midiao, remains 
of, 637; measuring, 279; panic-proof, 
420 ; ^protection of from lightning, 233, 
Burgess, J. Tom. presentation to, 26 
Burges', W.. new house, Holland-park, 520 
Buried basilica, exhumation of, 2.'il 
Burlington colonnade at Battersea, 630 
Burnard, the late, N. N., 630 
Burnley : cement from sewerage at, 491 ; 

fall of premises at, 289 
Business premises: Bradford, 544; Car- 
lisle, 544; Fenchurch-avenue, 640; New 
Bond-street, 640 ; Newgate-street, 448 ; 
Shoreditch, 41 

CABURN, Mfc., escavaUons on, 65. 181 

CiEsar's camp, Folkestone, excavations in, 

Calvert's, mechanics' almanuck. 501 

Caml»erwell guardians and their architects, 

Cambrian archreological assncn., 228 

Cambridge : All SS. memorial cross, 210 ; 
archfeologists amongst the colleges, 226, 
227 ; Cavendish college, 41 ; college 
building works, 305 ; failure of concrete 
at, 446 ; sew.>rage of, 466, 547 

Camden Turkish baths, 558 

Camps : Cfesar's, Folkestone, 181 ; Ches- 
terton, 225 ; Irchester, 125, 530 

Canon's Ashby. 129 

Canterbury cathedral, 464 

Capital of Ulysses, ancient, 317 

Carbonic acid gas in aerostation, 413 

Carlatton, sepulchral slab, 264, 306. 333 

Carlisle : cathedral, old nave. 447 ; Roman 
slab at, 575 ; sewerage works, 684 

Carmarthen lychgate competition, 515, 584 

Carrara marblc.'iS 

Carving in wood, classes for, 602 

Caryatides, 48 

Casement, 48 

Cases, show, and shop. 50 
Cast of our obelisk, taking a, 148 
Cattle : 48 ; Archdale (tumuli), 318 ; 
Ashby, 127 ; Acre (castle and priory), 
200 ; Rising, 224 ; Colchester, 49 ; 
Fotheringhay. 128 ; Northampton, 100 ; 
Rockingham, 128; Wisbech, 199 
Catacomb.'', 49 
Catenary, 49 

Cathedral : 49 ; for Southwark, a, 523 
Cathedrals : Bangor, 227, 548 ; Canterbury, 
464 ; Carlisle, U7 ; Chichester, 518 ; 
Cologne, 521 ; Cork (St. Finn Barre), 67 ; 
Coutances, 448. 502 ; Dunblane, 612 ; 
Durham, 318, 463 ; Edinburgh, 487 ; Ely, 
198 ; Exeter, 24. 67 ; Gloucester, 93 ; 
Hereford, 130, 156 ; Kirkwall, 147 ; list 
of EnglUh, 49 ; Llandaff, 440, 491; Nor- 
wich, 21 ; Peterborough. 21, 629 ; Spires, 
203; St. Alban's, 93. 121. 169,203,410, 
492, 579, 582, 597, 627, 6.30, 678, 708; 
St. Paul's, 50, 72, 3S4, 412, (old) 210 ; 
Truro, 181, 227, 236, 519. 584, 631, 640 ; 
Tuam (Episco.), 409 ; Winchester, 95 ; 
Worcester, 253 ; York, 209, 358, 359 
Cattle : shed. 152 ; stall iron fittings, 630 
Caviedium, 152 

Cavendish college, Cambridtre, 41 
Ceiling: 152; testing of Leigh's fireproof. 



Cemetery : Bridgwater, 171 ; chapel, 152, 

(painting) 307 ; drainage of, 440 
Cenotaph, 152 

Central-area churches, six, 607 
Centreing, 152 
Centrolinead, 153 
Ceramics, Worcester, 413 
Cesspool : 628 ; ventilating, 307 
Chancel. 153 

Channels, open, motion of water in, 288 
Chantry, 153 

Chapels : Askern (Wesleyan), 171 ; Avon- 
wick, 171; Bowdon (Bapt.), 104, 710; 
Brock-road, Guernsey (Wesln.). 492; 
Chelmsford (Congl.), 682 ; Cotham 
(Wesln.), 305 ; Enston-road, W.C. (Ton- 
bridse Congl.), 23 ; Falsgrave (Wesln,), 
42, 710; Gresford (Wesln.), 530; Hackney 
{Prim. Meth.), 309; Halifax, South- 
parade, 176; Hereford (Wesln.), 683; 
Kilburn (Bible Christian), 252; Lang- 
ham-place (Grosvenor), 712; Leicester 
(Wesln.), 290; Manchester (Wesln.), 408; 
Morley (Congl). 305, (Wesln.) 22; 
Moses-gate, Bolton (Wesln), 305 ; New- 
hall (Prim. Meth.), 382; Newnham Pad- 
dox (R. C), 201 ; New Normanton 
(R.C.). 575; Oswestry (Welsh Wesln.), 
145; Oxford (Wesln.), 438; Penmaeu- 
mawr (Conel.), 252; Rochester (ancient 
bridge), 264; Savoy, 263; Seacomhc 
(Presbtn.),93; Shoreditch (Bapt. Taber- 
nacle), 492 ; Sneyd-park, Bristol (Congl.), 
263; Southport (Wesln.), 382 ; South- 
wark (Wesleyan), 409 ; Tewkesbury 
(Wesln.), 23 ; Truro (Prim. Meth), 712; 
Tulse-hUI, S.W. (Wesln.), 422 ; Tyntes- 
field (private), .394 ; Walsall (Bapt.), 120 
Chapter : houses, 65, 153 ; of transition- 
ists, 89 ; on roofs of Renaissance, 364, 
390 ; on some kinds of timber, 260, 315, 
Charges : architects', 519, 684 ; professional^ 

Chariug-cross, modern architecture near, 

Chateau, St. Louis (new), Quebec, 422 
Cheapside, alterations to Bow ch., 469 
Cheltenham, social science association at, 

335, 436, 444 
Chemistry of building materials. 4. 47 
Chesnut and oak timber, 356, .583. 409, ' 
Chester, new Nisi Prius court, 117 
Chesterton camp, 225 
Chichester : cathedral. Dean Hook clock, 

518 ; diocesan assocn., GS2 

ChUdren, employment of in brickfields, 202 

Chimney : 249 ; flues, 334, 353 ; shafts (c' 

cular, diminncion of), 92, (factory) 557 ; 

stalk, 334. 358. 411 

China painting, 501 

Chinese snuff-bottle collection, a, 393 

Choir : 153 ; screen, 249 

Christian art, early, 601 

Church : accommodation, 249 ; builder, 

the, 501 ; building societies (Chichester), 

682. (incorpoi-ated) 118, 545, (LUndaff) 

683, (York) 626 ; congress (Sheffield), 
340 ; restoration, 684, 712 ; yard garden, 
Newington, S.E., 202, 488 

Churches: Aberdeen (St. Nicholas* spire), 
599; Accrington (Christ ch.), 336 ; Ais- 
kew (R.C.), 66 ; Alphington, 117 ; Al- 
tofts (St. Mary Magd.), 489; Ardagh 
(St. Brigid. R.C.), 76; Arundel (R.C.), 
174; Ashton-under-Lyne (Holy Trinity), 
117 ; Aylesford (St. Peter), 489 ; Bar- 
nack, 128, 169 ; Bassenthwaite (St. John 
Evang.), 332; Beer (St. Michael), 171; 
Belfast (Presbn.), 382; Belper (Christ 
ch.),355; Bicknoller. 547; Bishopsgate 
(St. Helen), 147, 172, 201, 335; Black- 
bum fCongl.), 305 ; Bolsover, 117 ; Boo- 
tle (Congl.), 682, (St. John) 464 i 
Brampton (St. Martin), 548 ; Brent- 
wood (St. Paul). 544 ; Bridgerule (St. 
Bridget), 228; Brighton (Congl.), 438, 

BUILDI>Tt news, Vol. XXXV. 
July to December, 187S. 


Supplement to the 
BclLDiNG News, Jan. 10, 1879. 


(St Mary) 437 ; BrixwortU, 101 ; Broad 
Hinton (St. Peter), 437; Brompt'.B 
(oratory), 23, 69, 104, 1.30, 146, 184, 2o3, 
278, 602 ; Buokland Newton, 557 ; Bur- 
ford ;i42 ; Burton Leonard. 573 ; Cam- 
bridgo, 226 ; Caatle Ashby, 127 ; Castor, 
225 ,°Cliastleton (St. Mary), 492 ; CUeip- 
side (St. Mary-le-Bow), 469; Chipping 
Norton, 489 ; Cleeton, 332 ; CogonUoe, 
127 • Coleshill, 408 ; condemned City, 
584 '; Conway. 277, 357 ; Cotterstock, 
128 ; Covent-garden (St. Paul), 335 ; 
Coversham, 545; Crewe (Chriat oh.), 
145; Crofton, 386; Crowlaud (abbey), 
224, ^78; Doune (St. Modoc), 277; 
Drogheda (St. Mary Magd., B.C.). 332 ; 
Dublin (Ball Memorial), GS2 ; Dunston 
(St. Leonard), 437 ; Karls Barton, 127 ; 
Eaat Haddon, 22 ; Easton Maudit (SS. 
Peter and Paul), 129; Edgehill(Congl.), 
305- Edinburgh (German), 683; Egre- 
mont (St. John), ISl ; Eieter (St. 
James), 489; Falkirk (U.P.), 336; Fel- 
sham, 626 ; Finedon, 12H ; Fittleton, 421 ; 
Fotheringhay, 128; Gal way (St. Igna- 
tius), 355 ; Garway, 573 ; Glasgow (Bel- 
haven, U.P.), 694, (U.P.) -463; Gran- 
shaw (Wesln.), 408 ; Oranton, 93; Great 
Brinc^on, 100 ; Halifax, 332 ; Halkin 
(St. Mary Virgin), 515; Hand»worth, 
355 ; Harlestone, 100 ; Hastings 
(Congl.),66; Haughley(St. Mary), US; 
Haworth, 714; Haxbv. 22; Hei^him 
(St. Bartholomew). (i>3 ; Helmingham, 
264 ; Higham Ferrers. 125 ; High Bray, 
516 ; Holdenby, 101 ; Holme Pierrepomt, 

437 ; Hugglescotc, 66 ; Humber, 599 ; 
Hyde (Unitn.), 710; Inchioore (St. 
Mary, B.C.), 626; Ipswich (St. Law. 
rence), 360, (Upper Orwell-st.) 631 ; 
Irthlingborough, 126 ; Islip, 126 ; Kears- 
ley (New Jemsalem), 626 ; Kensal- 
green(St. Jnde), 118; Kirkstall (CongL), 

438 ; Landbeach, 516 ; Langho (St. Leo- 
nard), 290; Lee, S.E. (St. Margaret), 
530; Leeds (TJ. Free Meth.), 65; Leo- 
minster (priory), 252 ; Leverington, 197 ; 
Lewisham (St. George, Perry-hill), 573 ; 
Little Horkesley (S8. Peter and Paul), 
252 ; Littleover, 384 ; Liverpool (Our 
Lady of Mt. Carmel), 93 ; Llangunnoch, 
277 ; Llanywvnech, 438 ; London, 411, 
(St. Sepulchre, B.C.) 629, (SS. Auffus- 
tineand Faith, E.G.), 382; Lostwithiel 
(St. Bartholomew), 3a2 ; Loughborough 
(Holy Trinity), 408 ; Lowick, 126; Lynn, 
223; Lytham (St. Peter, R.C.),492; Mae<i- 
brook, (St. John Evang.), 252 ; Ma^huU 
(St. Andrew), 93 ; Manchester (St. 
Bride). 145 ; Marple (AU SS.), 516 ; May- 
field (Free), 22, 382 ; Middlesborough 
(St. Marv, R.C.), 277; Milland, 408; 
Milton, Devon (Holy Spirit), 201; Ma- 
bourne (St. Andrew', 577 ; Mottiugliam 
(St. Peter), 8 ; Moulton, 290; Nettleton, 
466 ; (St. John 
Bapt.), 145; Northampton (St. Law- 
rence). 409, (St. Michael) 264, (St. Peter) 
100, (St. Sepulchre) 126; North Ken- 
sington (CShristch.), 184; North Pether- 
ton (St. Mary), 104 ; Norwich (St. Peter 
Mancroft), 69; organs in, 610, 638; 
Orsdal (St. Clement), 332; Osbaldwick, 
22, 118 ; Osnev (St. Frideswide), 236 ; 
Ottcry (St. Mary), 305; Overton, 355, 
360 ; Parracombe, 489 ; fenycae (St. 
Thomas), 683; Perth (North, U.P.), 
515; PiccadiUy (St. J.imes), 415; Ports- 
wood (Christ ch., Highfield), 489; Pri- 
vett (Holy Trinity), 41; Purston (St. 
Thomas), 23; Rainford (AU SS.), 516; 
Kathfarnham (R.C.), 342; Rannds, 126; 
Ravensthorpe, 172; Rothley (St. John 
Bapt.), 93; Eothwell, 127; Bnahden, 
125;Rnshall, 516; Rushton (All SS.), 
128; Eye, 96, 119; Salisbury (Congl.), 
23, (St. Thomas) 201 ; Sandown, 360 ; 
Sandringham, 224, «2; Sevenoaks (St. 
Nicholas), 626; Shaw (St. Mary), 172 ; 
Sheffield (Sale Memorial), 355 ; sis 
central area, 607 ; Slough, 355 ; South 
Bermond9ey(St. Augustine), US ; Sonth- 
port (St. Luke), 228; Spalding (SS. 
Mary and Nicholas), 225 ; Speenhamland 
(St. Mary). 305; Spratton, 101; Stam- 
ford, 226 ; Stanwick. 126 ; St. Dogwell's, 
516; St. Ives. Hivjts, 341; St. Law- 
rence, Esses, 23; Stonrton (St. Peter), 
545 ; Stretton Sngwas, 9i ; Studlev. 356 ; 
Sutcombe (St. Andrew), 76 ; Swa'ffham, 
2S0: Sydenham (St. Matthew), 318; 
Tallington (St. Lawrence), 489 • Tansor 
120; Tebay (new), 474; Teignmouth 
(R.C.), 66 ; Templemore (R.C), 394 ; 
Templetuohv (R.C), 342; Terrin»ton 
(St. Clement), 200; Tcwke3bntT(ablMy) 
23, 305; Thorney (abbey), 224; Tran- 
mcre (Prim. Meth.), 463; Twyford, 
Hants, 23 ; Tyncmouth (priory), 52 ; 
Upton-on.Sevcrn (SS. Peter and Paul), 
558; Verona (San Zeno), 313; Walpole 
(St. Peter), 199 ; Walsokon, 199 ; Warley 
(St. John), ibe ; Warrington (St. Barna- 
bas), 277 ; Water Orton (SS. Peter and 
Paul), 305; Wellington, Salop. 438; 
West Leake (St. Helena), 145 ; Westmin- 
ster (St. Margaret), 23; Weston-snper- 
Mare (St. John), 172 ; West Walton, 
199; Whaplode, 290; Whilton, 516; 
Whiston, 127; Whittlebnry, 382; Wilhv, 
617 ; Winchelsea, 236 ; Wintcrton, 118 ; 
Wisbech (St. Peter). 197 ; wood paving 
for, 546; Woodstock (St. Marv), 409; 
Woolwich (St. Michael), 94; Wribben- 
hall, 356 ; Yarlington, 336 

Ciborium, 249 

Cinder-aifting sish closets, self-acting. 

Circular: chimney shafts, diminution of, 
92 • system of hospit;il wards, 501 

Cistern ■- 249 ; drain and sewer, hydrosthe- 
tios of, 102 ; filters, 439 

City: architecture in the, 312; branch 
water pipes and hydrants in, 230 ; 
churches, condemned, 584 ; companies 
and technical education, 174; diary, the, 
611; electric lighting for, 420; new 
schools, 358 ; Temple, decoration of, 339 

Civil eu'.'ineers, institution of ; 227, 412, 495, 
635 ; annual report, 694 

Clarence vault. Tewkesbury abbey, 129 

Ctiussical mansion, 440 

Clay foundations, 684 

Cleopatra's Needle, 50, 148, 265, 277, 465, 

Clergy, art and the, 421 

Clock, bracket, 236 

Cloisters : 249, 278; design for, 26 1 

Closets, 249 

Club, BoiLDiNG News designing, 303, 461, 

518, 530, 571, 584, 694 

Club-houses . Potternewton. Leed.s, 26 ; 
Reform, Pall-mall, 492, 551 ; village, 
571, 694 

Clubs, village, 174 

Coach-house, 249 

Coal mine gases and ventilation, 528 

Coating for walls, now saponaceous, 174 

Cocoa : hotel, Blaenan Festiniog, 5S4 ; 
mills, Epps's. 640 

Cookerell, the late F. P., 487, 526 

Cotferdam, 249 

Colchester castle, 49 

Cole, Sir H., on Ruskin's teachings, 601 

Collections : Chinese snuff-bottles, 393 ; old 
engi'aviugs and maps of London, Crace's, 

Collector, an eccentrif, 288 

Colle'es: Cambridge (Cavendish) 41, (vari- 
ous) 226, 227, 305 ; Isle of Man (King 
William's), 419; Liverpool (girls), 438; 
Oxford (various), 392 ; Stonoyhurst, 145, 
University (additions to), 66 

Colling, the late A. W., 25 

Cologne cathedral, alarming state of, 521 

Colonnade at Battersea, Burlington, 630 

Colour, 303 

Coloured building materials, 98 

Column : diminution of, 92, 435 ; our com- 
monplace, 48, 152, 249, 303, 366, 435, 471, 
54), 610, 707; solid content of hollow, 

519, 546, 57.5, 601 

Columns : 250 ; fixing, 24 ; flexure of, 707 
Combination style found at last, 308 
Combined action of medical and architec- 
tural professions, 576 
Commission : 250 ; a mediaeval architect's, 
264 ; low, at Yeadon, 335 ; on noxious 
vapours, 25S 
Commissions, double, to civil engineers, 412 
Committal of builder to prison, 308 
Commonplace column, our, 48, 152, 249, 

303, .366, 4:35, 471, 543, 610, 707 
Comparative inutility of some new scien- 
tific inventions, 714 
Company of plumbers and revived guild 

action, 688 
Compass, variation of, 440 
(Compensations : railway, 519 ; street im- 
provement, 713 
Competition : another unsatisfactory, 600 ; 

cost and style, 27 ; drawings, 67 
Competitions : amateur painting on pot- 
tery, 448 ; and the Institute president's 
address, 574, 599 ; asylum (Glo'stershire), 
442; board schools (Ashford) 76, 104, 
(Croydon) 28, (Goole) 682, (Halifax) 682, 
(Llandudno) 8, 228, (Nottingham) 28, 
65, 317, 368, 394, (Southampton) 171, 
(Southey) 422, (Spalding) 355, 487; 
cathedral (Truro), 184,236, 584; chapels 
(Bowdon Bpt.) 104, (Leicester Weslu.) 
290, (Tulse-hill Wesln.) 422; churches 
(an equivocal) 359, (Dublin Ballmeml.) 
eS2, (Perth U.P.) 515, (Southport St. 
Lnke) 228; corn exchange (Truro), 263; 
cottage school homes (Chorlton), 515 ; 
dairy homestead, 361, 388 ; drainage 
schemes (Bridlington) 384, (Lower 
Thames valley) 68, 413, 487; drawings 
(South Kensington), 149; fine arts 
palace (Antwerp), 104 ; floating dock 
(Penzance), 515; grammar school (Crew- 
kerne), 618, 546," 674; harbour (Ki.k- 
caldv), 394; hospitals (Jarrow fever) 
290, '(Leek do.) 104, 171, 263, 317, 333, 357, 
383 ; (Ross cotg.) 584, 612, (Salford fvr.) 
290, (Sheffield do.) 263, (Shrewsbury eye) 
306, 394 ; hotels ( Blaenan Festiniog cocoa) 
584, (Lancaster King's Arms) 584; lych- 
gate (Carmarthen) 515, 584; markets 
(Dublin) 394, (Southport) 28; national 
art schools, 207, 306; oratory (Bromp- 
ton), 23, 69, 104, 130, 146, 184, 253, 278 ; 
patent offices (Washington), 251 ; pier 
(Skegness), 515; public offices (Aston), 
8, 251, 257; scholarships (Whitworth), 
148; schools (Blundell's, Tiverton) 355, 
(Norwood pauper) 422 ; sea defences 
(Burlington quav), 682; seminary 
(Southwark R.C. diocesan), 104 ; statue 
(Harvev, Folkostone), 682; town halls 
(Bodmin) 65, 67. 94, 119. 173, 201. (Dar- 
wen) 487, 684 ; (Yarnionth) 1, 65, 76, 144, 
210, 236, 290, 318, 368, (Yeadon) 290, 335, 
355; travelling studentship (Manches- 
ter) 66, 94, 1191 turner's company, 359; 
vestry halls (Battersea) 355, (Kensing- 
ton) 65 
Concrete : 153 ; failure of, at Cambridge, 
446 ; for sewer pipes, 439 ; slab cottages 
and other buildings, 46 
Condemned citv clmrchcs, 584 
Condition of Thames : at high tide, 551 ; at 

low tide, 580 
Conductors, lightning, 233, 303 

Conference : of architects, the, and sur- 
veyors to local authorities, 2t; of opera- 
tives (Bristol), 263 ; on lightning rods, 

Congresses : archfeological, 41, (North- 
ampton) 99, 124 (Wisbech) 197, 223; 
church (Sh-ffield), 340; international 
(on unhealthy industries) 209, (sur- 
vevors) 103 ; social science (Cheltenham), 
335. 436, 444 ; sanitary institute (Staf- 
ford ■, 335, 339, 362 

Consecration crosses, 95 

servatory : 303 ; temporary, 519, 546 

Construction : fireproof, 611 ; geometry 
applicable to, 679 ; mill and factory, 3'42 ; 
roof, 148, 174, (iron) 529, 574, 600 

Constructions, marine timber, 681 

Content, solid, of hollow column, 519, 546, 
575. 601 

Continent, royal English art relics on, 316 

Continuous kiln, Lancaster's, 170 

CJoHtract : extras on a, 412 ; law as to dis- 
puted, 411 ; rescinding, 412 

Contractors and sub-contractors, relations 



Contracts,' 368, 384 ; disputes as to, 603 ; 
t under seal, 524, 547 ; i). day work, 68 

Controversy, St. Alban's roof, 93, 121, 169, 
203, 410, 492, 579, 582. 597, 627, 630 

Convalescent: homo (Whitley), 118 ; hos- 
pitil (design), 584 

Convent (Carmelite) Notting-hill, 382 

Conversazione. Archi. Assocn.,447 
domus, 436 

Conway Church, 277, 357 

Cool rooms v. ventilation, 92 

Co-opprative housekeeping, new attempt 
at, 441 

Copper, jesthetic value of, 548 

Copying : apparatus, 120 ; mouldings, 148 

Cork cathedral, stained glass, 67 

ichange : 601, 684 ; Truro, 263 

Cornish antiquities, 304 

Cornwall : and Ireland, comparison of pre- 
historic monuments of, 181 ; West, arch- 
.■cology in, 625 

Corporations, architects and, 411 

Cost : 303 ; and style, competition, 27 

Cottage: hospitals (Ross) 584, 612 (Wal- 
sall) 516; residences, middle class, 94, 
173; school-homes, Withington work- 
house, 515 

Cottages : 153 ; concrete slab, 46 

Country members, the institute and, 464 

(Courts: Chester (nisiprius), 117; of law, 

Courtyard at Abbeville, 530 
, the late David, 255 

Coutances cathedral. 448, 502 

Covering, waterproof, 148, 174 

Cowls, ventilating 6xh.aust, the Kew ex- 
periments with, 173, 316 

Crace's collection of old engravings and 
maps of London, 606 

Crane, foundation of, 620 

Credence, 303 

Creosoting timber, 519 

Crete, Cyprus, and Rhodes, monuments of, 

Crewkerne grammar school competition, 
518, 546, .574 

Criticism, anonymous, British and Ameri- 
can, 573, 573, 600 

CronketB, 304 

Croft's combined set square, scale and pro- 
tractor, 175 

Cromlech, 304 

Crosses : 304 ; consecration, 95 ; Eleanor 
(Geddington), 123 (Northampton), 100, 
101; market (Stowon-Wold), 683; 
memorial (AU SS., Cambridge), 210 

Crowland Abbey, 224, 278 

Crown glass, 304 

Croydon: bd. schls. competn, 28 ; society 
of engineers at, 263 

Crozier, 304 

Crucifix. 366 

Crypt, 366 

(Crystal P.alace engineering school, 175 

Cure for damp walls, 519 

Curious list of tenders, a, 24 

Carve of equilibrium, 464, 491 

Curves : railroad, 472 ; tables of, 474 

Customary percentages, 684, 711 

Cypriote artists, 121 

Cyprus : arclispological expedition to, 121; 
b.trr.acks, 253 ; Crete and Rhodes, monu- 
ments of, 71 ; locks and fastenings for, 
281, 384 

D lie Abbey, 304, 341 

Dalmatic, 366 

Damages : against brick manufacturers 
for smoke nuisance, 713 ; for building 
operations, 412 

Diraascening, 367 

Damp: course, 367; walls, 334, 384, 411, 
440, 490, 518, 519, 546 

Darenth imbecile asylum, 682 

Darwen town hall competition, 487, 584 

Dates on buildings, early, 600 

Days, last, of Paris exhibition, 443, 463 

Daywork, contracts r., 68 

Deaf and dumb institution, Manchester, 

Deal, worm in red. 174 

Death, art representations of, 547 

Decline of religious art, 629 

Decorated style, the, 367 

Decoration ; dining-room, 640 ; 18th cen- 
tury, 205; Italian, 4t0; Manchester 
town hall, 175 ; muralis, 529 ; Reform 
club. 492, 551; Spires cathedral, 203; 
St. Paul's do., 60, 72, 412 

Decorative arts, museum of, 204 

Deep well boring, 713 

Delay of the St. Luke's improvements, 334 

Delicate epistle, a, 712 

Deodorants and disinfectants. 317 

Design : 367 ; and construction of sanitary 

works, 421 
Designing by proxv. 361 ; club, Buildikg 

Nkws, 303, 461, 518, 530, 571, ,584, 694 
Designs: artisans' dwellings, 42; Aston 

public buildings, 257 ; mural painting, 

iHt ; oratory, Brompton, 104, 130; Rous 

memorial, Newmarket, 680 ; Yarmouth 

town ball, 1. 
Destruction of Roman inscriptions near 

Carlisle, 465 
Detachable steamer decks, 413 
Details of joinery, 462 
Detection of overstrain in iron, 141 
Diaries : city. Oil ; Hudson and Kearns's, 

685 ; Spraguo's pocket, 611 
Dictionary of architecture, popular, 8 
Didron's works, 331 
Die or dado, 366 
Dilapidated house, a, 713 
Dilapidations, 279, 464 ; ecclesiastical, 545 
Dillon, the late C. 11., 281 
Diminution : of circular chimney shafts or 

columns, 92 ; of column, 435 
Dining-room, 367, 640 ; Prince of Wales's, 

Paris exhibition, 130 
Diocesan architect. Sir E. Beckett as an, 

Directory, building trades, 422 
Discharge of sewers, 440 
Discoveries in West Cornwall, 625 
Discussion and lectures, art, 495, 546, 575; 

at the architectural assocn,, 711 
Disinfectants and deodorants, 317 
Disposal of sewage, 498 
Disputes as to contracts, 603 
Disputed contract, law as to, 411 
Distemper, 367 

Distribution of academy prizes, 605, 629 
Docks and harbours, recently executed, 

Dock : floating, Penzance, 515 ; works, 

Liverpool and Birkenhead, 281 
Dome, 435 

Domes, principal European, 435 
Domestic architecture, Rutlandshire, 76 


Doric order, 435 

Double commissions to civil engineers, 412 

Dove, 435 

Dovecote, 435 

Drainage : cemetery, 440 ; land, 411 ; Lower 
Thames Valley, 68, 413, 487, 603 ; of Lake 
Fucino, 472; silicated stone pipes for, 

Drain : hydrosthetics of, 102 ; trap, an 
accessible, 230 

Drapers' hall, fan exhibition at, 27 

Dr:iwing-room at Northenden. 318 

Drawings : competition, 67 (at South 
Kensington), 149, 207, 306 ; exhibition of 
London board school, 473 

Drayton house, 126 

Dry rot, 3.58, 411, 435 

Dublin : Ball meml. ch. competition, 682 ; 
Christian Union buildings, 615 ; city 
markets, 394 ; extension of North WaU, 
180 ; sketching material at, 254, 279 ; 
stock exchange, 645 

Dudley gallery winter exhibition, 552 

Dunblane cathedral, 612 

Durham cathedral : archaeologists on re- 
storation in, 342 ; restoration of, 463 

Dust removal in Kensington, 385 

Dwelling : an Ayrshire lake, 500 

Dwellings: artisans', designs for, 42; 
hygiene applied to, 693; Swiss lake, 530 

EA.RLY: Christian art, 601; dates on 
buildings, 60O ; BngUsh style, 435 ; iron- 
work, 318 

Earth closet, 436 

Easter receptacle, 436 

East-to-wrst thoroughfare in London, slow 
development of, 685 

Eaves, 436 

Ehbw Vale waterworks, 631 

Eljony, 471 

E,:ce homo, 471 

Eccentric collector, an, 288 

Ecclesiastical dilapidations, '546 

Ecclesiology, 471 

Economy of fuel and prevention of smoke, 

Eddystone lighthouse, the now, 91 

Edinburgh: architectural society, 487; 
Dr. Chalmers's statue, 120; incurables' 
hospital, 545; notes from, 6, 287, 680; 
Union bank, 252 

Education, technical : in France, 289 ; the 
city companies and, 174 

Effervescence on brick walls, 91 

Egypt and Midian, flint implements in, 182 

Egyptians, the ancient, 6S9 

Eighteenth century decoration, Somerset 
house and, 205 

Eleanor crosses : Geddington, 128 ; Norti- 
.amnton, 100, 101 

Election, the Royal Academy, 525 

Electric : light, the, 546, 677, 714, 715, (at 
Billingsgate) 577, (in Bristol Cathedral) 
601, (in show rooms) 367, (on Holborn 
Viaduct), 601; lighting, 74, 200, 471; 
fin Paris and for London), 420 

Elizab.^than : architect, an, 474; archi- 
tecture. 471 ; (Italian decorations in) 
410 ; Jfihns, five, 501, 554, 635 

Elizabeth, Queen, a surveyor of time of, 

Ellison's system of ventilation, 685 

Elm, 471 

Ely : cathedral, 198 ; King's school, 437 

Embanlanent, 471 

Emblems, religious, and art rcUcs, 181 


Embroirlery, 471 

Emigration for architects, 67, 120 

Employment of children in brickfields, 202 

Enamels, 5i3 

Encasement of the obelisk, proposed, 465 

Encaustic tiles, 473 

Engineering: college, Indian, admissions 
to, 230; sanitary, 250; school. Crystal 
Palace, 175 

,nd surveyors, association, 
;ipal and sanitary, 102 ; society of, 
262, 474 

England and Belgium, bells of, 462 

English : and foreign workmanship, 625 ; 
arcLitectural, studies in, 465; art. 
present tendencies of, 630 ; mosaic pave- 
ments, mediffival, 259; pictures at the 
Paris exhibition, 177 ; royal relics on the 
continent. 316 ; writers on the five 
orders, 687 

Engravings : and maps of London, Grace's 
collection, 606; exhibition, Taunton, 69 

Entasis, 472 

Epps's cocoa mills, 640 

Equilibrium, curve of. 464, 491 

Equivocal church competition, an, 359 

Erection of Cleopatra's needle, 50, 148, 
255, 277 

Escorial, the. 97 

Esquiline and Forum, ruins of, 387 

Estates, building, 440 

Estimate at fault, :in arcliitect's, 465 

Estimates, metropolitan board of works, 

Estimation of rainfall, 169 

Etiquette and practice, professional, 627, 

Eurithmy, 472 

Eustyle. 543 

Evangelists, 543 

Examples of steam, air, and gas engines, 

Excavations on Mount Galium, 65; (and 
Cffisar's camp, Folkestone), 181 

Exchange, 543 

Excursion, Archi. Assocn's., Yorkshire, 8, 
154, 182, 208 

Exeter : architectural socy., 463 ; artisans' 
dwellings, 631 ; cathedral pulpit, 24, 67 

Exhaust cowls, 173, 316 

Exhibitions: art competition (Salisbury), 
440 ; art objects (proposed central), 385 ; 
board school drawings, 473; Chinese 
snuff bottle, 393; drawings (Grosvenor 
gallery), 440 ; engravings (Grace's, 
London) 606, (Taunt.m) 69; fans (Dra- 
pers' hall). 27 ; fine arts (Albert hall) 576, 
(Bideford) 204, (Newca^tle-on-Tvne) 281, 
(Reading) 359. (Reigate) 576; Paris, 67, 
120, 130, (antiquities and fine arts) 150. 
205, 232, 2R3. (awards to artists and 
architects) 423, 546, {English pictures) 
177, (foreign gla^s) 234, (R. I: B. A. 
report on) 526, (iron-work at) 7, (last 
days of) 443, 468, (Parisian architecture 
at) 73; pictures (Brijrhtnn) 281, (Du<iley 
gallery) 552, (society British artists) 579, 
(water colour painters' institute) 605 ; 
Banitary appliances (Stafford), 362; 
Sunday art, 337: tapestries (Windsor), 
629; turnery, 381; Wedgwood (Liver- 
pool) , 96 

Exhumation of Italian basilica, 251 

Experiments with ventilating exhaust 
cowls, 316 

Extension : of the North Wall, Dublin, 180 ; 
railway and tramway, 68i 

Extensions, railway, neur London, 3 

External covering, ct. Albau's roof, 492 

Extras on contract, 412 

FACILITIES to sketcbers, 147, 173, 

Factory: and mill construction, 342; 

chimney shafts, 557 
Failure of concrete at Cambridge, 416 
Falkirk school of art, 318 
Fall of arch, Alderman's-walk. 230, 233 
Fan : exhibition, Drapiirs* hall, :;? ; vault- 
ing, 543 
Farm : buildings, 610 ; plans, 236 
Farnham sewerage scheme, 68 
Fastening railing to stone, 358 
Feeding house, 543 

Fees: arbitrators', 628; surveyors', 712 
Felt, 543 

Fence, ownership of, 384, 411 
Feretory, 543 
Field : club. North Staffordshire, 341, 463 ; 

instruments, new tripod motion for, 332 
Figures in perspective, 334 
Filters, cistern, 439 
Fine art: exhibitions, 204, 281, 359,576, 

(Paris) 150, 205, 232. 283, (proposed 

Albert hall) 576 ; mathematics as a, 170 ; 

palace, Antwerp, 104 
Fire : insurance, 543 ; resisting stone for 

staircases, 148 
Fireplace, 610 
Fireproof : buildings, 610 ; ceiling put to 

test, 308 ; construction, 611 
Fires, stone staircases durinc, 24 
Firth of Forth bridge, 70. 358 
Fittings, sanitary iron cattle stall, 630 
Five: Elizabethan Johns, 501. 554, 635 ; 

orders, English writers on, Qi7 
Fixing columns, 24 
Fixtures : 611 ; and old lights, some quea- 

tions of, 497 
Flamboyant, 611 
Flanching, 611 
Flange, 611 
Flashing. 707 
Kleche, 707 

Flexure : 707 ; of columnf, 707 
Flint: 707; implements in Egypt and 


, 182 

Floating dock competition, Penzance, 515 

Floods, prevention of in Thames basin, 640 

Floorcloth, 707 

Floors: 707; oak, 24. 67, (polishing) 628 

Florentine Renaissance, 70S 

Flow of small streams, gauging, 411 

Flues, chimney, 334, 358 

Folkestone, Caesar's camp, 181 

Font, St. Mary's, Myddelton-sq., 493 

Foreign : and English workmanship, 625 ; 

class, Paris exhibition, 234 
Forest, New, ae a wood farm, 412 
Forth, Firth of, proposed bridge, 70 
Forum and Esquiline, ruins of, 387 
Fosse, 708 

Fotheringhay church and castle, 128 
Foundation stones, 279 
Foundations: 546, 575; clay, 684; of 

crane, 628 
Frames and sashi^s, 712 
France, technical educatioa in, 289 
Fraudulent builder, a, 603 
Freeiag of nietropolitau toll bridges, 230, 

253, 685 
Free library, Stoke-on-Trent, 516 
Frost and water pipes, 678 
Fucino, drainage of lake, 472 
Fuel, economy of, and smoke prevention, 


GAIETY restaurant, 502, 525 

S IS : air and steam engine. 381 ; compa- 
nies (amalgamation of) 175, (and local 
boards) 685 ; fittings, silver plated, 230 ; 
ligi.ting, improved for Waterloo-road, 

Gasworks, transfer of, to local authorities, 

Gauge, lead and wire, 546 

Gauging flow of small streams, 411 

Geddington, Eleanor cross, 128 

General conference of architects and sur- 
veyors to local authorities, 24 

Geometric methods applicable to building 
and constructionR, 679 

German architectural books in English, 

Gladstone, Mr., on machine labour, 521 

Glasgow : drainage scheme, 413 ; institute 
of architects, 408 ; proposed building 
regulations, 520 ; railway bridge at har- 
bour, 639 ; university (hall) 408, (heating 
and ventilation) 583 

304 ; foreign, at Paris exhi- 



Glazing : mullioned windows, 440 ; Shel- 
ley's system of, 203 

Gloucester: cathedral, new screen, 93 ; 
gate, canal bridge, 148 

Gloucestershire lunatic asylum. Barn wood, 
competition, 422 

Gossip on sundries, 146 

Gothic roof, 546, 575 

Grammar schools : Crewkeme, 518, 546, 
574 ; Warwick, 278 

Grand pianoforte, a, 431 

Grant, Sir F., P.R.A., the late, 385 

Great: industries of Great Britain, 611 ; 
Yarmouth town hall competition, 1, 65, 
76, 144, 210, 230, 290. 318. 368, 694 

Gresham assurance office, 694 

Griffith, Sir R. J., the late, 335 

Grooveless tramways, 316 

Grosvenor gallery winter exhibition, 440 

Grotesque animal representations. 178 

Ground plans. Norwich and Peterborough 
cathedrals, 21 

Guild: action, revived, and the plumbers' 
company, 688 ; of St. George, Ruskin's, 

Gulliver's wedgelock spindle, 694 

HACKNEY, roadmaking audfloodiugs 

in, 203 
Haddon hall, leadwork at, 210 
Hadrian's villa, researches at, 633 
Halifax, completion of Widdop reservoir, 

Halls: Buckie (volunteer), 492; Haddon, 
210; Kirby, 128; Rushton, 127 : WoUa- 
ton, 712 

Hamburg town hall, 342, 558 

Harbours : Boulogne, new, 252, 281 ; Kirk- 
caldy, 394 : Newhaven, 677 ; recently 
executed, 499 

Harrison's anti- corrosive paste, 335 

Harvey statue competition, Folkestone, 

Haste in building, 151 

Hastings : Thos. Brassey, M.P., at, 308 ; 
town hall, ."73 

Health primers, 611 

Heating : and ventilating, Glasgow uni- 
versity, 583 ; towns by steam, 145 

Heat throuirh walls, 67, 95 

Hereford cathedral, 130, 156 

Herkomer, Hubert, oh art, 491 

Hessle orphan home, 22 

Higham Ferrers, 125 

High : sanctuary, Jerusalem, 582, 637 ; 
tide, condition of Thames at, 551 

Hills, Roman, discoveries in : Esquiline, 
387; Palatine. 467 

Holborn : district board-room, 145 ; Pru- 
dential assurance offices, 8 

Holland, Dr., and his work, 357 

Hollow : column, solid content of, 519, 546, 
675, 601 ; walls and ventilation, 202 

Holyrood palace, re-roofing of, 309 

Holywell market hall, 573 

Homes : boys' (Shefford), 76 ; convalescent 
(Whitley), 118; sailors' (Liverpool), 253; 
tradesmen's (Manningham), 252 

Homestead dairy competition, 361, 388 

Horsforth, sanitation neglected at, 253 

Hospitals : circular wards for, 501 ; con- 
valescent, 584; Edinburgh (incurables) 

645 ; Jarrow (fever), 290 ; Leek (fever), 
104. 171, 263, 317, 333, 357, 383 ; Lincoln 
(county), 3S2; Manchester (Nicholls), 
516; Kipon (Jepson's), 252; Ross (cot- 
tage), 584, 612 ; Salford (Wilton fever), 
290 ; Sheffield (fever) 263. (women's) 145 ; 
Shrewsbury (eye, &c.), 306, 394 ; Walsall 
(cottage), 516 ; Warrington (fever), 252 

Hotels: Blaenan Festiniog (cocoa), 584; 
Bradford, 252, 682; Brookland's (Moor- 
field), 474; Carlisle (Bush), 184; Hull 
(Imperial), 439; Lancaster (King's 
Arms), 584; Marlow (riverside), 8 

Hounslow brigade depot. 683 

House: dilapidated. 713; drainage, sili- 
cated stone pipes for, 281 ; keeping, new 
attempt at co-operative, 441; manufac- 
ture, speculative, 283 ; of lords, ventila- 
tion of, 94 ; Somerset, 205 

Houses : Abbeville, 530 ; Adcote, 640 ; 
Althorpe, 100 ; Broadwater down. Tun- 
bridge Wells, 368 ; Burghley. 128 ; Cam- 
bridge, 611 ; Canons Ashby, 127 ; Castle 
Ashby, 127 ; Caudebec, 8 ; Charlecote, 
Eampstead, 76; Drayton, 126; Fern- 
acres, Fulmer, 41 ; Formby, 130 ; Great 
Alue. 502. 547; Green-hill estate, Hamp- 
stead, 474; Harrow (boarding), 8; 
Holdenby, 101 ; ice, 174; Kemnal-wood, 
Chislehui st, 264 ; laying out, 684 ; Lewis- 
ham-park, 342; Lisieux. 8; Lowther- 
gardens, Kensington, 290 ; of Parlia- 
ment, new architectural effect, 306 ; old 
Warwickshire. 417, 464; Rouen. 530; 
speculative, 333, 356 : uninhabitable, 
Leeds, 465 ; weather-proof, 496 ; We=t 
Brighton, 156 ; Woodside, Sevenoaks, 
318 ; Wobum-park, 210 

How to estimate rainfall, 169 

Huddersfield : market hall, 305 ; new mu- 
nicipal buildings, 66 

Hudson and Kearn's diaries, 685 

Hydrants and branch water-pipes in the 
City. 230 

Hydraulic construction in America, 5 

Hydro-geological survey, a, 98 

Hydrosthetics of the cistern, drain and 
sewer, 102 

Hygiene applied to dwellings, 693 

ICE houses, 174 

Iltley, prehistoric sculptures of, 181 

Imbecile asylum, Darenth, 682 

Improved : gas lighting for Waterloo- road, 
576; soil pipe, Thwaite's, 335 

Improvements : metropolitan, slow pro- 
gress of, 685 ; railwav, near London, 3 ; 
St. Luke's, delay in,"334 

Incorporated ch. buildg. socy., 118, 545 

Indian : engineering college, 230 ; woods, 
importation of, 174 

Industrial dwellings, Newcastle, 683 

Industries : of Great Britain, great, 611 ; 
unhealthy, congress on, 209 

Influence of light on cement, 121 

Informal instructions to architects, 520, 

Infringement of building bye-laws, 577 

Institute policy. 636 

Institutes : architects' (American) 679, 
(British) 441, 464,523, 526, 582, 636, 637, 
(and Scott memorial) 600, (votine papers 
at) 367, (Glasgow)408; Birmingham and 
Midland, 251, iron and steel, 281 ; 
painters in water colours, exhibition, 605; 
royal arch Ecological, 65, 123, (at North- 
ampton) 99, 124; sanitary (at Stafford), 
334, 339, 362 

Institutions : builders' benevolent, 96, 499, 
576 ; do. clerks, do., 340 ; civil engineers', 
227, 412, 495, 635, 694 ; deaf and dumb 
(Manchester), 22; missionaries' daugh- 
ters 'education (Sevenoaks), 93, 394 

Insurance, fire. 543 

International congress of surveyors, 103 

Inutility of new scientific inventions, 714 

Ipswich, proposed new museum, 358 

Irchester carep, 125, 530 

Ireland and Cornwall, prehistoric moun- 
ments of, 181 

Irish art, encouraeement of, 384 

Iron : and steel institute at Paris, 281 ; 
Bowers' process for preservation of, 175 ; 
cattle stall fittings, 630 ; detecting over- 
strain in, 144 ; roof construction, 529, 
574, 600 

Ironwork : at Paris exhibition, 7 ; early, 
318 ; Macnaught and Go's, catalogue of- 

Tsle of Man, King William's college, 419 

Italian : architecture, 384 ; basilica, ex- 
humation of a, 251 ; decorations in 
Elizabethan, 440 

JAPAN: Keramic art in, 288; railway 

work in, 685 
Jarrow fever hospital competition, 290 
Jerry : builders, American, 381 ; building 

at Leyton, 203 
Jerusalem : Herod's temple, 26t ; high 

sanctuary, 5S2, 637 
Jetties, South Pass on Mississippi, .528 
Johns, five Elizabethan, 501, 554, 635 
Joinery details, designing club, 462, 534 
Joists, table of scantlings for, 708 

KEEPING down a spring of water, 67, 

Kensington : South (national competition 
drawings at), 149, 207, 306, (natural 
history museum) 368, 422, 474, 530, 558, 
612. 640; vestry (dust removal by) 3a5, 
(hall) 65, 612 

Kent archieological society, 117, 130 

Keramic art in Japan, 2?B 

Kew experiments with exhaust cowls, 173, 

Kiin, Lancaster's continuous, 170 

Kingstown town hall, 545 
King William's college, Isle of Man, 419 
Kirkcaldy harbour competition, 394 
Kirkwall. St. Magnus cathedral, 147 
Kirton, Winfried of, 684 

Ij ACE, vegetable. 359 

Lake: dwelling, an Ayrshire, 500 ; dwell- 
ings, Swiss, 530 ; Fucino, drainage of, 472 

Lambeth pauper schools competition, Nor- 
wood, 422 

Lamp, triplex paraffin, 148 

Lancashire police stations, 438 

Lancaster, hotel competition, 584 

Lancaster's patent continuous kiln, 170 

Lancet style, the, 279, 435 

Land : drainage, 411 ; survey, the most 
ancient, 151 ; value of, 307 

Lanterns and spires, 147 

Last days of Paris exhibition, 443, 468 

Law : as to disputed contract, 411 ; courts, 
the new, 156, 601 

Lawn tennis, 411, 410 

Laying out houses, 684 

Lead : and wire gauges, 546 ; thickness of, 

Lead wnrlc nt Haddon hall. 210 

Leaniinyt'^n, notes from, 262 

Leave, tiotice to, 334 

Lectures: Academy on architecture, G85 ; 
and discussions, art, 4-95, 546, 575 

Lectern, Greenwich naval hospital chapelj 

Leeds : architectural association, 171, 487, 
598; decoration of town hall, 228; 
theatre, 545; uninhabitable houses at, 

Leek fever hospital competition, 104, 171, 
263, 317, 333, 357, 383 

Lee, St. Margaret's church, 530 

Le<jal : 68, 94, 120, 147, 202, 280. 308, 358, 
412, 5i7. 577, 603, 628, 685, 713; respon- 
sibilities of architects, 709 

Leicester, offices, Greyfriars, 264, 333 

Leicestershire archi. and archajol. socy.» 

Leigh's fireproof ceiling, testing of, 308 

Leighton, F., the new P.R.A., 519 

L'Emulation in English, 576 

Leyton, jerry buihling at, 203 

Librarv : 229 ; mechanics' institute. Barns- 
ley, 76 

Licence, valuer's, 440, 490, 519, 546 

Lichen, ca«e of blackness on stones, 174 

Lifeboat, new steam, 413 

Light: 148, 202, 229; electric, 546, 677, 
714, 715, (in show rooms) 367 ; influence 
of on cement, 121; substantial obstruc- 
tion of, 713 

Lighthouse, new Eddystone, 91 

Lighting, electric: 74, 200, 471.577, 601 ; 
in Paris and for London, 420 

Lightning : conductors, 303, (and 'protec- 
tion of buildings) 233 ; rod conference, 

Lights : 95, 411 ; old, some questions of, 497 

Limehouse new vestry hall, 547 

Lime, mortar without, 358 

Limerick city, water supply, 384 

Lincoln : county hospital, 382 ; so-called 
12th century window, 518, 574, 600 

Liverpool: art club competitn., 448 ; dock 
works, 281 ; exchange art galleries, 290 ; 
girls' college, 438 ; master builders' 
assocn., 547 ; proposed Wedgwood exhi- 
bition. 9G ; rotunda theatre, 626 ; sailors' 
home. 253 

Llandaff : cathedral, 440, 491 ; ch. exten- 
sion socy., 683 

Llanelly waterworks, 384 

Loan collectifm : art objects in London, 
proposed. 385; antiquities and fine art, 
Paris exhibition, 150, 205, 232. 283 

Local : authorities, transfer of gasworkd 
to, 143 : boards, gas cos. and, 685 

Locks and fittings for Cyprus, 281, 384 

Lockwood, H. F., the late, 91 

Lodges : Beddington-park, 342 ; BramfielcJ 
hall, 368 

London : board school drawings' exhibi- 
tion, 473 ; churches, 411 ; electric lighting 
for, 420 ; old engravings and maps of, 
Grace's collection, 606 ; railway exten- 
tion and improvements, 3 ; school board. 
93, 382, 438, 489, 545 ; South, water Bup. 
ply in, 68; water supply, 120 

Lower ; E. W., the late, 308 ; greensand, 
water from the, 201 ; Norwood, Lambeth 
schools competition, 422 ; Thames valley- 
drainage, 68, 413, 487, 603 

Low tide, condition of Thames at, 580 

Lychgate competition, Carmarthen, 515, 

Lynn, arch:cology at, 223 

MACADAM roads, 358 

Machii e : a small brick, 440, 464 ; labour, 
Mr. Gladstone on, 521 

Macnan^-ht and Co.'s catalogue of iron- 
work, 203 

Madonna dei Candelabri, Raffaelle's, 413 

Magic lantern manual, 611 

Maucbester : deaf and dumb institution, 
22 ; N icholl's hospital, 516 ; school of art 
new buildings, 448; town hall, mural 
decorat'on, 17.5 ; ti-av. studentship com- 
petition, 66, 94, 119 

Manningham tradesmen's home, 252 

Mansion, classical, 440 

Manufacture, speculative house, 283 

Maps and engravings of London, Grace's, 

Marble : artificial, 75 ; Carrara, 48 

Marme timber constructions. 681 

Market halls: Holly weU, 573; Hudders- 
field, 305 

Markets: Dublin (city), 394; Southport 
(covered), 28 


Marylebone, sanitary work in, 405 
Masonry, 441 

Master buiKUr?: Birmingham soriety, 
491 ; Liverpool liRBOciation, 547 ; national 
ft>»sociation, 210 
Materials : and cost of road^, 520 ; roof, 572 
Matbematii^s as a tine art, 170 
Mathews, C. J., thn late. 24, 67 
Measure, mound huilders' unit of, 54-i 
Measurinij : buildinc^, 279; paintintr, 279 
Mechanics' almanack. Calvort'3, 501 
Medals, Paris exhibition, 497 
Medical : and urohitfctural profossioup, 
combined action of, 576; oflioers' ot 
health society. '140 
Mediicval : ftrchit>!ct's commlsaion, a 2&t ; 
opus Alesandriura pavementa in Eng- 
land, 259 
Memberti, country, tho inptitnte and, 40t 
Memorials : Falkland ( N ewburv | , 25-i ; 
Hook (Leeds). 25; Lyttflton (Worcoter 
cathedral), 253 ; Rou's (Newmarkott, 680 ; 
Scott (arcliitectural museum), 42; (in- 
stitute and), t)00 ; (stained window, 
Hampstead churoh), 280; Sharpe (pub- 
lication scheoic). C9 
Merchant Taylors" Pchool?, Grt. Crosby, 93 
Mertbyr, new lin" and tunnel at, 547 
Metals; ciiemistrv of, 4; teuacitv and re- 
sistance to torsion of, 694 ; thickness of, 
Method of detecting overstrain in iron, 

new, 144 
Metropolitan ; board of works, 22, G6, 118. 
155, 355, 382, 4(18, 438, 463, 489. 516, 544. 
573, 599, 626, 083, 710, 714; bridtres (are 
more wante<il, 633, (freeing of) 230, 253. 
685; pas companie.'*, amalgamation of, 
175; improvements, slow pro;,'ress of, 
685 ; water companies, 17(S 
Middle-class rottago residences, 94, 173 
Middlesborough new workhouse, 710 
Midian : flint implements in, 182 ; remains 

of buildings in, 637 
Midland institnte, 251 
Mill and factory con?tructioD, 342 
Mills and millwork. 178 
Mine gaees and ventilation, 528 
Minton, Messrs. and their employrs. 229 
Misrepresentation, arcliitectural, 418 
Missionaries' daughters' institution, Seven- 
oaks, 93, 394 
Mississippi, South Pass jetties of, 528 
Models, the Noble, Newcastle, 331 
Modem : architectural restoration, dis- 
ctissions on, 6fi2 ; architecture near 
Charing-cross, 2^ 
Moldavia, building materials of, 49 
Monasteries of Mnnnt Athos, 45 
Monuments : ancient, Bill, 6S4 : of Cyprus, 
Crete, and Rhodes, 71 ; prehistoric, of 
Cornwall and Ireland, 181 
Mortar, 628; without lime, 358 
Mosaic pavements in England, medieval, 

Most ancient land survey in world, 151 
Motion of water in open channels, 288 
Mouldings, copyinc, 148 
Mound builders' unit of measure, 544 
Mount: Athos and its monasteries, 45; 

Caburn, escaTations in, 65, 181 
Mud and sewage deposits in Tiiaraes, 441 
Mullioned windows glazing, 410 
Municipal; and sanitary engineers and 
surveyors' aspocn., 102; buildings (Bod- 
min), 65, 67, 194. 119, 173, 201 (Hudders- 
field), 66. See also Town Halls. 
Mural: decora icna, Manchester town hall, 

175; painting, design for, 184 
"Muralis" decoration, 529 
Museums: archaeological (Oxford), 714; 
architectural, 42, 602; decorative arts 
(Paris), 204; Ipswich, 358; natural his- 
tory (Kensington), 368, 422, 474, 530. 558, 
612, 640; proposed re-arrangement of 
British and South Kensington, 385 

NASH, Joseph, the late, 714 

National : aasocn. master builders, 210 ; 

competition drawings, S. Kensington 

149, 207, 306; freehold land socy.,"685' 

opera-house, new, 42, 176 
Natural history museum, Kenaiuffton. 368 

422, 474, 530. 558. 612, 640 
Necessary correction, a, 173 
Needle. Cleopatra's, 50, 148. 255, 277. 465 

601 .... 

Neglect, alleged : at Peterborough cathe- 
dral, 629 ; by a surveyor, 4-39 
Neighbour, warming one's, tlurouHh nartv. 
wall, 280 -o i- J 

Newbattle Abbey, 1?3 
Newbury, Falkland memorial, 258 
Newcastle- on -Tyne : fine arte exhibition, 
281 ; industrial dwellings, 263 ; socy. of 
antiquaries, 487; Weaver's tower, 358 
New : Eddystone lighthouse, 91 ; Forest 
as a wood farm, 412 ; German arcbitec- 
toral works in English, 6s5 ; law courts, 
156, 601 ; method of detecting overstrain 
in iron, 144; museum, Ipswich, 3.=»8 ; 
proposition for a combination style, 308 ■ 
tripod motion for field instruments, 332 ; 
wall coating, 174 
Newhaven harbour, 677 
Newington, S.E., ch'yard garden, 202, 4^S 
Newmarket, Rous memorial, 680 
Nice point, under building act, 359 
Noble models, Newcastle-on-Tyne, 331 
Northampton : archaeological institute at, 

99, 124 : drainage works at, 280 
Northamptonshire, archaeology in, 530 
Northern architectural assocn., 175, 557 
North : point, ;358, 411, 490; Staffordshire 
(brick and tile makers' aseocn ) 42 
(field clnb), 341, -iG-S; wall extension, 
Dublin, 180 ; Wilts, British barrows in. 
341, 368 

Norwich : cathedral, ground plan of, 21 ; 

soldiers' momorial. 4W 
Norwood, Lamlieth schls. competition. 4>2 
Notes: from Edinburgh, 6. 287, 68!; from 

Leamintfton, 262 
Notice to leave. 334 
Nottingham : bd. schools oompetitn., 2S. 65, 

317, 308, 394. 502; university building, 

"Not under seal," contracts, 524, 547 
Nowhere nowadays, architects, 155 
Noxious : condition of Thames off Barking, 

.308,385; vapours, 548 (commission on), 

Nuisance, smoke, 411, 713 

OAK : and che<'tnut timber, 356, 383, 4/19. 
439; brown, 712; tloor, poli^hin-,', 628; 
floors, 2K 67 ; St. Edmund's, Hoxue, 441 ; 
V. oak, 517 
Obeltfik, erection of our, 50, 148. 255. 277 
Obituary: Ashdown. J.. 230, 255; Bailey, 
Chas., 384; Bidder, G. P., 33^4; Boyle, 
Robt., 308; Burnard, N. N.,630; Cocke- 
rell, F. P.. 487; Colling, A. W., 25; 
Cousins, D., 255; Dillon, C. R., 281; 
Grant, Sir F., 385; Griffith, Sir R. J.. 
335; Lockwood, H. F. (Lockwood and 
Mawson), 91 ; Lower, E. W.,308; Nash, 
J., 714; Penn, John. 334; Smith, W. 
Wyke, 96 ; Stevens. E. T., 230 ; Summers, 
0.474; Upjohn, R. (New York), 2.51; 
Wallis, R., 376 ; Way, J., 474 

Obstruction of light, snbstantial, 713 

Offices : Hnlborn (Prudential), 8 ; Leicester, 
264,333 ; Poultry (Gresham), 694 

Old : engravings and maps of London, 
Grace's, 606 ; lights and fixtures, some 
questions of. 497 ; St. Paul's, 210 ; War- 
wickshire houses, 417. 464 

Open : channels, motion of water in, 2PS; 
mouthed pipes v. ventilators, 173 

Opera-house, new national, 42, 176 

Operative conference, Bristol, 263 

Opus Alexandrinum, 174, 259 

Oratory : Brompton (competition), 23, 69, 
104, 130, 146, 1S4, 253, 278,502; Sheffield, 

Orders, the five, English writers on, 687 

Organs in churches, 610, 633 

Ornament, outlines of, 250 

Orphan home, Hessle, 22 

Our: commonplace column, 48, 152. 2t9, 
303, 366, 435, 471, 543, 610, 707; metro- 
politan bridges, are more wanted, 633 

Outlines of ornament, 250 

Ovens, baker's, 411 

Overflow, storms, precautions against, 113 

Overstrain in iron, detecting, 144 

Ownership of fence. 384, 411 

Oxford: a year's building operations in, 
392; proposed archaeological museum 

Osford-st,, a sanitary building in, 393 

PAINTEBS in water colours, institute 
of, exhibition, 605 

Painting: cemetery chapel, 307; measur- 
ing, 279; mural, design for, 184; on 
china, 501 ; on porcelain and pottery, 
amateur competition, 448 ; undefined 
suggestions in, 601 

Palace : Alfred the Great's, 501 ; of fine 
arts, Antwerp, 104; of Westminster, 
restoring. 311, 357 

Palatine hill, the, 467 

Panic-proof buildings, 420 

Paraffin lamp, triplex, 148 

Paris : 407 ; electric lighting in, 420 ; exhi- 
bition, 67, 120. 130 (antiquities and fine 
art), 150, 205, 232, 283 (awards to artists 
and architects), 421. 5-46 (English pic- 
tures), 177 (foreign glass), 234 (R.I.B.A. 
report on), 526 (ironwork), 7 (last days 
of). -443, 468 (medals), 497 {Parisian 
architecture), 73 ; international congress 
on unhealthy industries, 209; museum 
of decorative arts, 204; plaster of, .331 

Parisian architecture at Paris exhibition, 

Parker's plan of sewer ventilation, 96, 174 

Parliamentary notes, 68, 94. 684 

Party wall : 411, 62S ; warming one's neigh- 
bour through, 280 

Paste, Harrison's anti-corrosive, 3.35 

Patent office rebuilding, Washington, 251 

Pavements, medin^val English mosaic, 259 

Paving for churches, wood, 546 

Pavilion : and winter garden, Blackpool, 
52 ; Britrhton, redecoration of, 714 

Peal of bells for St. Paul's, 384 

Penn, John, the late, 334 

Pension, Dr. Holland's, 357 

Penzance : buildings in progress at, 620 ; 
floating dock ;;ompetition, 515 

Percentages, customary, 684, 711 

Perspective, 575, 628; figm-es in, 334 

Perth U.P. ch. competitn., 515 

Peterborough cathedral : gronnd-plan. 21 ; 
charge of neglect of, 629 

Pianoforte, a grand, 421 

Piccadilly, St. James's ch., 415 

Pictures : English, at Paris exhibition, 177 ; 
winter exhibition of, Dudley gallery, 552 

Pier competition, Skegness, 515 

Pipes : open-mouthed v. ventilators, 173 ; 
silicatedstone for house drainaiie, 2S1 

Plans: alterations to, &47; of Norwich and 
Peterborough cathedrals, 21 

Plaster : designs, award of prizes, 174 ; of 
Paris, 331 ; f and in, 628 

Plumbers* company and revived guild 
action. 688 

Plymouth theatre, 308, 710 

Point, north, 358. 411, 490 

Police: offices, Preston, 172; stations, 
Lancashire, 438 

Policy, Institute, 636 

polishing oak floor, 628 

Pollution of rivers, 68 

Popular dictionary of architecture, S 

Portland cement : "artificial," 412 ; 
Faija's testing room, 25; uses and ;ibuses 
of, 4-46 

Posti«, wood, strength of, 254, 279, 307, 383, 

Pottcrio?, trade in the. 520 

Pottery : competitn. for amateur painters 
on, 448 ; statistics for, 412 

Power of: running water, 144; ve-i^trit^s 
over builders, 686 ; wood,ab3ortK'nt, 714 

Practice and etiquette, professional, 627, 

Precautions against storm overflows, 1 43 

Pre-hietoric : monuments of Cornwall and 
Ireland, 181; sculptures of Ilklcy. 1st 

Present tendencies of English art. 630 

Preservation of: Cleopatra's needle, 601 ; 
iron. Bowers' process, 175 ; wood from 
teredo navalis, 681 

President's address to Institute: 523, 526 ; 
and competitions, 574, 599 

Preston, county police offices, 172 

Prevention of : floods in 'I'hames bnsin, 640 ; 
smoke and economv of fuel, 448 

Primers, health, 611 

Princo of Wales's dining-room, Paris exhi- 
bition, 130 

Principal domes in Europe, 435 

Priories: Castle Acre, 200; Leominster, 
252; Tynemouth, 52 

Prizes' distribution at the Academy, 605, 

Professional : charges, 67, 95 ; pocket- 
book, the, 611 ; practice and etiquette, 
611, 683 

Progress, slow, of metropolitan improve- 
ments. 685 

Property, bankrupts', 628 

Proportion, 334 

Proposed : amalgamation of water colour 
societies, 602; archaaological museum, 
Oxford, 714; fine art exhibition, Albert 
Hall, 576; Forth bridge, 70; public- 
offices, Southampton, 412 ; temporary 
art-loan exhibition in London, 385 ; 
Wedgwood exhibition, Liverpool, 96 

Protection of: buildings from lightning, 
233, 303 ; life from fire, stone staircases 
and, 24, 148 

Prosy, designing by, 361 

Prudential assurance offices, Holborn, 8 

Public: buildings (Aston) 8, 2.51, 257; 
(Rugeley) 93 ; offices (Southampton) 

Pulpits, cathedral: Bangor, 227; Exeter. 

24, 67 
Pursuing a shadow, 517 

QUEBEC, Chateau St. Louis. 422 

Qupcn Pilizabeth, surveyor of time of, 416 

Queenstown water supply, 547 

Question of restoration, archaeological in- 
stitute and the, 99, 123 

Questions, some of fixtures and old lights, 

RAFFAELLE'S ** Madonna dei Can- 

delabri," 413 
Railing, fastening to stone, 358 
Railway : and tramway extension, 684 ; 
.3,519; curves, 472 ; esteu- 
and improvements in and round 

London, 3 ; terminus, Waterloo, 6s5 • 

works (in Japan) 6s5 ; (Port Edgar) 253 
Railways, rating of, 629 
Rainfall and how to estimate it, 169 
Raising buildmgs, substantial ob5truction 

of light by, 713 
Ransome's new cement, 412 
Rating of railways, 629 
Reading: fine aits exhibition, 359; town 

hall, estimate and tenders, 465 
Rebuilding and restoration, 207 
Recently executed docks aHd harbours, 499 
Recess, the, 230 
Red : Broseley roofing tile, 464 ; deal, 

worm in, 174 ; tape at the new law courts, 

Redecoration of Brighton pavilion, 714 
Redundant structures, 576 
Reform clubhouse, decoration of, 492, 551 
Reigate, Holmesdale fine art club, 576 
Relations between : contractors and sul>- 

contractors, 147 ; tenacity of metals and 

resistance to torsion, 694 
Relics, art: and religious emblems, 181 ; 

English royal, on continent. 316 
Religious : art, decline of, 629 ; emblems 

and art relics, 181 
Remains of buildings in Midian, 637 
Remarkable sepulchral slab, Carlatton, 

264, 306, 333 
Renaissance : Florentine, 70S ; roofs of 

the, 364, 390 
Renovation and rebuilding, 207 
Repairs, 546 
Reports: institution civil engineers, 694 ; 

R.I.B.A., on Paris exhibition, 526 ; 

science and art department, 341 
Representations : grotesque animal, 173 ; 

of death in art, 547 
Reredos case, another, 628 
Rescinding a contract, 412 
Researches at Hadrian's villa, 633 
Resistance to torsion of metals, 604 
Responsibilities, legal, of architects, 709 
Restaurant, tho Gaiety, 502, 525 
Restoration: at Durham cathedral, 318. 

463; church, 684, 712; (Haworth) 714; 

(Rye) 96, 119; discussion on, 602; of 

ancient buildings, 677; question. arch;c- 

ological institute and, 99, 123 
Restoring Westminster palace, 311, 357 
Retaining walls for water or semi-fluid 

earth, 529 

RoviewB : Ar'-hitectuml Association's 
Sketchbook, 17.S ; Artisan, the, R. Rid- 
dell, 679; Briti-li Almana-;k and Com- 
panion, 611; BuiLPiNO News Designing 
Club, 461, 571 ; Building Traded Direc- 
tory, 422 : Calvert's Mochanics'Almanack 
501 ; China Paintintr, L. M'Laughlin, 
501 ; Church Builder. 501 ; Circular Sys- 
tem of Hospital Wards, Prof. Marshall, 
501 ; City Diary, 611 ; Classical Works 
of Middle Agm and Renaissance in Ger- 
many, 685 ; Electric Lighting, H. Fon- 
taine, 74 ; Examples of Steam, Air, and 
Gas Engines, J. Bourne, 381 ; Great In- 
dostries of Great Britain, 611 ; Guide to 
Tintern Abbey. T. BltwhUl, lU ; Health 
PrimerH, 611 ; Hudson and Kearna' 
Diaries, 685 ; Uydro-Geological Survey, 
98 ; Hydrosthetics of Cistern, Drain, and 
Sewer, T. Morris, 102 ; Illustrations of 
Old Warwickshire Houses, W. Niven, 
417, 464 ; Keramic Art of Japan, W. and 
G. Andeley, 288; T Emulation in Eng- 
lish, J. Davia. 576 ; Magic Lanteru 
Manual, W. J. Chadwick, 611 ; Manners 
and Customs of Ancient Egyptians, Sir 
J. Gardner Wilkinson, 689; New Testa- 
ment Commentary for English Readers, 
Bp. Ellicott, 5(.il ; NewWork^of Archi- 
tecture at Frankfort, 685; Outlines of 
Ornament, W. and G. Audaley, 250 ; 
Popular Dictionary of Architecture, W. 
and G. Audsley, S ; Professional Pocket- 
book, 611 ; Sanitary Engineering, J. 
Baldwin Elatham, 250; Sketches for 
Concrete Slab Cottages, W. H. Lascelles^ 
46 ; Sprague'fl Pocket Diary, 611 ; Studies 
in English Architecture, J. Langham, 
465 : Tables of Tangential Angles and 
Multiples, A. Beaseley. 474; Tramways 
in Town and Country, E. Matheson, 7 ; 
Transfer of Gas Works to Local Autho- 
rities, A. Silverthorne, 143; Treatise on 
Coal Mine Ga^ea and Ventilation, J. W. 
Thomas, 528 ; Treatise on Millwork, Sip 
W. Fairbairn. 178,312; Ure's Dictiouary 
of Arts, R. Huut, 90 

Revived guild action and the plumbers" 
company, 688 

Revolving shutters, the Ulverston, 229, 289 

Rhodes, Cyprus and Crete, monuments of, 

Ripon, rebuilding Jepson's hospital, 252 

River ; conservancy and water supply, 
181 ; pollution caused by London, 308 

Rivers, pollution of, 63 

Roadmaking in Hackney, 203 

Roads : Macadam, 358 ; materials and 
cost of, 530 

Rochester, ancient bridge chapel, 264 

Rockingham castle, 128 

Roman: inscriptions near Carlisle, de- 
struction of. 465 ; researches, 633 ; rains 
in Sahara, 714 ; villa at Thorparch, 368 

Rome: Esquiline hill, 387; Palatine hill, 

Roof: construction, 148, 174 (iron), 529, 
574, 600; Gothic, 546, 575; materials,572 

Roofing : controtorsv at St. Alban's cathe- 
dral, 93. 121, 169, 203, 410. 492, 579, 582, 
597, 627, 6.30 ; tile, red Broseley, 464 

Roofs : chesnut and oak, 439 ; of the Re- 
naissance, chapters on, 364, 390; tile, 

Room, ventilating a, 202 

Ross cottasre hoi^pital, 584, 612 

Rot, dry. .358, 411, 4:35 

Rothwell ch. and crypt, 126, 127 

Rous memorial, Newmarket, 680 

Royal : academy {election new president) 
519,525, (prizes' distribution) 605,629; 
archreoloijical institute, 65, (aud restora- 
tion) 123, (at Northampton) 99, 124; 
architectural museum, 42, (sketching 
club) 602; art relics on continent, Eng- 
lish, 316 ; institute of British architects, 
367, 441. 464, 523, 526, 582, 600, 636, 637 

Rugeley, new public buildings, 93 

Rums of Esquiline and Forum, 387 

Running water, power of, 144 

Rushtou hall, triangular lodge and ch., 127 

Ruskin's : guild of St. George, 491 ; works, 

Ruskin, Whistler v., 553, 601 
Rutlandshire domestic architecture, 76 
Rye ch. restoration, 96, 119 

S ALPORB : new bridge at, 520 ; Wilton 
fever hospital competition, 290 

Salisbury : 229 ; school of art exhibition, 

Salt stains in bricks, 519 

Sanctuary, high, Jerusalem, 582, 637 

Sand in plaster, 628 

Sandriugham, archasologists at, 224 

Sanitary: building in Oxford-st., 393; 
engineering, 250 ; institute's congress, 
Stafford, 335, 339, 362 ; iron cattle-shed 
fittings, 630 ; matters and water supply, 
25, 68, 95, 120, 201, 253, 280, 384, 413, 466, 
491, 547. 603, 629, 713; works, design 
and construction of, 421 

San Zeno's ch., Verona, 313 

Sashes and frames, 712 

Sash frames, timber for sills of, 411 

Saw-mills, Swedish, 229 

Scantlings, tables of, 366, 703 

Scavenging by Kensington vestry, 335 

Scholarships, the Whitworth, 43, 229 

School: homes : (pauper)competition,With- 
erington, 515 ; windows, 229 

Schools : Blackburn (Independent) 145; 
City of London (new) 358 ; Ely ( King's) 
437; Great Crosby {Merchant Taylors' 
Cy.)93;' Sheffield (R.C.) 23; Twerton 
(Blundell's) 355. See also under Board 
and Grammar Schools 

Schools of art : Barnstaple, 483 ; Barrow- 


July to December, 1878. 

in-Fiu-Tip??, 682 ; Birkenhead. 407 ; Blay- 
don. 188; Bristol, 710; Burslem, 4^S; 
Carlisle. 581: Chesterfield. 558; City and 
Spitalfie].Js,584; Edinburgh, 682; Esham 
and St lines, 488 ; Falkirk, 318 ; Guild- 
ford, 4^S ; Hasting, 682 ; Leicester. 407, 
^2 ; Manchester, 448; Newcastle-under- 
Lytue, 488 ; Northampton, 612 ; Not- 
tingham, 488; Oxford, 4t7 ; Sheffield, 
515 ; Southampton, 488 ; "Warrington, 
584 ; We-t London, 693 ; York, 612 
Science and art : department, annual re- 
port of. 3il ; teaching, 169 
ficientitic inventions, compHrative inutility 

of, 711 
Scott, Sir G. G., memorial: 42; and the 

institute, 600 
Scult>tuie. pre-historic, at Ilkley, 181 
Screpn. t-lioir, 249 
Sea defences competition, Bridlington 

QuaT, 6-^2 
Seal, eontracts not under, 524, 547 
Self-actin>r cinder-sifting ash closets, 630 
Semi-circus for Strand, proposed, 148 
Semi-fluid earth, retaining walls for, 529 
Seminary, Southwark R.C., 104 
Sepulchral monuments aud effigies in 
Northants, 126 ; slab at Carlatton, 264, 
306, 333 
Set-square, scale and protractor. Croft's 

combined. 175 
Sevenoak?. missionaries* daughters' insti- 
tution, 93, 394 
Severn railway bridge. 289 
Sewage: deposits (in Thames), 441, (as 

builders' sand) 465; disposal, 498 
Sewerage schemes' competition. Lower 

Thames YiUley, 68. 413, 4S7 
Sewer : livdrosthetics of, 102 ; ventilation, 

Parker', plan of, 96, 174 
Sewers, di?char<:e of, 440 
Shadow, ptu'^uin^^ a, 517 
Sharpe, Eilmund, memorial scheme, 62 
Sheffield : church congress. 340 ; Jessop 
women's hospital, 145 ; fever hospital 
competition, 263 
Shefford R.C. boys' home, 76 
Shelley's svstem of glazing, 203 
Sheriffs of London, the new, 281 
Shirehall, Bedford. 437 
Shops : Ci Tnhill, 156 ; show cases and, 50 
Show : cases and shops, 50 ; rooms, the 

electric light in, 367 
Shrewsbury eye hospital competition, 306, 

Shute, John, paynter and archytecte, 474 
Shutters, Ulverston revolving, 22©, 289 
Silicated stone pipes for house drainage, 

Sills of S'sh frames, timber for, 411 
Silver pla'ed gas fittings, Possil-park, 230 
Sis central area churches, 607 
Skegness pier competition, 515 
Sketchbook, arch, assocn., 175 
Sketchers, facilities to, 147, 173, 201 
Sketching : 147 ; club, architectural mu- 
seum, 602 ; tour, 2^2 
Slab at Carlatton, sepulchral, 264. 306, 333 
Slate : aesthetic value of, 543; trade, 359 
Slating battens, 174 

Slow progress of metropolitan improve- 
ments, 685 
Small streams, gausring flow of, 411 
Smith, W. Wyke, the late, 96 
Smoke: nuisance, 411 (damages against 
brick manufacturers for), 713 ; preven- 
tion and fuel economy, 448 
SnufE-bottle collection, a Chinese, 393 
Soapy wall-coating, new, 174 
So-called 12th century window, Lincoln, 

518, 574, 600 
Social science association at Cheltenham, 

335, 4:j6, 444 
Societies : antiquaries (Newcastle) 487 ; 
archaological (Berks) 290, (Bristol and 
Gloucester) 117,130, (Buck^) 130, (Essex 
and Suffolk) 171, (Kent) 117, 130, (Lei- 
cestershire) 117, (Somerset) 228; archi- 
tectural (Edinburgh) 487; artists, British 
(exhibition) 579; ch. builriiug (incorpo- 
rated) 118, 545, (Llandaff) 683, (York) 
626; engineers', 262, 473; freehold land 
(national) 685; master builders' (Bir- 
mingham) 491 
Soil pipe, Thwaite's, 335 
Solid content of hollow column, 519, 546, 

575, 601 

Some : experiments on exhaust cowls, 316 ; 

questions of fixtures and old lights, 497 

Somerset : arch^ological society, 228 ; 

house and 18th century decoration, 205 



Southampton, proposed public offices in, 

Southern approaches to Waterloo-br., 389 

Southey hoard schools competition, 422 

South : Kensington (national competition 
drawings). 149. 207,306. (natural history 
musenuj) 368, 422, 474. 530. 558, 612, 640 ; 
London, water supply in, 68 ; Pass jetties 
on Mi"i«.ippi, 528; Shields, board of 
trade premi?e^. 5J»9 

Southport markets competition, 28 

Southwark: a cathedral for, 523; R.C. 
diocesan seminary, 104 

Spalding : archieology at, 225 ; board 
schools competition, 355, 4S7 

Speculative ; house manufacture, 283 ; 
houses, what is an architect, 333, 356 

Spindle, Gulliver's wedgelock, 694 

Spire, bro.ich, 67 

Spires : and lanterns, 147 ; cathedral, de- 
coration of, 203 
Sprague*8 irocket diary, 611 
Spring of water, keeping down a, 67, 95 
St. : Alban's (cathedral), 93, 121, 169, 203, 
410, 492, 579, 582, 597, 627. 630, 678, 708 ; 
Andrew (MaghuU) 93, (Sntcombe) 76; 

(South Bermond^ey), 118; 
Augustine :ind Faith (City), 382 ; Barna- 
bas (Warrington), 277; Bartholomew 
(Heigham) 6S3, (Lostwithiel) 382; Bride 
(Manchester), 146; Bridget (Bridge- 
rule). 228; Bricid (Ardaghl,76; Clement 
(Ordsal) 332, (Terrington) 200 ; Dogwells 
(Pembrokesh.), 516; Edmund's (oak, 
Hoxne), 441 ; Fraucis (boys' home, 
Shefford) 76; Frideswide (Osney), 236; 
George (Perry-hiU, S.E.) 573, (Kuskin's 
guild of) 491; Gothard (tunnel), 710; 
Helena (West Leake), 145 ; Helen (Bish- 
opsgate), 147, 172, 201,335 ; Ives (Hunts), 
341 ; James (Exeter) 489, (Piccadilly) 
415, (Preston) 202; John (Bootle) 464, 
(Egremont) 184, (Hampstead) 280, (War- 
ley) 360, (Weston-s.-Mare), 172; John 
Baptist (Newington-by-HuU) 145, 
(Rothley) 93; John Evan.i-'elist (Bassen- 
thwaite) 332, (Maesbrook) 252; Jude 
(Kensal-green), 118; Just (archjeology 
at), 635 ; Lawrence (Esses) 23. (Ipswich) 
360, (Northampton) 409, (Tallineton) 
489; Leonard (Dunston) 437, (Langhoj 
290 ; Louis (chateau, Quebec), 422 ; Luke 
(Southport) 228, (E.C., delay of improve- 
ments) 334 ; Magnus (cathedral, Kirk- 
wall), 147; Margaret (Lee, S.E.) 530, 
( Westminster) 23 ■ Mary ( Brighton) 
437. (Chastleton) 492, (Halkin) 515. 
(Haughley) 118, (Inchicore, R.C.) 626, 
(Middlesbrough) 277. (North Petherton) 
104, (Otterv) 305, (Shaw) 172, (Speen- 
hamlaud) 305, (Thornton) 52. (Tuam) 
409, (Woodstock) 409 ; Marv and Patrick 
(Aiskew) 66, (Teignmouth, R.C.) 66; 
Mary-le-Bow (Cheapside), 469; Mary 
Magdalene (Altofts) 489, (Drogheda, 
RC.) 332; Matthew (Sydenham), 318; 
Michael (Beer) 171. (Northampton) 2&t; 
(Woolwich) 94; Modoc (Doune), 277; 
Nicholas (Aberdeen) 599,(Sev6noaks) 626 ; 
Paul (Bentley) 544, (Covent-garden)335 ; 
Paul's cathedral (decoration of), 50. 72, 
412, (old) 210, (peal of beUs) 384 ; Peter 
(Aylesford), 489, (Broad Hinton) 437, 
(Lytham, R.C.) 492, (Mancroft, Nor- 
wich) 69, (Mottingham) 8, (Stourton) 
545, (Walpole) 199, (Wisbech) 197 ; Peter 
and Pawl (Easton Maudit) 129. (Leomin- 
ster) 252.(Little Horkeslej), 252, (TJpton- 
on-Sevem) 558, (Water Orton) 305 ; 
Sepulchre (Holborn), 629; Thomas 
(Penycae), 683, (Purston) 23, (Salisbury) 

Stabaity of walls, 490 

Stafford, sanitary institute at, 335, 339, 362 
Staffordshire, North : brick and tile mas- 
ters* assocn., 42 ; field club, 341, 463 
Stained glass r Cliff villa, Babacombe, 547; 
Cork (cathedral). 67 ; Darrinston, 491 ; 
Epworth, 577 ; Grt. Alne, 517 ; Hamp- 
stead (St. John), 280 ; Huntingdon, 67 ; 
Kelsale, 577 ; Kingsbury, 280 ; Kington 
M^na, 713 ; Littleover, 384 ; Orleans 
(cathedral), 119; Paris exhibition, 67 ; 
Preston (St. James), 202; Sandringham, 
442 ; Sheffield, 629 ; Stoke d'Aberon, 
491 ; Tadcaster, GS6 ; Wirksworth, 25 

Staining and varnishing. 411 

Stains, salt, io bricks, 519 

Staircases, stone : fire-resisting, 145 ; and 
protection from fire, 24 

Stalk, chimney, 334, 358, 411 

Stamford, archieology at, 226 

Stamped agreements, 148, 202, 229, 254, 
307, 358, 38;^. 410 

Statues : Chalmers (Edinburgh), 120 ; 
Dr. Harvev (Folkestone) 682; Prince 
of Wales (Bombay), 2S0 

Steam : air, and gis engines, examples of, 
381 ; cocoa mills, 640 ; factory for brick 
making!:, Baltimore, 255; lifeboat, 413; 
printing works, Fetter-lane, 104 

Steel for stractural purposes, 235 

Stephens v. Thornhill at St. Paul's, 412 

Stevens, E. T.. F.S.A., the late, 230 

Stilts, building on. l-Hi 

Stock exchange, Dublin, 545 

Stoke-on-Trent, free library, 516 

Stone : fastening railing to, 358 ; masonry, 
441 ; staircases (and protection from 
fire), 24, (fire resistmg) 148 

Stones: cause of blackness of, 174; foun- 
dation, 279 

Stonyhurst college, 145 

Storm overflows, precautions agnst., 143 

Stow-on-Wold mkt. cross, 683 

Strains in redundant stmctures, 576 

Stranu, overcrowding of the, 148 

Streams, gauging flo\y of small, 4H 

Street: lighting by plectricity, 200; Mr. 
G. E. and Sir E. Beckett, 393 

Strength of wood posts, 254, 279, 307, 383, 
410 , 

Strikes, thoughts on, 24 

Structural purposes, steel for, 235 

Structures, reduudunt, 576 

Studentships, travelliu?, Manchester, 66, 
94. 119 

Studies in English architecture. 465 

Style: new "^combination Gothic," 308; 
competition, cost, and, 27 

Substantial obstruction of light by raising 
of buildings, 713 

Suburban Bristol, 2S5 

Suggestions, undefined, in painting, 601 

Summers, the late Chas.,of Rome, 474 

Sunday art exhibitions. 337 

Sundries, gossip on, 146 

Superintendeut of asylum acting as archi- 
tect, 306 

Survey: a hydro-geological, 98; the most 
ancient land, 151 

Surveyor : alleged neglect l»y a, 439 ; of 
Elizabeth's time, a, 416: or architect? 

Surveyors : fees, 712 ; international con- 
gress of, 103 ; to local authorities and 
the conference of architects, 24 

Swastica, 334 

Swedish saw mills and timber, 229 

Sweetheart or New Abbey, 612 

Swiris lake dwellings, 530 

Synagogues: Bii-mii:gham, 253; Leeds, 305 

TA.BLEAUX, scriptural, from Berlin, 

Tables of : curves. 474 ; scantlings. 366, 708 

Tallest Uving tree in world, 412. 714 

Tamworth district, tumuli of, 407 

Tapestries' exhibition, Windsor, 629 

Taunton engravings exhibition, 69 

Taylor art-promotion bequest, 384 

Teaching, science and art, 169 

Technical : education (city companies and) 
174, (in France) 289; obiectioas to pay- 
ing architects, 576 

Temple : City, decoration of, 339 ; of Jeru- 
salem, 264 

Temporary conservatory, 519, 54^> 

Tenacity of metals in relation to resistance 
to torsion, 694 

Tendencies of English art, present, 630 

Tenders, a curious list of, 24 

Tennis, lawn, paving for, 411, 440 

Teredo navalis, preserving wood from, 681 

Terminus, new Waterloo, 685 

Testing : of a fireproof ceiling, 308 ; room 
for Portland cement, 25 

Tewkesbury abbey, 23, 129, 305 

Thames ; aileged noxious condition of, 308, 
385, 441 ; basin, prevention of floods in, 
&i0 ; condition of (at high tide) 551, (at 
low tide) 580 ; valley, lower, drainage, 
603. (schemes for) 68, 413, 487 

Theatres : Leeds, 545 ; Liverpool, 626 ; 
Plymouth, 308, 710 ; Wolverhampton, 176 

Theodolite, the, 677 

Thickness of : lead, 491 ; metals, 546 ; zinc, 

Thorney abbey, 224, 2^ 

Thornton abbey, 52 

Tborparch, Roman villa at, 363 

Thought? on strikes, 24 

Thrust of vault, 307 

Thwaite's improved soil pipe, 335 

Tile : red Broseley roofing, 464; roofs, 202 

Tiles : 202 ; encaustic, 472 

Timber: 202; American, 307, 384, 410; 
chapters on, 260, 315, 338 ; constructions, 
marine, 681; creosoting, 519; for sills of 
sash-frames, 411 ; oak and chesnut, 356, 
383, 409; trade, the, 69, 335 

Tintern abbey, 184 

Tipperary town hall, 394 

Tiverton, Blundell's schools competitn., 

Toll-bridges, metropolitan, freeing of, 230, 
253. 685 

Torquay, completion of drainage of, 210 

Torsion, resistance of metals to. 694 

Tour, sketching, near London, 202 

Town and country, tramways in, 7 

Town halls : Bodmin, 65, 67, 94, 119, 173, 
201; Darwen, 487, 584; Hamburg, 342, 
558 ; Hastings, 172 ; Kingstown, 545 ; 
Leeds, 228 ; Manchester, 175 ; Reading, 
465; Tipperary, 394; Yarmouth, 1, 65, 
76, 144, 210. 236, 290, 318, 368, 694 ; Tea- 
don. 290, 335, 355 

Tramway and railway extension, 684 

Tramways : 279 ; grooveless, 316 ; in town 
and country, 7 

Transfer of gasworks to local authorities, 

Transitionists, a chapter of, 89 

Transparent tableaux from Berlin, 521 

Travelling studentship, Manchester, 66, 
94, 119 

Tree, tallest livirg, 412, 7U 

Triangular : bridge, Crowland, 225 ; cross, 
Geddington. 128; lodge, Rushton, 127 

Triples paraffiu lamp, 148 

Tripod motion for field instmmeuts, new, 

Truro : cathedral, 227, 519, 631, (competi- 
tion) 181, 236, 5114, 6i0 ; corn exchange 
competition, 263 

Tuam new Episcopalian cathedral, 409 

Tulse-hiU, Wesl. chap, competitn., 422 

Tumuli : of Tamworth district, 407 ; open- 
ing of Castle Archdale, 318 

THunels : Merthyr, new, 547 ; St. Gothard, 

Turkish baths, Camdon town, 558 

Turners' company's : exhibition, 3S1 ; 
prize-list, 359 

Turuford, deep boring at, 713 

Twelfth century window, Lincoln, 518, 574, 

Twofold ventilator, new, 441 

Tynemouth priory ch., 52 

U r> VERST ON revolving shutters, 229, 

Ulysses, ancient capital of, 317 
Undefined suggestions in painting, 601 
Underground waters, 470 
Unhealthy industries' congi-ess, 209 
Uninhabitable houses at Leeds, 465 
Unit of measure, mound builders', 544 
University : buildings, Nottingham, 355 ; 
college extensions, 66 ; Glasgow (hall) 
408, (heating and ventilation)" 583 
Unsatisfacfory competition, another, 600 
Unstamped agreements, 94 
Upjohn, Richard, the late, 251 
Uses and abuses of Portland cement, 446 

VAtiUE of land. 307 
Valuer's licence, 440, 490, 519, 546 
Vapours, uoxi'us, 255, 548 
Variation of the compass, 440 
, Varnishing, staining and, 411 

Vault, thrust of. 307 

Vaulting, fan, 543 

Vegetable lace, 359 

Ventilating : a cesspool, 307 ; a room, 202 ; 
exhaust cowls, Kew experiments on, 316 

Ventilation: 24, 575; and heating at Glas- 
gow university, 583 ; and hollow walls, 
202; coal mine gases and, 528; cool 
rooms v., 92; Ellison's system of, 685; 
of house of lords, 94 ; sewer, Parkers 
plan of, 96, 174 

Ventilator, new twofold, 441 

Ventilators v. open-mouthed pipes, 173 

Verona, ch. of San Zeno, 313 

Vfstries' powers over builders, 686 

Vestry-halls: Battersea, 355; Hampstead. 
502 ; Kensington. 65, 612 ; Limehouse. 547 

Vicarage. Gatton, I.W., 145 

Village club-houses : 174 ; designs, 571, 694 

VnUs : club design?, 461, 518, 530 ; 
Gunnersbury. 184 : Hadrian's, 633; 
Tborparch (Roman), 368 

Voting papers at the Institute, 307 

^^7'AKEFIELD, 171 

Wall : coatins, new soapy, 174 ; party, 280, 

411. t;28 
Wiillachia, building materials of, 49 
Wallasea, alleged defective sewers, 25 
Wallis, Robt. (engraver), the late, 576 
Walls : brick, efflorescence on, 91 ; damp, 
334, 3&4. 411, 440, 490, 518, 519. 546 ; heat 
through, 67, 95; hollow, and ventilation, 
202 ; retaining, for water or semi-fluid 
earth. 529 ; stability of, 490 
Walsall cottage hospital, 516 
Wanton injury to Roman inscriptions, 465 
Warming neighbour's house through party 

wall, 280 
Warrington : fever hospital, 252; propOBSd 

sanitary legislation for. 602 
Warwick new public schools, 278 
Warwickshire houses, old, 417, 464 
Washington, rebuilding patent office, 251 
Water : colour (painters' institute exhibi- 
tion) 605, (societies proposed amalgama- 
tion of) 602; companies, the metropo- 
litan, 176 ; from the lower greensand, 
201 ; gate, Inigo Jones's, 148 ; in open 
channels, motion of, 288; keeping down 
a spring of, 67, 95 ; pipes, frost and. 678; 
retaining walls for, 529 ; running, power 
of, 144 
Watering places, British, 337 
Waterloo : road, improved gas lighting, 
576 ; bridge. 308. (and its southern ap- 
proaches) 369 ; terminus, new, 685 
Waterproof covering, 148, 174 
Water supply : 180 ; and sanitary matters, 
25, 68. 95, 120, 201, 253, 280, 384, 413. 466, 
491. 547. 603, 629, 713 ; in the City, 230 ; 
in South London, 68 ; river conservancy 
and, 181 
Waters, underground, 470 
Way, John, wood carver, the late, 474 
Weatherproof houses, 496 . 
Weavers' tower, Newcastle-on-Tyne, 358 
Wedgelock. spindle, Gulliver's, 694 
Wed^ewoOd exhibition, Liverpool, 96 
Welbe-k, Duke Portland's buildings at, 491 
Westminster palace, restoring, 311, 357 
West of England, building trade in, 598 
What is an architect ? speculative houses, 

333, 356 
Where are now metropolitan bridges 

wanted? 633 
Whistler v. Ruskin. 553, 601 
Whitehaven harbour and dock, 500 
Whitley convalescent home, 118 
Whitworth scholarships competition, lig ; 

conditions of, 229 
Wigan sewage scheme, 629 
William's (King) college. Isle of Man. 419 
Wilts. North, barrows in, 341, 368 
Winchester cathedral. 95 
Window, ancient. Lincoln, 518. 574, 600 
Windows: 555, 608; boarding up, 519; 

glazing mullioned, 440; school, 229 
Windsor: new drainage system, 253,413; 

tapestries exhibition. 629 
Winfried of Kirton, 684 
Winter: exhibitions (Dudley gallery), 552. 
(socy. British artists) 579, (water-colour 
painters' institute) 605; garden, Black- 
pool, 52 
Wire and lead gauge, 546 
Wisbech, archa'ol. assocn. at, 197, 223 
Withington pauper school homes compe- 


, 515 

Wullaton hall, architect of, 712 

Wood: carving, socy. of arts and, G02; 
means of preserving from teredo navalis, 
681 ; paving for churches, 54^ ; posts, 
strength of, 254, 279. 307, 38.3, 410 

Woods : absorbent powers of, 714 ; chemis- 
try of, 47 ; Indian, importation of . 174 

Worcester: cathedral, Lyttelton tomb, 253 ; 
ceramics, 413 

Workhouse, Middla^borough, 710 

Workmanship, English and foreign, 625 

Works of Ruskin, 440 

World : most ancient land survey in, 151 ; 
tallest living tree in, 412, 714 

Worm in red deal, 174 

Writers, English, on ttie five orders, 687 

YARMOUTH town h.all competition, 

1, 65, 76, 144, 210, 236, 290, 318, 368, 694 
Yeadon town hall and mechanics' institute 

competition, 290. 335, 355 
Year's building operations in Oxford, 392 
York: eh. extension socy., G26; minster 

(new reredos), 209. (restoration) 358, 

359; new barracks, 305, 489 
Yorkshire : archa;ological assocn., 228; 

architectural assocn. in, 8, 154, 182. 208 

ZINC, thickness of, 628 

[Si;i^plement to the Building News, Januanj 10, 1879.] 


•«• The Lithographic Illustrations will be found immediately following the Pages indicated. 

ABBEVILLE, a courtyard at. 530 
Abboys: St. Alban's (roof section), 579; 

Sweetheart, N.B., 612; Thornton (^'ate- 

Adcote house, Salop. 610 
Alne, Great. Warwickshire, 503 
Animal representations in torra cotiajit 

natural history museum, 3b"8, 4-2, iTl, 

530, 6K) 
Art: galleries, Liverpool (Agnew's), 290; 

school, Manchester, 448 
A5.«uranoe offices : Greshaoi (Poifltrj ), 694 ; 

Prudential (Holburn). 8, 2S 

BA-NK, Pinckney's new. Salisbury, 236 
Baths. Camden Turkish, 55S 
Bay from old house, Kirle'^on, 76 
Bedding ton -park, lodcre at, 342 
Belhaven U.P. ch., Glasgow, 694 
Birnam, St. Mary's tower at. 584 
Boarding-house, Harrow school. 8 
Board schools, Nottingham, Hunter-hill 

(T. Roger Smith's and R. C. Clarke's 

design), 502 
Bond street (New), shop, ft40 
Bracket clock, Paris Exhibition, 236 
Bramfield hall, entrance lodge, 368 
Brighton, "West, house at, 156 
Broadwater Down, Tnnbridge Wells, house 

at. 368 
Brompton oratory, competition designs : 

H. Glutton, 130, 1.56; G. F. Grayson. 

184; J. Kelly, 104; Vicars and O'NeiU, 

Brooklands. Moorfield hotel. 474 
Building News designing olub : joinery, 

584; village club-house, ,694; villa resi- 
dences. 448, 500 
Business premises : Fenchurch-avenue, 

E.C., 640; New Bond-street, W, 644"); 

Newgate-street, E.G., 4+8 1 Shoreditch, 

But-and-ben of concrete slabs, 52 

CAMBBIDGE: Cavendish college. 28; 
house at, 612 ; proposed All SS. memo- 
rial cross, 210 
Camden Turkish baths, 558 
Capital?, terra cotta. 368, 422, 474, 530, 558 
Carlisle. Bush hotel and shops, 184 
Carvine. terra cotta, 8, 28, 361, 422. 474, 

530, 558, 612. 6K) 
Casement, meeting styles and sill, 48 
Cathedrals : Contances {N.W. tower). 44.8, 
502; Dunblane, 612; Hereford (Sir G. 
Scott's reprodnctions of Norman), 130, 
156; Lincoln (chancel gates), 318; Nor- 
wich (ground plan), 21; Notre Dame. 
Paris (wrought iron hinge), 318 ; Peter- 
borough (ground plan), 21; St. Alljan's 
(roof section), 579 ; Truro, designs (J. M. 
Brydon's), 5S4 (J. P. St. Aubyn's), 640 
Oaudebec, old house dt, 8 
Cavendish college, Cambridge, 28 
7entrolinead, 153 

•hancel gates, Lincoln cathedral, 318 
Jhapels : Chislehurst (morning, Ch. of 
Annunciation), 342; Tyntesfield (pri- 
vate). 394 ^^ 
Charlecote, Ham pstead- hill-gardens, 76 
Chateau, St. Louis, Quebec, 422 
Chimneys, diminution of circnkr, 92 
Chislehurst : house at Kemnal Wood, 264- 
morning chapel, Ch. of Annunciation! 
Churches: Brompton oratory design (H. 
Glutton) l;JO, 156. fG. E. Grayson) 184 
(J. KeUy) 101, (Vicars and O'Neill) 
502 ; Chislehurst (Annunciation — morn- 
ing chap.), 342; condemned City (St. 
Margaret Pattens, St. Mary Abchurch, 
and St. Stephen, Co]eman-3trec-t), 58t; 
. Egremont (St. John), 184; Glasgow 
(Belhaven (U.P.), 694; Lee. Kent (St. 
Margaret), 530; mission (of concrete 
slabs), 53; Mottingham (St. Peter), 8; 
Moulton, 290 ; North Kensington 
(Christchurch), 184; North Petherton 
(St. Mary), 104; Osney (St. FrideB^^■ide 
—new tower), 2-36 ; Priv-tt (Holy 
Trinity), 28: Rathfarnham (R.C.),;^2; 
Sydenham (St. Matthew), ;il8; Tebay 
(new), 471; Templemore (R.G), 342; 

Tynemouth priory (proposed restora- 
tion), 52 ; Upton-on- Severn (SS. Peter 
and Paul). 558; Whaplode, 290; Win- 
chelsea, 236 

Circular chimney shafts, diminution of, 92 

Citadel, new, Quebec, 423 

City: assurance offices (Holborn), S, 28; 
(iPoultry), 694 ; condemned churches 
(three), 514 ; premises (Fenchurch- 
avenue), 610; (Newgate-street), 448; 
shop (Cornhill), 156 

Clock, bracket, 2156 

Cloister, 13th century (J. Martin Brooks's 
design), 264 

Clubliouse, village, d&'sign for, 694 

Cocoa mills, Epps's, 640 

College, Cavendish, Cambridge. 28 

Columns : diminution of, 92 ; tixing iron, 

Competition designs : board school, Not- 
tingham (T. Roger Smith and Clarke), 
502; cathedral, Truro (J. M. Erydon), 
Sai. (J. P. St. Aubyn) 640; churches 
Northampton, St. Michael (Burder and 
Baker), 264; North Kensington, Christ- 
church (selected, J. E. K. Cutts), 18 1; 
Sydenham, St. Matthew (selected, W. M. 
Teulon), 318; dairy homestead plans 
(Murray and Potter), 388; hospital, con- 
valescent (P. J. Martin), 584; markets. 
Dublin (O'Neill and Byrne. 2nd prem.), 
394; oratory, Brompton (H. Glutton), 
130, 156, (G. E. Grayson) 18t, (J. KeUy) 
104. (Vicars and O'NeiU I 502; seminary, 
Snuthwark, R.C. (A. J. Adams), 104; 
town halls, Hamburg (Sir G. G. Scott), 
342, 558; Yarmouth (selected. J. B. 
Pearce) 318. (Bell and Roper) 694, (B. 
Binyon) 368, (E. F. Bishopp) 236. 
(Nottress and Seager) 210, (Perk in and 
Bulmer). 290 

Concrete slab cottages and mission church. 

Condemned City churches ; St. Margaret 
Ptkttens, St. Mary Abchurch, and St. 
Stephen, Coleman-street, 584 

Continuous kiln, Lancaster's, 170 

Convalescent hospital, P. J. Martin's de- 
sign, 584 

Cornhill, E.G., comer shop. 156 

Cottages : concrete slab middle-class, 52 ; 
Formby (summer) 130 

Courtyard : at Abbeville, 530 ; of river- 
side hotel. Great Marlow, 8 

Coutances Cathedral, N.W. tower, 448, 502 

Crane, foundations of, 601 

Cross, proposed All Saints' memorial, Cam- 
bridge, 210 

DAIRT homestead plans : G. Murray, 
388 ; T. Potter, 388 

Daughters of missionaries* educational 
institution, Sevonoaks, 394 

Designing club : joinery details. 584 ; vil- 
lage club-house, 604; villa residences, 
448, 530 

Designs : cathedral, Hereford (Sir G. 
Scott's reproductions of Norman), 130, 
156; cloister (R.I.B.A. medal), 2(>4 ; 
diniug-room (W. Hensman), (>40; hall 
and staircase (E. W. Foley), 290; me- 
morial cross. All Saints', Cambridge 
(W. M. Fawcett), 210 ; mural painting, 
Ivanhoe, 184 ; priory church, Tyne- 
mouth (Sir G. Scott's restoration), 52; 
tower, St. Frideswide's church, Osney, 
236. See also under Competitions. 

Details: bracket clock, 236; business pre- 
mises. New Bond-street, 640; churches, 
Moulton and Whapl -de, 290 ; fixing mill 
shafting, 3-42 ; houses (Charlecote, 
HampBtead), 76 (West Brighton estate), 
156 ; joinery, 584 ; leadwork, Haddon 
hall, 210; museum, new natural history, 
368. 422. 474, 530, .558, 612. 640 ; offices 
Prudential (Holborn), 8, 28 ; printing 
works, Fetter-lane, E.G., 104 ; windows, 

Diana, of Poitiers, house of, Rouen, 530 

Diminution of circular chimney shafts, 92 

Dining-room : royal pavilion. 'Paris eshi- 
bition, 130; W. Hensman's design, &40 

Door panels, decorative treatment of, 156 

Drawing-room, Fair Oaks, Northenden, 

Dublin city markets, O'Neill and Byrne's 

(2nd prem.) desiu'U, 394 
Dunblane cathedral, 613 
Dunkeld, St. Mai-y's tower, near, 584 

EARLY cathedral ironwork, 318 
Education of missionaries* daughters, in- 
stitution for, Sevenoak^ -394 
Egleton, bay from old house, 76 
Egremont, St. John's church, 184 
Elizabethan architect, drawing by an, 474 
Entrance lodge, Bramfi«ld hall, 368 
Epps's steam cocoa-mills, 640 
Ettington, Lower, summer-house at, 422 
Exchange art galleries, Liverpool, 29) 
Exhibition, Paris: bracket clock from, 
236 ; dining-room, Prmee of Wales's 
pavilion, 130 

FAIR OAKS, Northenden, drawing- 
room at, 318 

Farm house, an old, near Worcester, 558 

Farm plan, 236 

Fenchurch-avenue, business premises in, 

Fernacres house, Fulmer, Slough, 28 

Fetter-lane, Speaight's printing works, 

Fir, yellow, section of, 315 

Fixing : column, 24 ; shafting, 342 

Formby, summer co'.tage at, 130 

Foundations of crane, 601 

Fulmer, Fernacres house, 28 

GALLERIES, Exchange art, Liver- 
pool, 290 
Gatehouse, St. Mary's abbey, Thornton, 52 
Glasgow. Belhaven U. P. ch., 694 
Great ; Alne, Warwickshire, 502 ; Marlow, 
riverside hotel, 8 ; Yarmouth, town 
hall designs, 210, 236, 290, 318, 368, 694 
Greenhill estate, Hampstead, house on, 

Gresham assurance offices. Poultry, 694 
Ground plans, Norwich and Hereford 

cathedrals, 21 
Gulliver's wedge-lock spindle, 694 
Gunnersbury, corner villas at, 184 

HADDON haU. leadwork at, 210 
Half -timl>e red houses, Caudebec and 

LisieiLs, 8 
Hall and staircase (E. W. Foley's design), 

Halls: Haddon (leadwork), 210 ; Hamble- 

ton, 76 
Hambleton, old hall at, 76 
Hamburg, near Rath-haus (Sir G. G. 

Scoct's designs), 342, 558 
Hampstend: house, Greenhill estate, 474 ; 
studio ( Charlecote) , 76 ; vestry hall, 503 
Harrow school, new boarding house, 8 
Hereford, Sir G. G. Scott's reproductions 

of Norman cathedral, 130, 156 
Herod's temple, Jerusalem (Jas. Fergus- 
son's restoration), 264 
Hinge, Notre Dame, Paris, 318 
Holborn, Prudential assurance offices, 8, 28 
Holland-st., S.E., Epps's cocoa mills, 640 
Homestead dairies, premiated plans, 388 
Hospital, convalescent (P. J. Marvin's de- 
sign), 584 
Hotels : Brooklands (Moorfield), 474 ; 
Carlisle (Bush), 184; Gt. Marlow (river- 
side), 8 
House, St. MUdred's, Poultry. 694 
Houses : Abbeville, 530 ; Adcote, Salop, 
640 ; Broadwater Down. Tunbridge 
Wells, 368; Cambridge. 612 ; Caudebec, 
8 ; Chislehurst, 264 ; Egleton, 76 ; Fair 
Oaks, Northenden, 318 ; Fernacres, Fal- 
mer, 28 ; Great Alne, Warwickshire, 
502 ; Greenhill estate, Hampstead, 474 ; 
Gunnersbury, 184 ; Hampstead - hill- 
gardens, 76 ; Harrow, 8 ; Lewisham-park, 
342; Lisieux, 8; Lowther-gardens, Ken- 
sington, 290 ; Marlborough, 76 ; New 
Bond-street. 640 ; Rouen, 530 ; Seven- 
oaks, 318; Warwick (Priory). 422 ; West 
Brighton, 156 ; Wobum-park, Surrey, 

INSTITUTIOW for missionaries* 
daughters' education, Sevenoaks, 394 

Ironwork, from Southwell and Lincoln 
minsters, and Notre Dame, Paris, 318 

Ivanhoe, design from, mural painting, 184 

JE clUS ALEM, Ferguson's restoratioii 

of Herod's Temple, 264 
Joinery details, club designs, 534 

KElSrSINGTON : Christ Church, 184 ; 
mansion, Lowther-gardens, 290 ; natural 
historv museum, 368, 422, 474. 530, 558, 
612, 6W; vestry-hall, 612 

Kiln, Lancaster's continuous, 170 

LADYWELL, S.E., houses at, 342 

Lancaster's continuous kiln, 170 

Leadwork at Haddou hall, 210 

Lee, S.E., St. Margaret's church, 530 

Leicester, offices in Greyfriars, 264 

Lewisham-park, houses at, 342 

Lincoln : cathedral, chancel gates. 318 ; 

so-called 12th century window, 574 
Lisieux, old house in Rue d'Orville, 8 
Liverpool exchange art ealleries, 290 
Lodges: Beddington-park, 342; BramfieM- 

hall. 368 
Lower Ettington, summer-house at, 422 
Lowther-gardens, Kensington, mausione 

M AN CHESTER School of Art. 448 

Mansions, Lowther-gardens, Kensington, 

Markets, Dublin city, O'Neill and Byrne's 
design for, 394 

Marlew, river-side hot^'l at, 8 

Memorial cross (proposed), old All Saints 
ch. site, Cambridge. 210 

Middle-class cottage residences, 52 

Mills, Epps's steam cocoa. 640 

Minster, Southwell, ironwork on west 
door, 318 

Missionaries' daughters' educational in- 
stitution, Sevenoaks, 394 

Mission ch. of concrete slabs, 52 

Monastery plans, Norwich and Peter- 
borough, 21 

Moorfield hotel, Brooklands, 474 

Mottiri&ham, proposed ch. of St. Peter, S 

Moulton ch., nave arcade, 290 

Mural painting, design from " Ivanhoe," 

NARBOROTJGH, old house at, 6 

Natural history museum, Kensington, 368, 
432, 474, 530, 558. 612, 640 

New : Bond-street, shop, 6 40 ; natural 
history museum, 368, 422. 474, 530, 558, 
612, 640; offices, Prudential assurance 
coy., Holborn, 8, 28 

Newgate-street, E.G., new premises, 448 

Northampton, St. Michael's ch. (Burder 
and Baker's design), 2>4 

Northenden, drawing room of Fair Oaks, 

North : Kensington, Christ ch., 184 ; Pe- 
therton. St. Mary's ch., 104 

Norwich monastery, ground plan of, 21 

Notre Dame, Paris, hinge. 318 

Nottingham. Hunter -hill board schools 
(Smith and Clarke's design), 503 

OAK, sections of, 315 

Offices : Fenchurch - avenue, E.G., 640 ; 
Greyfriars. Leicester, 264 ; Gresham, 
assurance. Poultry, 694; Prudential do., 
Holborn, 8, 28 

Old : farmhouse near Worcester, 558 
houses in Warwickshire, 422 

Open-mouthed pipes v. ventilators, 173 

Oratory, Brompton, competition designs: 
H. Clutt^on, 130, 156; G. E. Grayson^ 
184; J. Kelly, 104; Vicars and O'Neill, 

Orders, the. by John Shute, 474 

Oriel details, Prudential assurance offices, 8- 

Original presbytery and west front, Here- 
ford cathedral (Sir G, Scott's restora- 
tion), 130, 156 



tower, St. Frides- 

PAINTING, mural, design for, 184 
Paris: Exhibition (bracket clock), 236; 
(dining- room, Prince of Wales's pavi- 
lion), 130; Notre Dame, hinge at, 318 
Pavilion: and winter gr^rden, Blackpool, 

52; royal, Paris Exhibition, 130 
Peterboroug-h monastery, ground plan of, 

Petherton, North, St. Mary's church, 104 
Pipes, open-mouthed v. ventilators, 17.J 
Plans: baths (Camden Turkish). 558; 
board schools (Nottingham — Smith and 
Clarke's), 502; cathedrals (Norwich), 21, 
(Peterborough) 21, (Truro— J. M. Bry- 
don's) 584, (do. J. P. St. Aubyn's) 640; 
chateau (St. Louis, Quebec), 422; 
churches ( Belhaven, (rlasgow), 694, 
(Egremont, St. John) 184 (mission) 52, 
(Mottiugham, St. Peter) 8, ( Northamp- 
ton, St. Michael — Burder and Baker's) 
264, (North Kensington. Christ) 184, 
(Privett, Holy Trinity) 28. (Rathfarn- 
ham, R.C.) 342, (Sydenham, St, Matthew) 
318, (Tebay, new) 474, (Templemore, 
R.C.) 342, (Upton-on- Severn, SS. Peter 
and Paul) 558; eloister-groiaing (J. M. 
Brooks's), 264 ; cocoa mills. Epos's, 640; 
cottages (concrete slab), 52, (summer, 
Formby) 130; dairy homesteads (G. 
Murray), 388, (T. Potter) 388 ; farm, 2i6 ; 
gate-house (Thoruton Al>bey), 52; hos- 
pital, convalescent (P. J. Martin's), 584 ; 
liotels (Gt. Marlow riverside), 8, (Bi-ook- 
lands, Moorfield) 474; hou-^es (Broad- 
water-down, Tunbrid^e Wells) , 368, 
(Cambridge) 612, (Charlecoi-e, Hamp- 
stead) 76, (Chislehurst) 264, (Feruacres, 
Fulmer) 28. (Great Alne) 502, (Greenhill, 
Hampstead) 474, (Harrow) 8. (Lewisham 
park) 342, (St. Mary's tower. Birnam) 
584, (West Brighton) 156. (Woburn-park) 
210, (Woodside, 8evenoak3)31S ; institu- 
tion, missionaries' daughters', Sevenoak<t, 
^^94 ; kiln (Lancaster's continuous), 170; 
lodges (Beddington-park) 312, (Bram- 
field hall) 368; mansion (Lowther-gar- 
dens, Kensington), 290; markets (Dublin 
— O'Neill and Byrne's), 3^4; oratory, 
Brompton (H. Glutton's) 130, (J. Kelly's) 
104, (G. E. Grayson's) 184. (Vicars and 
O'NeJirs)502 ; pavilionaijdwinter garden 
(Blackpool), 52 ; school of art (Manches- 
ter), 448; seminai-y (Southwark, R C— 
A. J. Adams's), 104: town halls (Tip- 
perary), 394, (Yarmouth— selected, J. B. 
Pearoe's) |318, (do.. Bell .and Roper's) 

694, (B. Binyon's) 368, (E. F. Bishopp's) 
2.36, (Nattressand Seager'e) 210 (Perkin 
and Bulmer's) 290 ; tramway r.iils, 279 ; 
vestry halls (Hampstead), 502, (Kensing- 
ton) 612 ; village club-hou^e, 694 ; villas 
(designing club), 448, 5-30. (Gunnersbury) 
184; tower (Coutauces cathedral), 448, 

Poultry, E.C., St. Mildred's house, 694 

Premises : New Bond-street, 640 ; Newgate- 
street, E.G., 448 

Presbytery, Hereford rathedral (Sir G. 
Scott's reproduction of Norman), 130 

Printing works, Fetter-lane, E.G., 104 

Priory : ch., Tynemouth (Sir G. Scott's 
restoration), 52 ; house. Warwick, 422 

Private chapel. Tyuteslield, 394 

Privett, Holy Trinity eh., 28 

Proposed : restoration, Tynemouth priory, 
52 ; tower, St. Frideswide's ch., Osuev, 

Prudential assurance co.'s office, Holboru, 

Rath-haus, Hamburg (Sir G, G. Scott's 

designs), 343, 558 
Renaissauce, roof;* of the, 365. 390, 391 
Restorations : Herod's temple, Jerusalem 

(J. Fergusson), 264; Hereford, Norman 

cathedral (tir G. Scott), 130, 156 ; 

Tynemouth priory (Sir G. G. Scott), 52 
Riverside hotel. Great Marlow, 8 
Roofin*: : controversy, St. Alban's, 579 ; 

for mill sheds, 179 
Roofs of the Renaissance, 365, 390, 391 
Rooms, dining, 130, 640 
Rouen, houae of Diana of Poitiers, 530 
Royal pavilion, Paris estibition, 130 

SALISBURY, Pinckney's new bank, 

School of art, Manchester, 448 

Sections : baths (Camden Turkish), 558 ; 
business premises (New Bond-st.), 640 ; 
cathedral (Truro— J. P. St. Aubyn's 
design), 640 ; cloister (design), 264 ; 
cottage (concrete slab), 52; gatehouse 
(Thornton abbey), 52 ; Gulliver's wedge- 
lock spindle, 694 ; museum (natural 
history), 368, 422, 530, 612; oak, 315; 
offices (Prudential assurance, Holboru), 
8, 28 ; oak, 315 ; oratory (Brompton— H. 
Glutton's) 130, (do.— J. Kelly's) 104; 
roofs (Renaissance), 365. 390, 391 (shed) 
179, (St. Alban's) 579 ; seminary (South- I 

i wark R.C— A. J. Adams's), 104 ; to^-er 
(Coutauces cathedral), 418; villa (de- 
signs), 448,530 ; village clubhouse, 694; 
windows, 558 ; yellow fir, 315 

Seminai-y, Southwark R.C. (A. J. Adams's 
design). 104 

Sevenoaks : missionaries' daughters* insti- 
tution, 394 ; Woodside hou=ie, 318 

Shafting, fixing of iu mills, 342 

Shed roofing, 179 

Shnpa: Carlisle, 184; CornhiU, E.G., 156; 
New Boud-street, W., 640 

Shoreditch, business premises. High-street, 

Shute, John, reproduction from, 474 

Sketches of lead work, Haddon hall, 210 

Slough, Feruacres house, Fulmer, 28 

Smoky chimneys, 411 

So-called 12th ceutuiy window, Lincoln, 

South Kensington : mansions, Lowther- 
gardens, 290 ; natural history museum, 
368, 422. 474, 530, 558. 612, 640 

Southwark, R. C. seminary (A. J. Adams's 
design). 140 

Southwell minster, ironwork on door, 

Spindle, Gulliver's wedge-lock, 694 

St. : Alban's (cathedral, roof section), 579; 
Frideswide (Osney), 236; John (Egre. 
mont), 184; Louis (chateau, Quebec), 
422; Margaret (Lee, S.E.),530; (Pattens. 
E.G.), 584; Mary (abbey, Thornton), 52 ; 
(Abchurch, E.G.), 584; (North Pether- 
ton), 104; (tower, Birnam) 584; Mat- 
thew (Sydenham), 318 ; Michael (North- 
amptou — Burder and Baker's) 264 ; 
Mildred's (house. Poultry), 69i; Peter 
(Mottingham). 8; Peter and Paul (Upon- 
on-Severn), 558 ; Stephen (Colemau- 
street), 584 

Staircase and hall, E. Foley's design, 290 

Stairs, natural history museum, 530 

Steam : coeoa mills, Epps's, 640 ; printing- 
works. Fetter-lane, 104 
Studio, Charlecote, Hampstead-hill-gar- 

dens, 76 
Summer: cottage, Formby, 130; house, 

Lower Ettington, 422 
Sweetheart abbev, N.B., 612 
Sydenham, St. Matthew's church, 318 

TEBAY, proposed new ch., 474 

Templemore, R. G. ch., 342 

Temple of Jerusalem, Fergusson's restora- 
tion of Herod's, 264 

Terra-cotta details : natural history mu- 
seum, 3(^8, 422. 474. 530, 558, 612. 640 ; 
Prudential offices, Holborn, 8, 28 

Theatre roofs : Argentina, Rome, 390 ; 
Covent-trarden, 391 

Thirteenth century cloister (J. M, Broo' 
design), 264 

Thornton abbey gatehouse, 52 

Tipperary town hall, 394 

Tower ; N.W., Coutancea cathedral, 
502 ; propo.5ed, St. Frideswide's 
Osney, 236 ; St. Mary's, Birnam, 584 

Town halls: Hamburg (Sir G. Sen 
designs) 342, 558 ; Tipperary. 394 ; Y 
mouth, designs (selected, J. B. Pear 
318, (Bell and Roper) 694, (B. Binvo.i 
368. (E. F. Bishopp) 236, (Nattress'an. 
SeagerJ 210, (Perkin and Buimer) 290 

Tramway coustniction, 279 

Trnro cathedral designs : J. M. Brydon's 
584; J. P. St. Aubyn's. 640 

Tunbridge Wells, Broadwater Dawn house 

Turkish baths, Camden, 558 

Twelfth century window, Lincoln, 574 

Tynemouth priory, Sir G. ScoCt's restora 
tion, 52 

Tyntesfield private chapel, 394 

VENTILATORS v. open-mouthed 
pipes, 173 

Vestry halls : Hampstead, 502; Kensing- 
ton, 612 

Village clubhouse, design for, 694 

Vi'las; club designs, *48, 530; Gunners- 
bury, 184 

AAT ARWTCK, Priory house, 422 
Warwickshire, old houses in, 422 
Wedgelock spindle, Gulliver's, 694 
West: Brighton, house at, 156; front, J 

Hereford cathedral (Sir G. Scott's repro-j 

daction. Norman) 156 
Whaplode ch., details from, 290 I 

Wiuchelsea church, 2i6 
Windows and their treatment, 558 
Window, 12th century, Lincoln, 574 
Winter garden and pavilion, Blackpool 

Woburn park, reaidenco at, 210 •" 

Worct-^ter, old farmhouse near, 553 

YARMOUTH town baU, competition; 
de-igns: (selected— J. B. Pearce) 3l8,i 
(Bell and Roper) 694, (B. Binyonl 368.f 
(E. F. Bishopp) 236, (Nattress aur, 
Seager) 210, (Perkin and Bulmor ' 

Yellow fir, annual layers of, 315 ^ 

JiitV 5, 187?. 




pREAT YARMOUTH, until recently 
^--^ somewhat backward in architectural 
progress, has of late made a fresh start. 
The Aquarium and Winter Garden now in 
progress are about to be followed by the 
erection of new municipal buildings to 
replace the present old Classical structure, 
which affords very inadequate accommoda- 
tion. Forty-two designs have been received 
in response to the invitation of the Town 
Council. The instructions to architects 
proposed cei-tain locations in respect of the 
1 chief official departments, which have some- 
j what restricted the competitors, but at the 
! same time these hints have prevented dif- 
ferences in the interpretation of the re'^uii'e- 
B ments, and have afforded a certain and 
definite basis to work upon. An excep- 
tionally good site, facing the river Yare, is 
pi'ovided, being a quadrangular area of 
about 108ft. frontage and 130ft. in depth. 
The points of importance are, that the town 
clerk's, surveyor's, and accountant's offices 
and committee-rooms should be in easy com- 
munication with each other on the ground 
floor, that distinct entrances should be pro- 
' vided at convenient points of the surround- 
ing streets, and that a spacious entrance 
hall and staircase should form a prominent 
I "eature of the buUding. The lighting of 
B the hall and con-idors presented some diffi- 
b culty in a building of the proportions fixed, 
j^ Separate entrances for the quarter and petty 
Oaii sessions court.s readily reached from chief 
^^constable's office, are equally desirable, 
;h» and the separation of the courts from the 
* municipal departments, as far as practi- 
cable, was necessarily one of the chief 
C qualifications of the plan, though it has 
^ been lost sight of by some competitors. 
C Every conceivable variety of style, from 
Roman to Renaissance and Gothic, is 
y. exhibited in the designs submitted, though 
Classic, of some variety, seems to be 
.' predominant. Much ingenuity has been 
i exercised in the means employed to obtain 
' light and communication between the 
offices. Some designs show straight cor- 
1 ridors, with end entrances, intersected 
sii Sy cross passages ; others make the central 
Mc lall the main centre from which the corri- 
,'^j ors ramify, while many show a square 
— nk of corridors forming an inner circle 
^^ ''communication. One of the most striking 
(i, istances of the central hall arrangement is 
Beacon." The entrances lead to a large 

hall, with a grand staircase of segmental 
shape, behind which is an open court for 
light. The gentlemen's cloak-room is placed 
here. On the west side is the entrance to 
the law courts, having a circular staircase, 
with good corridor connection. The prin- 
cipal floor has the two courts separated by 
the circular staircase approach, and are 
placed at the north-west and south-west 
angles. The assembly-room has a refresh- 
ment buffet at one end. We object to the 
rather crooked and ill-approached surveyor's 
offices on the ground floor. An alternative 
plan has a similar arrangement, but rect- 
angular flights of stairs are substituted for 
the segmental form. The surveyor is at the 
north-east corner, and the town-clerk at the 
north - west. A good point in the plan 
is that the constables', witnesses', and 
barristers' rooms are located below the 
courts on the east side. The stair ap- 
proaches are well planned. "Beacon's" 
first design is a classical Roman com- 
position, an order on a basement, a centre 
octagon cupola being over the main en- 
trance ; his alternative scheme is Renais- 
sance of a refined character, but the north 
front is very irregular, a good tower being 
spoilt by a gabled chimney. The drawings 
are well executed, and there is a clever ink 
perspective ; but much labour has been 
wasted in showing an elaboi'ate scheme of 
ceiling decoration. 

" Use " is the motto of another good plan, 
with a central hall and area, around which 
the departments are grouped. On the 
ground floor a covered archway divides the 
south front of the building ; distinct entran- 
ces are provided, but the con'idors leading 
from the central hall to the accountant's 
and inspector's offices appear to be badly 
lighted. There is little waste of room in 
this plan. The quarter sessions court 
occupies the assigned location, and is placed 
lengthwise to the Hall Square side ; the 
small court is placed along the east side, 
separated by the stair approach. The 
public hall has an orchestra, with stairs. 
A heavy gabled-sided tower in the Gothic 
style, but of bad proportions, emphasises 
the entrance front. Much skill is, how- 
ever, shown in the section and plans. One 
of the liest designs is certainly that of 
" Bona Fides." It is shown by a very artisti- 
cally coloured perspective exterior, in a 
sensible styleof plain semi-Gothic character, 
and is proposed to be built in red brick and 
stone. The elevations are clever line 
drawings, and simplicity and dignity 

pervade the treatment. The plan 
shows one wide transverse con-idor from 
the main north entrance to the south 
front, a central hall and area for 
light forming a widening out. This is 
crossed by two other corridors running 
east and west, with end entrances. The 
area for light is too small. The town clerk's 
department is on south side, the accountant's 
at the north-west, and the surveyor's at the 
north-east corners. We like the principal 
plan better, especially as regards the courts, 
which have good public entrances and jury 
and dock stairs. The main staircase is 
rather narrow, but it gives direct access to 
the assembly-hall, which is 84ft. by -16ft., 
with a recessed orchestra, and retiring- 
rooms in the angles. One merit of this plan 
is that the main staircase and its landing is 
quite distinct from the courts, which have 
their own corridors round the three remain- 
ing sides of the centre area. Each court 
has its own sepai-ate staircase for public 
use, and that to the petty sessions court at 
the N.E. angle is treated as a pleasing 
octangular tuiTet externally. "Old English" 
is the motto of a design Renaissance in 
style, with some good detail and clever line 
elevations, but with an awkward plan. The 
town clerk's and accountant's departments 
are on the west side. There is a large wait- 
ing hall and entrance from Hall- square, 
separate court staii-s, and tolerably well- 
lighted corridor communication, though 
we do not quite see how the ladies' 
cloak-room is to receive that indispen- 
sable requisite — the words, " lighted above 
roof line," not being very clear on 
examination of the section. The main 
staircase is lighted chiefly by a skylight 
and open ai-ea. On the first-floor the 
courts adjoin with separate public stair 
approaches, and stairs also from the con- 
stables' office to the dock. The Hall Plain 
elevation is cut in two by the tower over 
the entrance, the hall being pronounced, 
and the surveyor's office block kept low. 
One of the best-studied plans is undoubtedly 
that of " B," in a triangle. The author 
adopts the central haU idea, with a wide 
main entrance to the north, and two other 
entrances from Hall-square and South-quay, 
the former giving access to the coiu'ts and 
the latter to the offices, a straight corridor 
connecting them. The departments of the 
town clerk and surveyor are located on the 
Hall Plain front on each side of the entrance, 
the accountant's offices are placed close to 
the official entrance, and the constable's in 


Jdlt 5, 1878. 

he part assigned in the insti-iictions. The 
author seems to have carefully followed the 
instructions. An alternative arranfjement 
shows a private entrance for prisoners, but 
the cells by this plan are divided. On the 
whole, this is a clever plan, and the super- 
ficial areas have been closely worked out. 
We do not quite like the entrances to the 
town clerk's offices ; there is scarcely sufB- 
cient light given to the stairs and hall, and 
the propoi-tion of the quarter sessions 
court and its entrances might be improved ; 
thus it would have been better if the hall 
landing had been quite cut off from the 
courts. We observe there is no orchestra or 
retiring-room to the assembly-hall. In eleva- 
tion a free Rena issance style has been chosen, 
and but for the rather low octai^on stage 
of the tower there is much to commend in 
the excellent line drawings exhibited. 
" East Coast " shows some clever planning, 
the author adopting what we have called the 
central hall scheme. There is a square 
court, with a glazed dome for light and air 
in the middle,"with stairs in the centre, and 
a surrounding gallery. Around this are 
grouped the offices. The municipal depart- 
ments are well shut off from the magisterial, 
and the courts are at the north-east and 
north-west angles, separated by a landing 
and stairs, with separate police access. In 
style we have a simple Classic treatment, 
with a slightly projecting tower of dignified 
character. It is in fact one of the most 
successful towers shown in the room, the 
square being surmounted by an octagon bell 
cupola. The pencil perspective does it more 
justice than the poorly-tinted elevations. 
'■ Sub Spe "lacks congruity of feature in the 
tawdry-coloured Gothic elevations by which 
it is sliown. Tlie plans embrace some good 
points. Entrance to the municipal ofBces 
is on the South-quay side, the court and 
police entrances on the east, with public and 
hall-keeper's entrances in the south front. 
The surveyor's and inspector's offices are on 
the last-named side, the town clerk's and 
accountant's facing the river. The lighting 
of the hall and corridors appears defective. 
On the principal floor the sessions and 
magistrates' courts are at the north 
and south-east angles, with good stairs 
between, communicating by corridors 
round main staircase and open area. 
Tbere is much compactness in the plan ; 
but the Queen Anne elevation is below par. 
" Well Considered " — one of the favourites, 
we hear — is shown by a large ably-drawn 
pencil perspective in an ornate Florentine 
Italiiin style, but much too palatial and 
costly in character. The plan has merit. 
In the entrance hall a wide flight ascends 
to the assembly-room, 102ft. by 44ft. Gin. 
A square link of corridors connects the 
hall with the several departments. The 
hall and corridors are lighted chiefly 
by a lantern above the stairs ; the courts 
are well connected by corridors, with good 
public and private entrances between them 
on the eastern side. Among the noticeable 
designs in a Continental Gothic style is a 
circle with three red stripes as motto. So. le 
good detail is exhibited. There is a lofty 
enti-ance tower, spoilt by a dormer perched 
at the apex of a sloped roof. In the plan we 
note that the corridors are ill-lighted, the 
cloak-rooms receiving most of the light 
from the open middle area. The town clerk's 
and accountant's departments are well 
planned, and the connections good ; they 
face the Quay. This is the best point 
in the plan. The surveyor's offices are 
out of square at the north-east angle — 
a mistake other competitors have fallen 
into. One peculiarity of this plan is 
that the courts are arranged obliquely 
along the eastern line of boundary, and are 
placed end to end— a method adopted by one 
or two other architects. A good public lobljy 
is shown between the courts, and stairs 5ft. 
wide. The assembly- hall is 90 by 45ft., with 

an orchestra and retiring rooms. " Keep 
Watch " adopts the same location of courts, 
and the plan possesses merit, inasmuch as 
the magistrates' department is self-con- 
tained, and placed along the eastern side. 
The town clerk's offices occupy the north- 
west angle, the accountant's and surveyor's 
the south-west. The hall aud corridors 
below are not well lighted in parts. _ A 
large flashily-coloured distemper drawing 
shows the exterior, in which the author has 
evidently been inspired by a well-known 
design for the Kensington Vestry Hall ; but 
the detail is poor. " Saxon " is a refined 
Renaissance design, shown by a series of 
admirably-drawn elevations in brown ink, 
rather too chateau-like. The ground plan 
is not skilfully disposed in its corridor com- 
muuication, and the hall and courts are not 
happily arranged. An alternative bright 
red-coloured perspective in Gothic is shown, 
and a good ink perspective. We must 
notice, too, a design with the motto " Luke 
22, 24 v.," in a Jacobean style. There is 
something refined about the elevations, and 
the ink perspective is cleverly drawn. The 
plan shows a grand central stairs and muni- 
ment room, with surrounding corridors 
poorly lighted. The municipal offices are 
located along the quay front, entered 
at both ends of corridors which run 
north and south. The entrances are 
distinct and ample, and the principal floor 
shows skilful arrangement of corridor con- 
nection, well-planned courts, with good 
stair approaches between. The hall has no 
orchestra. Another desiftn indicating study 
is " One of Many," in a French Gothic 
style. An open area lights the corridors, 
but the accountant's and town clerk's 
departments are disconnected, and the 
corridor approach to the latter indirect. 
" Thought " is jumbled in arrangement, 
and the confusion is made worse by the 
fussy and stupid printing adopted. The 
surveyor's offices are on the South Quay 
front, and the town clerk's at the south- 
east angle. The lighting of the corridors is 
certainly defective. There are three en- 
trances on Hall-square side, incliiding the 
public entrance to the courts — the latter 
l3eing arranged on the east and west sides 
of the building, with a public waiting-hall 
between. This hall is questionably common 
to both courts and concert-room. The ele- 
vation is poor Gothic, the Hall Plain fix)nt 
being very indifferent. In the design with 
" Munus " as motto the elevations are very 
distastefully coloured — the roofs are tinted 
iu brown, and there is a lofty Gothic tower 
The corridors aud passages are dark, and 
there is a manifest want of contrivance and 
skill in the distribution and regularity of 
the departments. "Knowledge is Power' 
has some points in its favour ; the courts 
are well lighted and connected, and the cor. 
ridors form an inner circle of communica- 
tion. There is an open area for light, with 
muniment and cloak-rooms in the centre 
The aceovmtant's and committee-rooms are 
at the north-east and north-west angles, 
the town cler'e's offices along the South- 
quay, and the surveyor's facing Hall- 
square. The main staircase ascends over 
the entrance; this is economical, though, 
perhaps, objectionable architecturally. The 
assembly-hall, corridors, and entrances are 
narrow aud inefficient. " Let the Best 
Win " is in an Early Gothic dress, rather 
French than English. The municipal offices 
occupy the South-quay front, the town 
clerk being located at the north-west and 
the accountant at the south-west corners, 
disconnected by a public corridor entrance. 
The offices of the surveyor are cramped, 
and are lighted from a court. The upper 
plan is deficient iu its court communica- 
tions. The hail is 8Ift. 6in. by 49£t. 6in. 
" Comma," in circle, is in style a florid 
Gothicesque conception, shown by an ela- 
borate ink elevation. It wants connection 

and proportion of parts. Easy communica- 
tion between the offices — one very essential 
condition — is overlooked, and we fail to see 
how the corridors are to be lighted, the 
areas shown being very small. " All's 
Well " is noticeable for a lofty angle 
tower in florid Gothic that would alone 
run away with a considerable part of 
the contemplated outlay. The ground plan 
is cut up, the entrance narrow, the hall 
pillars unnecessarily expensive. We observe 
the town clerk's and accountant's offices are 
separated by the main entrance. It is a 
question whether this is the best means of 
arranging them, although many other 
designs adopt it. There is also an un- 
economical distribution of corridors. The 
assembly-haU is 86ft. Gin. by 4Gft. Gin. 
" Pom " has a central area for light, and 
suri'ounding corridors. The entrances to 
the offices and courts are poor and crauiped. 
A very confused arrangement is shown by 
" Garianonum," which is dressed in florid 
Italian, with a singularly unpleasing curvi- 
linear or domical roof over the hall, with a 
raised lantern. We note also " B with Arrow 
in Circle " as being wanting in compactness 
and concentration, and the corridors are 
badly lighted. The Gothic exterior scarcely 
atones for the plan. " Finis Coronat Opus " 
is the motto of another very distracting 
plan. The author is clearly a novice at 
planning, or he would never have adopted 
such winding corridors. " Utility " has a 
plan wo cannot find mvich merit in, and the 
lighting is bad. What singularly puny 
Gothic windows to the offices ! " L. W. X." 
is more like a Manchester warehouse than 
a town hall. The plan is puerile. " Caller 
Herrin," in a Flemish-looking Renais- 
sance with an ink perspective, cannot 
be overlooked, but the plan is poor in parts, 
though there is a good general scheme of 
corridors and a central area. The ac- 
countant's and town clerk's offices are 
separated by a corridor, and face the quay. 
" Y " in a circle has a central galleried hall, 
domed. The plans are crude, and indicate 
want of study ; the style is Palatial Italian. 
" Phojnix," also Italian, errs in the neglect 
to provide light to corridors, and the offices 
are not weU approached. We cau only 
glance at " Rex et Nostra Jura," an awkward 
plan, with poorly- lighted corridors. The 
open court only gives light to the cloak- 
room, &.O. There is a general want of con- 
ception iu the planning, despite its French 
Gothic and its clever Renaissance studies, 
iu which some good detail is apparent. The 
open lantern in the clock tower is too lofty. 
" Congress," a bizarre design, in a tawdry 
species of confectioner's Gothic. The plan 
is remarkable for its rounded corners and 
its main circular staircase. We may just 
mention " Roma," " Leo " in intersecting 
triangles, " N'est Pas," " Yorkshire," " D" 
in circle, " Labor et Spes," " Circle," etc., as 
attempts that show either a misdirected 
ambition or a wonderful faith in the chances 
of competition. 

Certain designs have won popular admi- 
ration, but we hope the committee of selec- 
tion will be upon their guard and resist in- 
fluences that may be brought to bear upon 
them. A sub-committee met on Tuesday 
last to make a preliminary survey, but 
nothing was done, and it will be probably 
another week or two before the result is 
arrived at. We hope the Council wall ob- 
tain the aid of a professional man to assist 
them in their judgment. Such a course is 
the more desirable, as our examination of 
the designs has convinced us that many of 
them cannot be erected for the sum named 
in the conditions. One of the ciimpetitors, 
for instance, calculates his design at the 
ridiculously low figure of Gid. a foot cube, 
while others have obviously never taken the 
trouble to calculate the cost at all. In view 
of the preposterously lofty towers and 
palatial facades of stone some of the com- 

July 5, 187S. 


potitors display, more than usual caution 
will have to be exercised by the Town 
Council of Yarmouth in their adjudication, 
and, while the site ;uid its architectural 
adornment must be kept in view, the 
economical arranf^cmont of the public offices 
must be the leading consideration. 


ABOUT a dozen years ago it was pro- 
posed by numerous bills brought intf> 
Parliament to construct complete inner and 
outer circles of railway communication 
round London — to construct new lines travel- 
ling athwart the metropolis in .all directions, 
the works including several new r.ailway 
bridges across the Thames. Some of these 
schemes have been partially executed, and 
much of the accommodation they promised 
has been provided, but by much less costly 
routes ;uid methods than were then pro- 
posed, existing lines and bridges being 
utilised for new connections. " Outer 
circles," with vai'i.ations, have been com- 
pleted, and the " inner circle " has been 
crossed, befoi'e it has been joined up, as it 
should ha\-e been years ago. 

The London, Brighton, and South Coast 
Company have new lines and works in 
progress at Newhaven, and towards the 
southern part of their system ; but the 
most important project the comp.any have 
in hand, with a view to the increased 
accommodation of their great and growing 
traffic, main line and local, is the complete 
remodelling of the lines, platforms, and 
signals at London Bridge station, by which, 
practically, the platform accommodation 
■will be doubled, without any addition to 
the i)resent area of the yard. Two new lines 
are being laid into the station, and two 
new platforms constructed to serve them. 
On the completion of the works the com- 
pany wiU have eleven lines and platforms 
in the station — including the South London 
— all these lines being available for either 
arrival or departui-e trains. This bold and 
novel mode of working the traffic is adopted 
with a view to obviating the delays that 
now occur to main line and suburban trains 
in entering the station. The system in- 
volves, as may be supposed, the introduc- 
tion of a large number of points, and a great 
increase in the number of signals and 
quantity of interlocking gear. This impor- 
tant part of the work is in the very able 
hands of Messrs. Saxby and Farmer, signal 
engineers, who are fitting up a signal box 
that will not have its equal throughout the 
world as regards the number of levers 
employed — 280 in one signal cabin, and 98 
in another, closely adjacent, and working 
in connection with it, or 378 levers to work 
the st,ation. The larger signal box will 
probably require the services of 6 or 7 
signal men. Some single operations require 
a pull av 6 or even 8 different levers. The 
traffic will be worked strictly on the " block 
and interlocking " system, electrical block 
signalling instruments between one signal 
cabin and another forming an essential 
feature in the arrangements. The elaljo- 
rate plan for the reconstruction of the 
station IS by Mr. Banister, chief engineer, 
assisted, as regards the roads, points, and 
platforms, by the practical suggestions of 
Mr. Williams, traffic superintendent. 
_ Our great railway systems now penetrate 
into districts and invade " territories " far 
remote from the areas to which the original 
promoters probably intended to confine 
themselves. The " London and York," 
commencing in 1848 with communications 
between Grimsby and Louth, Boston and 
Lincoln and Peterborough, afterwards, by 
union with the "Direct Northern Rail- 
ways " and the "East Lincolnshire" line, 

became the "(treat Northern," with a 
•• territory " in the direction implied by its 
name. By subsequent connections with 
other companies it became enalded to carry 
traffic in passengers and goods to Newcastle 
on the north-east, to Manchester and 
Liverpool on the north-west, and to Edin- 
burgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen, and Inverness, 
in the further north. The Great Northern 
has now overleaped the river Thames, 
that might have been considered the com- 
pany's natural southern boundary. This 
has lieen accomplished by means of the 
connecting curve between the Charing- 
cross line at Guildford-street, Borough, and 
the Chatham and Dover line near Black- 
friars station. 

In the construction of this short line 
considerable engineering difficulties had to 
be grappled with. In taking out the 
foundations for the piers — the whole of the 
curve being built upon arches— the water 
came in in copious streams; but this 
powerful element was eventually beaten 
back and subdued, and the high and mas- 
sive arches at the sharpest part of the 
curve are, in design, materials, workman- 
ship, and apparent strength, very excellent 
examples of this kind of work, and cre- 
ditable alike to Mr. Biady, the South 
Eastern Company's engineer, the con- 
tractors, and all concerned. At a short 
distance from Guildford-street the Charing 
Cross line passes under the Chatham, and 
the connection is necessarily on a rising 
gradient from the fonner line, but of not 
more than about 1 in 90. The curves, in 
one part rather sharp, are found perfectly 

The line was completed many months 
since, and no obstruction to its opening was 
offered, we believe, by the Board of Trade 
inspector. The delay has been occasioned 
by sense of responsibility on the part of 
the superintendents of the four companies 
concerned in the working of the new ser- 
vice — viz., Mr. Cockshort, of the Great 
Northern ; Mr. Harris, of the South East- 
ern ; Mr. Hills, of the Chatham and Dover ; 
and Mr. Myles Fenton, of the Metropolitan. 
These gentlemen naturally and properly 
hesitated to put additional traffic upon lines 
already crowded, and they had great diffi- 
culty in arranging a time-table satisfac- 
torily. They have commenced with a limited 
service of six trains each way per day. 
There is probably no railway junction in 
or near London that will demand more 
complete rules and regulations as to sig- 
nals, &c., and more watchful care in its 
working, than this. 

It seems somewhat strange that, while 
this connection has been made by the South 
Eastern Company, and is a junction be- 
tween that company and the Chatham and 
Dover in the first instance, the Great 
Northern Company should have the working 
of the traffic by their engines, carriages, and 
guards between Woolwich and the Great 
Northern system. But that matter con- 
cerns the companies rather than the public, 
whose only interest is to be carried quickly, 
cheaply, and safely. 

Passengers to Woolwich Arsenal by the 
new communication who desire to proceed 
further on the North Kent line will change 
carriages at Woolwich ; and passengers to 
King's Cross who desire to take the Great 
Northern main line will change from the 
Great Northern Suburban to its main line 
station, which closely adjoin each other. 
The limits of the new service, locally, are 
between Finsbury Park and Woolwich 
Arsenal stations, with 14 intervening sta- 
tions, at all of which the trains stop. The 
time for the journey is about an hour, and 
the stations include, among others. Black- 
heath, New Cross, London Bridge, Ludgate 
Hill, Farringdon-street, King's Cross — 
Metropolitan and Suburban — and Holloway. 
The semaphore signals on the route are 

very numerous, and involve the study on 
the part of the engine-drivers of about forty 
diagrams, in addition to the letterpress in 
their instructions. Although the traffic has 
not been heavy as yet, it has been satisfac- 
tory, and pronounced a great convenience 
l)y those who have availed themselves of it. 
The service is smooth and effective, not- 
withstanding the difficulties that attach 
to it. 

The through bookings which this com- 
munication renders practicable are only 
partially an-anged as yet, and these facili- 
ties will doubtless be greatly increased; 
but, practically, with changes at Woolwich 
or London Bridge of the South Eastern, 
and at King's Cross or Finsliury Park of 
the Great Northern, the whole of the 
systems of the two companies are brought 
en rapport with each other. The through 
bookings already arranged extend from 
Woolwich to — amongst a host of other 
towns — Cambridge, Peterborough, Sheffield, 
Manchester, Liverpool, Doncaster, Leeds, 
Bradford, and York. 

The Midland is now a misnomer, as 
applied to the enterprising and ever-ox- 
tending company that bears that name. It 
was appropriate enough in its early days, 
when it had provided railway communica- 
tion between places in or near the heart of 
England — Derby, Leicester, Nottingham, 
Lincoln, Birmingham, &c. Now, by the 
extension of the company's lines, they reach 
numerous ports on the Irish Sea, the 
Bristol and English Channels, and the 
German Ocean, and ere long the company 
will reach, by its own line, its extensive 
docks at Blackwall. By arrangements with 
other companies the tentacula; of the Mid- 
land now embrace almost all parts of the 
United Kingdom, inland and on the coast, 
and certainly all the most important cities 
and towns in Great Britain, with Dublin, 
Belfast, Londonderry, and many other 
places in the sister kingdom. Through 
these connections the Midland books to 
localities very far removed from the head- 
quarters at Derby — even to places beyond 
our shores, including Honfleur, Dieppe, 
and Paris ; the Channel Islands, the Isle 
of Wight, the Isle of Man, Storuoway, and 
the Isle of Skye ; it reaches to the toe of 
England at Penzance, and to the ultima 
Thule of Scotland at Wick and Thurso, 
connecting with steamers proceeding even 
further north to the Orkney Islands. 

One of the most recent extensions of the 
Midland is the completion of an outer 
girdle round London, which brings a 
charming and extensive suburljan district 
into communication with the Midland and 
other railways. This new Metropolitan 
Extension consists of a route round the 
north of London, by which passengers may 
travel on the Midland lines from Moorgate- 
street to the Mansion House, without change 
of carriage or detention, except for a very 
brief space at the new station at Earl's 
Court. The travelling public are already 
familiar with the northern and southern 
portions of this route — the one by the low 
level from Moorgate-street or the high 
level from St. Pancras, the other by the 
District Railway from the Mansion House 
to Earl's Court. The new connection is 
between these outer stations. There is a 
service of fifteen trains per day round the 
circuit, the time occupied between Earl's 
Court and Kentish Town being about 
50 minutes, and for the whole distance 
between Moorgate-street and the Mansion 
House about 1 hour 40 minutes. The service 
is in keeping with the high reputation of 
the Midland Company for the excellence of 
the accommodation it provides. The car- 
riages are first and third class — the so-called 
thirds being greatly superior to the second- 
class carriages to be seen upon some other 
lines. They have stuffed seats, parcel racks, 
hat straps, plate-glass door frames and 


July 5, 1878. 

elbow lights, and are as roomy and lofty 
as could be reasonably desired. The car- 
riages are really first and second — the second 
at third-class fares. 

At a short distance beyond the St. 
Paucras station the hisfh and low-level 
lines of the Midland join each other near 
Camden-road station, after crossing the 
North London line. Taking the new route 
and passing on from Kentish Town, Hamp- 
stead junction line is crossed, and the train 
reaches the station at Haverstook-hill, the 
greater portion of the road to this point in 
deep cutting, tunnel, or covered way. At 
Finchley-ioad the line enters upon its pro- 
gress through vei-y beautiful districts, pre- 
senting a variety of scenes and objects of 
interest ; in one place undulating, in another 
as level as a bowling green ; in one jjlace 
partially residential, in another purely 
rural ; here an orchard or pleasure garden, 
there a pasture field, well stocked with 
browsing cattle, or nibbling sheoi) with 
their lambs frisking about. Between 
Finchley-road and the new station at West- 
end the Hampstead junction line is again 
crossed, and from the station last named 
the train passes on in a north-westerly 
direction to Child's-hiU and Cricklewood 
station, a little beyond which the new line 
has a fork uniting it with the main line of 
the Midland for Leicester and the North, 
and the main and local lines for St. Pancras 
and Moorgate to the south east. Here the 
new line bends round in a south-easterly 
direction to Dudding-hill station, one of 
the prettiest parts of the I'oute ; in this 
locality building operations are being ex- 
tensively pi'osecuted, and many detached 
and coupled villas and houses of other 
classes have been recently completed, or 
are in progress, some of them quite impos- 
ing in appearance, the high-pitched flat red 
tile roofs being a notable feature. HaiTow- 
road is the next new station, from which 
the line j' asses nearly due south, with 
Willesden junction within the circuit, at a 
little distance on the easterly side ; it then 
crosses over the main lines of the London 
and North- Western, and the Great Western, 
and reaches in succession the stations of 
Acton and Turnham-green, both very plea- 
santly situated, and although giving evi- 
dence that a more populous district has 
been reached than those left behind, sur- 
rounded by abundant verdant beauties. At 
Tui'nham-green passengers change car- 
riages for Gunnersbury, Kew Gardens, a ten 
minutes' run, and Richmond, which is 
reached in fifteen minutes. From this 
point the head of the train is turned in the 
direction of the Mansion House, and, pass- 
ing in part through a highly cultivated 
market garden district, the stations at 
Shaf tei5bury-road, Hammersmith, and West 
Kensington are reached in succession, and 
next the new station at Earl's Court, where, 
for the present, the Midland train stops, 
and the passengers are transferred to the 
trains of the Metropolitan District Com- 
pany, for which they have seldom to wait 
more than two or three minutes. Although 
the carriages of the District Company are 
as good as others generally, the third-class 
passengers will find their accommodation 
in contrast with the exceptionally luxuriant 
thirds of the Midland, from which they 
have alighted. The distance from Earl's- 
court to the Mansion House is accomplished 
in about 23 minutes. 

By another route the Midland trains 
might complete the circuit of London; 
passing on from Addison-road, and cross- 
ing the river at Chelsea, they could, via 
Battersea, Clapham, and Loughborough, 
proceed northwards to Ludgate and 
Farringdon-street stations, which would 
join up the circuit. 

The stations on the new route are brought 
into connection with almost the whole of 
the Midland system by through booking to 

a vast number of stations, including Man- 
chester, Liverpool, Leeds, Glasgow, Edin- 
burgh, and even plaoes as remote as Inver- 
ness and Aberdeen. Th(! " residential " 
traffic on this line cannot fail to increase 
rapidly, and the large coal depot that the 
company has commenced to build at Ken- 
sington will doubtless prove a profitable 
investment, as well as a great advantage to 
the locaUty. The Midland trains will run 
through fi-om Earl's Court to the Mansion 
House when that station has been enlarged, 
as is in contemplation. 

METALS. {Continued.) 
T EAD is a metal of great utility in 
-*-' building opei ations, both in its pure 
metallic state and also when chemically 
united with other elements. It is not found 
pure in nature, but is generally obtained 
from a mineral called galena, in which it is 
united with sulphur. A portion of the 
sulphur is expelled by roasting the ore at a 
moderate temperature, leaWng a sulphate 
and oxide of lead ,• and, on the application 
of a higher degree of heat, the metal is ob- 
tained in a molten condition, while the 
other elements pass off in the form of sul- 
phurous acid. The melting point of lead is 
020° Fahr., and it shrinks in bulk as it cools ; 
it is a very heavy metal, its density being 
Hi times that of water. The lead obtained 
from English ore generally contains a small 
proportion of the metal antimony, which 
renders it too hard to be rolled ; but it can 
be softened by exposure in a melted state 
to the air in a shallow vessel, when the anti- 
mony and part of the lead "become oxidised 
and form a dross on the surface which can 
be skimmed off until the lead is sufficiently 
softened to be milled. Sulphuric and hydro- 
chloric acids have very little effect upon 
pure lead, but it is easily dissolved by dilute 
nitric acid. When exposed to moist air it 
soon tarnishes by the formation of a grey 
coating of oxide, but the oxidisation does 
not proceed further, nor does the lead be- 
come deteriorated by exposure, as is the 
case with iron. Sheet or milled lead is 
largely used as the lining of water-tanks, 
and this can be done with impunity pro- 
vided the water is not perfectly pure, but 
contains soluble salts, as sulphates, phos- 
phates, and carbonates. Pure or rain-water, 
however, is liable to be rendered poisonous 
by being kept in lead cisterns or passed 
through lead pipes; for an oxide of lead is 
formed which is partly dissolved by the 
water, from which it absorbs carbonic acid, 
and precipitates the insoluble carbonate of 
lead, while a fresh coating of oxide is formed, 
to be again dissolved by the water ; so that 
not only is the lead corroded, but the water 
is also rendered poisonous by the oxide of 
lead dissolved in it. When, however, the 
water contains sulphate or carbonate of 
lime or other salts, the corrosion is pre- 
vented by the insolubility of the oxide in 
such water, and a thin coating of carbonate 
or sulphate of lead, adhering firmly to the 
metal, protects it from injury; a small quan- 
tity of vegetable matter, if present in the 
water, will also render it innocuous by com- 
bining with the oxide to form an insoluble 
coating. If water is suspected of contain- 
ing lead-salt in solution, its presence can be 
generally detected by passing sulphuretted 
hydrogen gas through it, which forms a 
dense black precipitate of the sulphide. If 
the chromate of potash is added to a solu- 
tion of a soluble salt of lead a fine yellow 
precipitate of chromate of lead is obtained, 
which affords a good test for its presence in 
water ; the pigment known as chrome yelloio 
being obtained in this way. If chrome 
yellow is boiled with caustic potash, part of 
the chromic acid is removed, and the result 
is a red pigment called chrome red ; and the 

mixture of these two colours produces 
chrome orange. 

White-lead, which is the basis of most c£ 
the pigments used by the house decorator, 
is the carbonate of lead obtained by expos- 
ing sheet lead to the action of carbonic acid. 
It is a soft heavy white powder devoid of taste 
and smell and insoluble in water, but dis- 
solved by dilute nitric or acetic acids, and 
contains from 84 to 86 per cent, of lead 
oxide with from 11 tj 15 per cent, of car- 
bonic acid, and 1 to 2 per cent, of water. 
This material is frequently adulterated by 
the addition of sulphate of lead, chalk, car- 
bonate or sulphate of baryta, and pipe-clay. 
The presence of these can be detected by 
using dilute nitric acid, which will dissolve 
all the carbonate of lead, so that any in- 
soluble residuum indicates the presence of 
other substances. If caustic potash is 
added to the solution in the acid, and a pre- 
cipitate is obtained, the presence of chalk 
will be indicated. 

Litharge is an oxide of lead much used in 
the arts, and is prepared by heating the 
metal in a current of air, when the oxide 
forms in pale yellow scales fusible at a red 
heat. It forms one of the ingredients in 
Mastic, which we have previously described 
under " Cements." 

Massicot is a yellow pigment obtained by 
heating carbonate or nitrate of lead, or by 
calcining the metal in a reverberatory fur- 

3Iiniinn or red-lead, largely used by the 
painter, is an oxide of lead which contains 
a lai'ger proportion of oxygen than litharge 
does; it may, therefore, be obtained by 
adding oxygen to litharge, which, when 
heated to about 600° Fahr., in a current of 
air, absorbs oxygen, and is converted into a 
fine red powd<;r of high specific gravity. 

Zinc, which is a metal now largely used 
in buildings, is obtained from ores in which 
it is combined either with sulphur or car- 
bonic acid ; the mineral called blende con- 
taining it in the form of sulphide, and that 
known as calamine being a carbonate of 
zinc, both of which are foimd associated 
with lead ore. These ores are first roasted 
to remove the sulphur and carbonic acid so 
as to leave the pure oxide of zinc, which is 
then mixed with powdered coke or charcoal 
and raised to a full red heat, so that the 
zinc being volatile is distilled in form of 
vapour and received into a condenser, while 
the oxygen unites with the carbon and 
escapes as carbonic oxide. This metal is 
highly crystalline and very brittle at ordi- 
nary temperatures, Init when heated some- 
what above the boiling point of water it 
becomes sufficiently soft to be malleable 
and allow of being rolled into thin sheets, 
after which it retains its malleability when 
again cooled. If, however, it is heated 
above 400° Fahr. it again becomes very 
brittle, and can be reduced readily 'to a 
powder. Its melting point is 773° Fahi-., 
l3ut if heated to 1,900°, or a bright red heat, 
in a closed vessel it boils and volatilises, 
and if exposed to the air will burn with a 
bright green flame ; on this account it is 
hardly a safe material to use for roofing 
purposes, as it cannot be considered as a 
fireproof material. Its density is 7 times 
that Oi water or less than two-thirds that of 
lead ; while its tenacity is double that of 
lead ; it is consequently preferred in many 
cases to the latter metal where a light and 
cheap covering to a roof is required. When 
exposed to moist air zinc quickly oxidises, 
but the film of oxide serves to protect the 
metal from further conosion, and conse- 
quently it is used as a protection to sheets 
of iron which are " galvanised " by being 
dipped in a bath of molten zinc which has 
been covered with sal-ammoniac to dissolve 
the oxide of zinc from the surface ; the 
zinc forms an " alloy " with the surface of 
the iron and will protect it from rust for 
many years. This metal is rapidly dissolved 

July 5, 1S78. 


ty dilute acids with evolution of hydrofjen 
gas; its use must therefore be avoided 
where it is liable to be exposed to acid 
vapours of any kind. 

There are several preparations of zinc 
■which are useful to the builder, one of which 
is zinc-white, an anhydrous oxide sometimes 
used as a pigment in place of white lead. 
This is prepared by oxidising zinc in fire- 
clay retorts placed in a reverberatory 
furnace, which is heated to whiteness, and 
the vapour of the bronijht in contact 
with a current of hot air at 572° Fahr., when 
the oxide is formed and carried into a con- 
densing chamber. It is pxire white, very 
light in weight, and is not discoloured by 
sulphuretted hydrogen gas. A yellow pig- 
ment also can bo oljtainod by precipitating 
a solution of sulphate of zinc with bichro- 
mate of potash and thus producing the 
yellow chromcitc of zinc. The sulphate of 
einc, called irhite lifriol, is prepared by 
•dissolving zinc in dilute sulphuric acid, or 
by roasting the native sulphide ; this is used 
by painters as a dryer. If the sulphate is 
■dried and heated ■with common salt (chloride 
of sodiumi, the chloride of zinc is obtained, 
■whicli is much used both for preserving 
timber and as a disinfectant. 

Tin is a valuable metal found in ores 
either as an oxide or sulphide, and associated 
with those of iron and copper. The sul- 
phur is expelled by roasting and the oxides 
of iron and copper are removed by washing ; 
the tin can then be reduced by strongly 
heating ■with powdered anthracite or char- 
coal, and is run into bars. The melting 
point of tin is 442^ Fahr., and its specific 
gravity is /'S, or a little above that of zinc. 
It is more mallealile than either zinc or 
lead, and its tenacity is between these two 
metals. It can be rolled into very thin 
sheets called tinfoil, and when pure can be 
recognised by a peculiar crackling sound 
or " cry " which it emits when bent between 
the fingers. If heated to fuU redness it 
■wiU burn with a bright flame, but at ordi- 
nary temperatures moist air has little effect 
on it, so that it forms a good protection to 
sheet iron, which, when dipped in a bath of 
molten tin and coated with it, is known as 
tin-plate. For roofing purposes a material 
called terne-plafe is sometimes used, which 
is sheet-iron coated with an alloy of tin and 
lead ; this is chiefly made for use in Canada. 
The chief value of tin to the builder is when 
mixed as an alloy with other metals. 

A beautiful purple pigment is obtained 
by dissolving tin in strong hydrochloric 
acid, so as to form the chloride of tin, which, 
being mixed with chloride of gold, produces 
the powder kno^wn as p^irple of Cassius. 

Copper is occasionally found in the pure 
metallic or native state, but by far the 
largest supply is obtained from the yellow 
ore, which is a sulphide of copper and iron 
known as copper pyHies. The ore is first 
roasted to get rid of some of the sulphur, 
and then melted ivith silica until the iron 
combines with the silica and forms the sili- 
cate of iron, leaving the sulphide of copper in 
a separated form. This is again roasted, to 
expel tlie svilphur and reduce the metal to an 
oxide, which is kept stirred up until the 
oxygen and remaining sulphur have passed 
off as sulphurous acid and metallic copper 
rema,ins. Malachite is also an ore of copper 
rich in that metal in fonnof carlsonate; but, 
from its beautiful green colour and capa- 
bility of receiving a polish, it is more 
highly valued for decorative purposes than 
for producing the metal. The density of 
copper is 9 times that of water, and its 
melting point 1,990^ Fahr. It possesses 
considei-able malleability and ductility, and 
is also an excellent conductor of heat and 
electricity. Copper tarnishes rapidly when 
exposed to the air, but is very durable when 
used as a covering for roofs or as nails for 
fastening slates, not being acted on readily 
by any acids except nitric, which dissolves 

it with violent action. It forms valuable 
alloys with othi-r metals, and is also the 
basis of many beautiful green and blue 
pigments employed both by the decorator 
and the glass manufacturer. 

Carbonate of copper, which gives a green 
pigment, may be produced by warming the 
sulphate with carbonate of soda ; or mala- 
chite may lie ground up for the same pur- 
pose. Verditcr is another pigment obtained 
by the action of nitrate of copper upon 
chalk. Verdigris is the acetate of copper, 
and can be obtained either blue or green, 
and may be used either for oil or water- 
colours, but is highly poisonous ; when 
mixed with white lead and oil it forms a 
a blight blue which afterwards turns to a 
fine green. Scheie's green or arseuite of 
copper is one of the most poisonous of all 
the iiigments, being a mixture of hydrated 
oxide of copper with arsenite of potash. 
Emerald green, which is also very poisonous, 
consists of 31 per cent, of copper oxide, 59 
per cent, arsenious acid (arsenic), and 10 per 
cent, of acetic acid, forming an aceto- 
arsenite of copper; it is produced by 
mixing boiling solutions of arsenious acid 
and acetate of copper. A non-poisonous 
green pigment can, however, be obtained 
from the sulphate of copper by mixing it 
with the stanuate of soda, which is a com- 
pound of soda with oxide of tin. If the 
hydrated oxide of copper is finely ground 
and mixed with water or gum, it gives a 
bright blue j>ig™<^nt ; but if mixed with 
linseed oil it becomes green, and various 
hues can be obtained by mixing it with 
pure gypsum or plaster of Paris. The red 
oxide of copper is obtained from the sul- 
phate (blue vitriol), and is used for producing 
rubiz-coloured glass. A violet-blue pigment 
is also obtained from a sulphide of copper 
which is made by fusing the metal with a 
mixture of other sulphurets. The blue sul- 
phate of copper above referred to is its most 
important s-alt, being produced by boiling 
the metal with dilute sulphuric acid (oil of 

Alloy is a mixture of two or more metals 
■whenin a liquid or molten state; and the four 
metals which we have just been considering 
form alloys of great value to those concerned 
in building or engineering operations. The 
mixture of two metals to form an alloy is 
of so intimate a nature that an entirely new 
material is produced, having properties 
widely different from those of its ingredients 
in a separate condition. It is always ob- 
served that the melting point of an alloy is 
lower than the average of that of two con- 
stituents, and sometimes is lower than that 
of either of them. Common solder, used 
by the plumber, is an aUoy of equal parts 
of lead and tin, and melts at 385° Fahr. ; 
fine solder consists of 2 parts tin to 1 part 
lead, and melts at 372° Fahr.. while tin it- 
self melts at 442° and lead at 617°. In using 
solder for the piu-pose of uniting two pieces 
of metal it is necessary to have the surfaces 
quite free from oxide, and either sal- 
ammoniac or rosin are used to protect the 
surface from the oxygen of the air while 
undergoing the process. Brazing or hard 
soldering for uniting the edges of iron, 
copper, or brass, is an alloy of brass and 
zinc used with powdered borax to dissolve 
off any oxide from the surface. Brass is an 
alloy of 2 parts copper to 1 part zinc ; while 
bell-metal, gun-metal, and bronze are com- 
posed of from 4 to 9 parts copper to 1 part 
tin ; and if more tin is added the bronze 
becomes harder and more brittle; small 
additions are sometimes made of lead and 
zinc. Pewter, consisting of 4 parts tin to 1 used for making small gas-pipes. 

Gold is a metal that may be regarded 
as a building material from the fact of its 
being largely used ui the form of gold-leaf 
for decorative purposes, for which its bright 
and unalterable colour renders it peculiarly 
valuable. This metal is one of the few 

found in nature uncombined with other 
elements, although it is often alloyed with 
silver, and is obtained in the granitic or 
slate formations, and in combination witl 
quartz rocks. To extract it from the ore 
mercury is used, which forms an amalgam 
with the metal, and can afterwards be dis- 
tilled off by lieating in a close vessel when 
the pure sjold remains behind. Gold is the 
most malleable of all metals and capable 
of being hammered into leaves of which 
280,000 would make 1 inch in thickness. 
In this form it is applied for deco- 
ration by means of gold-size or varnish, 
which causes it to adhere firmly to any 
prepared surface. It is a very heavy metal, 
its weight or density being iOi times that 
of water, and its molting point 2,012° Fahr. 
None of the strongest acids when applied 
separately have any effect upon pure gold ; 
but when nitric and hydrochloric acid are 
mixed so as to form o^hh regia, <];old can be 
dissolved thereby, and a yellow solution ob- 
tainedwhich is the chloride of gold. If this is 
mixed with the chloride of tin, a fine purple 
pigment is produced, which is used in the 
colouring of Bohemian ruby glass. 

We will conclude our notice of the 
metals with a comparison of their qualities 
of tenacity, malleability, ductility, density, 
conduction of heat and electricity, and fusi- 
bility. 1. Tenacity ; taking that of lead as 
1, the tenacity of tin is I^-, of lead 2, gold 
12, copper 18, iron 27i, steel 42. 2. MaU 
leability ; gold stands 1st, copper 2nd, tin 
3rd, lead 4th, zinc 5th, iron',6th. 3. Ductility ; 
gold is 1st, iron 2nd, copper 3rd, zinc 4th, 
tin 5th, lead 6th. 4. Density ; gold is the 
densest, and the order of the others is lead, 
copper, iron, tin, zinc. 5. Conduction of heat; 
gold is the best conductor, then copper, 
zinc, iron, tin, lead. 6. Conduction of elec- 
tricity ; copper is the best conductor, then 
gold, zinc, iron, tin, lead. 7. Fusibility ; 
wrought iron and steel have the highest 
melting point — then cast iron, gold, copper, 
zinc, lead, tin. 


HYDEAULIC construction forms a large 
and important branch of American engi- 
neering. Mr. E. S. Philbrick, C.E., a member 
of the American Society of Civil Engineers, in 
a recent paper, written and presented by him 
to the society, on the " Improvement of the 
South Boston Flats," lately undertaken by the 
Federal Government, and reported in the 
" Transactions," furnishes us with some impor- 
tant data upon sea-wall construction. The 
object of the works was to improve the upper 
harbour of Boston, which had become shoaled, 
owing to the reclamation of the marE;inal land 
on the banks of the tidal harbour. Like many 
growing cities, Boston had been encroaching on 
the tidal limits for years ; wharves, streets, and 
buildings had been pushing their way out into 
the harljour, till it was found, as it is invariably, 
that the altered line of shore changed the' 
currents, leaving former channels to be slowly 
filled by deposit, while the loss of the tidal 
prism thus caused seriously diminished the 
volume and scouring force of the main channels 
of water. It must be recollected that the tidal 
flow intensifies the power of the land water by 
damming it back for one-half the time, till the 
ebb takes place with an increased violence. 
Tidal currents give a definite resultant in some 
direction, influenced by the shores, and the flood 
and ebb tides often take different channels. 
The ebb, owing to its reinforcement by the laud 
water, is generally supposed to be the mostefB- 
cient in scouring, as it is more concentrative, 
but experience has shown that this is not always 
so. In the case of Boston Harbour the flood in 
one part was found to be much stronger than 
the ebb-tide, owing to the concentration of the 
volume of its flow, but before reaching a point 
opposite East Boston the flood lost its strength 
by lateral dispersion, and its velocity being 
reduced, as a matter of course deposit takes 
place. A similar phenomenon is found in all 
tidal rivers, and the question of the relative 


July 5, 1S78, 

power of the etb and flow of the Thames, as our 
readers may be aware, has given cause for some 
anxiety respecting the deposit going on lower 
down the river. Such, then, was the state of 
things when the Board of Special Commis- 
sioners, constituted by the State Legislature 
in 1S6G, commenced operations. Surveys 
were commenced of the hydrographic fea- 
tures of the harbour, and the board re- 
commended the enclosure of the South 
Boston Flats by a wall extending along the 
south side of the main ship channel towards 
Castle Island, connecting with the east side of 
Fort Point by a curve. By this means the ebb 
waters from a bay were to be led to contribute 
towards the current and velocity of the main 
ship channel, and thus prevent the dispersion 
of the ebb over the large area of flats. The 
scouring action of the ebb tide would also 
thereby be increased. lu 1873 contracts for 
sea-walls were prepared by the commissioners, 
and the reclaimed land was sold. The filling 
in and walling were to progress simultaneously. 
Wegather from the State specifications, printed 
in Mr. Philbrick's paper, some useful details 
of these walls. For the light sea-wall the 
trench was dredged 2ft. below low water spring 
tides, and the piling occupied a space of 9ft. 
wide, having five rows of piles 2Jft. distance 
from centres apart. The piles were to be 
driven into the hard clay stratum, and they 
were to be not less than lOin. at low-water 
mark. Upon them were spiked two layers of 
spruce plank, 12in. wide and Sin. thick, at right 
angles, and the spaces between the heads of 
piles, for a depth of 2ft., was filled and rammed 
with stone chip, ballast, or oyster shells. The 
wall was of the following dimensions : — From 
low water of spring tides to top of coping 18ft. 
in height, with batter front and rear. Width 
of wall at bottom, 9ft.; at top, 5ft. Granite 
rubble wall stones from 18in. to 2ft. thick, with 
headers and bonders, were used. The back of 
the wall was ballasted with oyster shells, 
making a slope of 45° to the base of the wall. 
The heavy sea-wall had a trench excavated of 
45ft. width, its depth being 23ft. below mean 
low water. The trench was specified to be 
filled with broken quarry stones, none less than 
751b. weight, thrown in and deposited in layers 
of 4ft. each, compactly spread by divers to a 
slope on each side of 1 J horizontal to 1 vertical. 
This base of rough stones was 12ft. in depth, 
and its upper surface, upon which the wall 
stood, IStt. wide. The wall to the height of 
1ft. below low water was built with quarry- 
faced dimension stone of granite, laid in courses 
of 2ft. rise by the aid of divers, alternately of 
headers and stretchers. Each stone was speci- 
fied to be at least 4ft., and not more than 10ft. 
long, 18in. wide. This base of squared stone 
was 14ft. thick at bottom, and gradually sloped 
to about 10ft. in height by lift. wide. From 
this point to the top the courses were laid in 
cement, with a batter of 2in. to the foot ; and 
the whole height of the wall from the base of 
rough stones was 28ft., and its width at the top 
5ft. The backing was of clean gravel cobbles 
or oyster shells, resting at a slope as steep as 
they will stand, or 45', tapering to nothing at 
the top; above the ballasting is clay. The 
paper describes in detail the means taken 
to insure a proper alignment of the heavy sea- 
walls which were located a quarter of a mile 
from shore, and had curves of 908ft. and 2,368ft. 
radius. As the method adopted is very in- 
genious we may just give our readers an idea. 
Clusters of piles were driven about lOOtt. apart 
and 50ft. back from the line of wall, so as to bj 
clear of the foundation trench. One of these 
clusters was placed at the commencement of the 
curve, and another at its centre. Upon the 
latter a small platform was erected, upon which 
a small transit could be placed. By the instru- 
ment in the centre of curve the angles between 
the radial lines, marked by the clusters of piles 
round the circumference, were measured, and 
another transit on tlie cluster of piles at the 
commencement of curve- laid off in succession, 
half the corresponding central angles intersect- 
ing the radial lines previously established, the 
points thus given became points in a curve 50ft. 
inside the line of the wall and concentric 
with it. 

In the construction of a heavy sea-wall be- 
tween docks 3tift. in height considerable pre- 
cautions are detailed. From the greater erosive 

action of the waves on the bottom the sloped 
broken-stone foundation before-mentioned was 
not adopted, but the foundations were dredged 
about 4ft. below base of wall, and the trench 
filled up with Ijroken stone. The bottom was a 
firm but fine clay, and several interesting expe- 
riments, which we cannot give here, were made 
to discover the resistance of this clay to pile 
penetration, and the resistance to " flow " of 
the material under great weights. It was 
found that the clay would bear a load of 5,0001b. 
per square foot without flowing out, but that 
an increase of load was accompanied by a ten- 
dency to flow. The wall in section was vertical 
on the inner or ballasted side and battered on 
the outside, the base being 18ft. wide, and the 
summit 5ft. Prony's formula was used in find- 
ing the horizontal pressure, or 

P = 211L tangent= i (90' - f ), 

where P = the horizontal pressure on wall for 
a unit of length, W = weight of a cubic foot of 
filling material, h = height of wall, and (p the 
angle of repose of filling material measured 
from the horizon. Into the investigation of 
this part we will not enter here, as our readers 
are, no doubt, familiar with the theory. Owing 
to the semi-fluid clay and the free passage of 
water through wall and backing or ballast, the 
centre of gravity of the prism of the material 
acting at the back of wall is not at the point 
it is theoretically conceived to be when the 
prism is of homogeneous substance, and the 
resultant computed makes an angle of 30°, with 
the vertical having a value of 61,7001b., inter- 
secting base of wall at a point 3-85f t. from out- 
side of wall. 

The result of the experiments proved that it 
was essential to keep the material behind the 
wall in such a condition that the angle of repose 
would be rather larger than shown. This can 
be insured by having the filling deposited in 
layers, each well consolidated and free from 
water, before the next is placed upon it, also by 
giving each layer a slope from the wall. The 
value also of a broken-stone base, having a good 
foothold and a wide spread, becomes apparent 
when we consider the soft and yielding nature 
of clay in a seoii-fluid state. We have no space 
left to discuss the testing of cement used in the 
walls above low water, nor the modus operandi 
resorted to in filling behind the walls the semi- 
fluid material which exercised a great horizontal 
pressure. In the latter work extreme care is 
necessary to deposit the clay gradually, and to 
expel the water from each successive stratum. 


EDINBURGH owes most of her richest 
specimens of architecture to charitable 
legacies, trustees considering it a duty to make 
any buildings needed for administration them- 
selves memorials of the munificence of the 
gift. These have, in every case, the direct 
purpose of providing for the educational wants 
of the community. The School Board are now 
finishing the Canongate School, the last of the 
seven they intended to provide. These schools 
are but a fraction, however, of those in which 
elementary instruction, and that the best of its 
kind, is to be had at a very moderate charge. 
Owing to judicious outlay and naturally aug- 
menting value of capital, Eeriot's Hospital, 
the annual income of which now nearly 
amounts to the .£20,000 originally left, is the 
parent of many large side schools in the City, 
and has even added two to their number since 
the School Board came into existence. The 
other institutions, known as the JVIerchant 
Company's Schools, provide the benefits of 
grammar-school instruction to a vastly greater 
number than the few whose case was first con- 
templated by the endowment. 

The Fettes College is, architecturally, the 
finest piece of secular Gothic to be found in 
Scotland, though as an architectural composi- 
tion it cannot be commended as a marvel. It 
was intended to provide a home and education 
for 50 boys, but is developing into a little Eton 
or Harrow, with three large boarding-houses for 
boys not on the foundation. These are self- 
supporting, and there is thus room for a great 
expansion of the system in proportion as it 
may succeed. The trustees have not yet 
erected the fourth boarding-house contem- 
plated in the plan for laying out the grounds 

in front of the college, but have been busy in 
another way — in construction of a very exten- 
sive and expensive system of roads, and there 
is now easy access to the grounds from every 
public thoroughfare. They are also building 
an infirmary or sanatorium, with which the 
equipment of the institution may be said to 
be complete. 

Housebuilding has not altogether come to a 
standstill, but a great amount is projected, and 
much is being done in the way of church- 
building. The three great Presbyterian bodies 
have floated their prospectuses for a great 
scheme of church extension to cost d£300,000. 
The Established Church, which burdens itself 
with the erection of the building and endow, 
ment of the cure, and must open its churches 
free of debt, is not lavish of its means upon the 
architecture, and allows about £5 per sitting. 
The scheme embraces seven churches, of 
which two have been begun. The one for the 
district of St. Leonard's is by Mr. Lessels, ic 
Early Geometric Gothic, and in its arrangements 
follows the ordinary usage, which delights in 
plenty of width to allow of galleries round end 
and sides of the building. The other is for the 
southern suburb of Mayfield, by Messrs. Hardy 
and Wright, and is an Early English church 
of the ordinary medieval type, minus the 
chancel, and with aisles reduced to passage 
width, giving the interior the advantages of an 
unobstructed auditorium. These churches will 
accommodate about 950, and the cost, without 
the accessory of a tower or spire, may te 
^65,500. The United Presbyterian section have 
also several churches just about to be begun. 
The Free church for Mayfield is well advanced 
in its mason work. It is much more elaborate 
in its details than the others, and promises to 
be the finest in this respect of any church 
erected for Presbyterian services in the city. 
The church is designed by Mr. Blane in the 
French Gothic, with "showers of mouldings" 
and clustered shafts. It has nave and aisles, 
clerestory, and double transepts, with a tower 
and spire. The plan has been devised to have 
the congregation as much as possible equidis- 
tant from the preacher. The transepts have 
considerable depth, and the nave is proportion- 
ally short. The design includes a very 
shallow apse — segmental, and pierced with the 
long narrow lights sometimes found in old 
Norman examples. 

Presbyterianism, fortunately for itself, per- 
haps, but unfortunately for architecture, does 
not require to build cathedrals. Its maximum 
of cubic space, and what may be called its 
packing-box system of arrangement, are fatal 
to architectural grandeur. Moreover, it is found 
that large churches and monster congrega- 
tions are a great mistake, altogether unsuited 
for a congregational episcopacy, and that it is 
better to multiply the number rather than to 
enlarge the area ot the buildings. The master- 
piece of Presbyterian church architecture here 
is undoubtedly St. George's Church, or rather 
the dome, for which the church has been 
designed. The front only has been studied for 
architectural eifect as a finish to the long vista 
of George' s-street, and this dome, at least in the 
distance, impresses the spectator more than any 
other of the loftier monuments in the city's 
landscape, and is conspicuously distinct, when 
the others are hardly distinguishable from each 
other. Even with St. George's dome, however 
(the church being no loftier than the adjacent 
houses), Edinburgh has never had the aspect of 
a city where a cathedral church conspicuously 
holds it own amid the secular architecture 
round it. This reproach, if it be one, is now 
done away. Dr. McCrie, in his " Life of Knox," 
facetiously remarks that the Keformation 
did a good turn when it evolved the 
picturesque out of the larger churches in the 
land by reducing them to " ruins." The 
lamented Sir Gilbert Scott has shown how this 
might also have been done by reversing the 
process ; and he has built up an edifice which 
near or at a distance is visible from many 
points, and relieves, by contrast of its varied 
outline, the rather monotonous grandeur of the 
streets around it. The lofty bulk of the roof of 
the new cathedral church of St. Mary (choir 
and nave being of equal height) is now the 
principal feature which, next to the Castle 
Eock and the everlasting hills, arrests the eye 
as it wanders over the landscape of the distant 

July 5, 1878. 


tity. St. George's dome, even with its magni- 
tu'le as an element of grandeur, will hide its 
•diminished head. The general public as yet 
have not taken any interest in this the greatest 
church built in Scotland since Keformation 
times, and by far the greatest marvel of archi- 
tecture that adorns the city. This apathy, 
however, will soon disappear when its beautiful 
detail and proportions are unveiled — a result 
which wLU not be long delayed, as the whole 
work contracted for will be finished in another 
year. This splendid structure was expressly 
intended by the donors, the Misses Walker, to 
be a gift to the city quite as much as to the 
Anglican Episcopal Church of Scotland ; and 
circumstances have arisen, as has been the case 
with other such legacies, which have greatly 
enhanced its value as an architectural ornament 
to the city. The trustees found it necessary for 
cathedral uses to enlarge theare;i and otherwise 
complete its design as a cathedral church by 
addition of two western towers and spires. This 
addition, which considerably lengthens the nave, 
adds immensely to the complete and satisfactory 
proportion of the whole, by balancing some- 
what the oppressive magnitude of the central 
tower and spire. Foundations occasioned an 
additional expenditure, and materials and labour 
had risen so enormously after the legacy was 
made, and the contract was taken, that when 
all is done the cost will not fall much, if any, 
below three times the sum originally left for the 
church, which was .£iu,000. 

Space will not allow of more than a, few notes 
as to the stage now reached in the construction. 
All walls but those of the choir have been 
roofed in, and the workmen are now finishing 
the east gable, in the apex of which St. Mary 
has been placed, although the statues for the 
four niches below are not yet fixed. The vault- 
ing of the choir is being proceeded with ; that 
of the nave aisles, which is quadripartite, with 
moulded stone ribs, has been completed in con- 
crete, and the surface tinted rose colour. The 
spire rises but slowly, and is now about level of 
half the height of the corner pinnacles forming 
the octagon above the square. Gas piping has 
been laid, and the pendant brackets fixed on the 
clerestory. The main pipe is led directly up 
the western tower, and then runs along the 
clerestory, about level of the window-sills, in a 
2in. iron pipe. The lights of the west front 
and clerestory have been glazed. The work, 
executed by Messrs. Kemp, of London, is partly 
in stained glass and partly in ordinary quarries, 
with double-narrow border of clear pale smoke- 
green tint. The work fills only 
the south side of the clerestory. A deep green 
is the prevailing colour, with patches of 
brilliant orange, scarlet, lilue, and gold, &c., as 
required in the heraldic insignia emblazoned, 
and which .are all on a large scale as to size. 
The effect is nothing less than splendid in the 
sunlight, which gives at mid-day the glories of 
a mellow sunset to the roof, and lights up the 
whole with a light which must be called reli- 
gious, and is anything but dim. 


XARDS, of the Norfolk Ironworks. 
Norwich, and of Queen Victoria-street, E.C., 
have sent to the Paris Exhibition some admi- 
rable specimens of design and workmanship. 
In the " Brief Description of Exhibits" now 
before us, we find a pair of elaborate wrought- 
iron gates, which serve as the entrance to the 
pavilion of the Prince of Wales. These gates 
are delicate in workmanship, and have been 
left unpainted as they came from the forge. 
The scroll work between the uprights is out of 
the best Lowmoor and charcoal iron, and the 
rose, shar.irock, and thistle are beautifully 
wrought as ornaments, every tendril and leaf 
being cut and bent by hand, and in no case 
has the use of a stamp or matrix been resorted 
to. Another simple design in a style of the 
17th century is shown. In a similar style we 
note a well-designed stove or fire basket, with 
handirons, also intended for the entrance-hall of 
the Prince's pavilion. It is of cast iron, with 
fire-brick lining, and electro-bronzed orna- 
ment, the andirons being of polished brass. 
One of the principal contributions of this firm 
consists in an ornamental pavilion of two floors, 
intended for use upon a lawn, mounted upon a 

dais. On plan it is oblong, 33ft. x ISft. The 
shafts or columns supporting the structure are 
very diverse in ornament of a Japanese cha- 
racter, and the verandah is carried by a series 
of cast-iron brackets of sensible form, their 
spandrels all being different in design. These 
consist in bas-reliefs of conventionalised foliage 
and animal life. Thus we have studies from 
the apple blossom, with flying birds, white- 
thorn and pheasants, Scotch fir, sunflower, 
chrysanthemum, narcissus, daisy, and grass, 
with a crane and rising lark, &c. A cresting 
of fans surrounds the edge of the lower 
verandah roof, and each of these ornaments 
illustrates some flower. The upper floor has a 
Ijalcony, with railing in correct design, showing 
how much may be done by rectilinear features. 
The upper roof is carried by another series of 
supports connected by a transom-bar, from 
which large and elaborate brackets of varied 
design spring, and carry the upper curved zinc 
roof. The details of columns are interesting, 
as indicating quite a Japanese kind of orna- 
mentation, in which types of floral ornament 
have been introduced in the lower portions of 
each face. Another novel feature is the cast- 
iron panelled ceiling to the upper and lower 
stories, with bas-relief ornamentation stamped 
upon it ; and we understand the South Ken- 
sington authorities have purchased portions of 
the pavilion as illustrative of artistic wrought 
and cast-iron work of the 19th century. The 
sunflower railing divided into 72 panels sur- 
rounding the pavilion is a masterpiece of 
wrought-iron work. The pavilion and details 
were designed by Mr. T. Jeckyll, of St. George- 
terrace, Queen's-gate. We may mention also 
some very clever art castings or fronts to slow, 
combustion stoves, in which a Japanese kind of 
surface ornamentation in low relief, with 
medallions filled with types from flowers and 
birds, is used. The effect of this kind of orna- 
mentaticn is good, and exceedingly appropriate 
as surface decoration to metal. The exhibits 
of Messrs. Barnard, Bishop, and Barnards are 
certainly above the average, and indicate con- 
siderable advance in the correct principles of 
metal-work design. 


IN a small pamphlet reprinted from Mr. 
Ewing Mattheson's " Aid Book to Engi- 
neering Enterprise Abroad," we have a con- 
cise statement of particulars bearing upon 
tramways, which, at the present time, may be 
of service in assisting town authorities and 
engineers to judge of the advantages and dis- 
advantages of steam tramways. Several towns 
have lately .applied for powers to lay down 
tramways, and the expenditure seems to be the 
main obstacle in the w.ay. Our readers are 
aware that steam cars of various forms have 
been lately tested, and many experiments have 
taken place in London, which have proved that 
the three main objections to steam on highways 
can be removed — namely, the nuisance of the 
smoke, the frightening of horses, and the con- 
trolling of the engine. Economically consi- 
dered, the substitution of steam for horse-cars 
will make a saving of fully 30 per cent., the 
greatest economy being obtained where exten- 
sive tr.afEc necessitates the use of large cars. 
Every car-driver knows that the repeated 
stoppages and starlings of the car are most 
injurious to the horses in the course of 
time through the severe strains upon them. 
Where the gradients are steep the use of horse 
power is still more disadvantageous and un- 
economical, and is a further inducement 
for the change. There are two kinds of steam 
cars ; in one the engine is combined with the 
car, and shut off from the passengers by a par. 
tition ; in other cases there is a separate loco- 
motive car boxed in, and used for pulling the 
passenger car. Mr. Matheson enumerates cer- 
tain advantages in each. The first occupies 
less space in the street, and the weight of pas- 
sengers adds to the adhesive weight of the 
engine wheels for overcoming gradients ; the 
second kind has the advantage of separating 
the engine and boiler from the passengers, and 
can be detached for repairs ; on the other hand, 
it would require loading to give sufficient adhe. 
sion to the wheels. On slight gradients a wei"ht 

of at least C tons on the driving-wheels has 
been found necessary. On the whole there are 
evident advantages in combining the engine 
with the car, as such self.contained cars can 
be increased to any length to carry as many as 
60 passengers, and the labour of driver and 
conductor be thus more profitably employed. 
Only a trial will prove the advantages of each 
method. The self.contained cars, for 40 to 60 
passengers, weigh from 6 to 10 tons, and coat 
from X800 to jeX,200, while the separate loco- 
motives weigh from 4, to 8 tons, and cost from 
,£350 to ^000. With regard to the difference in 
the capital outlay between liorses and steam 
thereis not much, and this will depend mainly on 
local peculiarittes, the respective cost of horses 
and coal and the kind of gradients. It has 
been calculated that every stoppage entails an 
expenditure of fuel that would be equal to half 
a mile of haulage, and it therefore isa considera- 
tion of some moment that certain stations or 
points of stopping should be agreed upon. 
Numerous kinds of car are at present in use. In 
Hamburg and Copenhagen two-storied cars are 
constructed like those on the suburban rail- 
ways of Paris. The cover of the outside seats 
is sometimes made removable, so that they can 
be open in the summer. Awnings are also used 
in hot countries like India, South America, and 
Italy, and in some cases louvre blinds (per- 
siennes) are fitted to the windows. An open form 
of car in summer time might be employed in 
this country with much advantage, such as 
those used in southern climates, where the cars 
are covered by a roof only, with projecting 
eaves, and the seats protected from the sun 
by curtains. In the open cars the seats are 
sometimes placed transversely visi-vis. Even 
the architect might turn his attention to car 

Some useful statistics are given by the 
author, from which we gather a few facts. In 
London a two-horse car, running 70 miles per 
day, usually requires 10 horses, or an average 
of 14 miles of work per day, though 11 horses 
are provided to allow for rests. How often 
this number of horses is provided in the London 
services it would be difficult to say, though they 
are worked often as much as 20 miles per day, 
and even more. The working life of tramway 
horses is put at something less than that of 
omnibus horses or about 31 to 4 years, while 
the General Omnibus Company have, it is 
said, r.aised the working life of the animals 
from 3} to 5 years. The horsing and working 
of two-horse cars in England is put down at 
about 9d. per mile, including charges for 
forage, shoeing, harness, and renewals, and all 
working expenses. A maximum speed of ten 
miles an hour has been tried, and it has been 
found that cars travelling at that speed can be 
stopped within half their own length. We 
have no space to mention other points that are 
alluded to in Mr. Matheson's little book ; but 
to those who are in quest of a handy treatise on 
the subject, giving particulars of what has 
been accomplished, with useful suggestions 
bearing upon the engineering, municipal, and 
financial aspects of the scheme. We are glad 
to be able to recommend the present work. 

• Tramways in To^vn and Country. By Ewing Mathe- 
son, M.I.C.E, London : E. and F, N. Spon, Charing^ros?, 

One of the latest projects for the embellishment 
of the Thames Embankment is a scheme for erect- 
ing thereon a Scotch church, at a cost of .£60,000. 

Messrs. Bart and Bevan were elected on Monday 
week Sheriffs of London and Middlesex for the 
ensuing year. Mr. Burt is a member of the firm of 
Mowlem, Bart, and Freeman, contractors. 

A new schoolroom with class-rooms have been 
erected at the rear of the Wesleyan cbapel at Looe, 
and were openeil on Thursday in last week. They 
were built by Messrs. W. Sbapcott and J. Angear, 
from the plans of Mr. J. Paul, of Plymouth, at a 
cost of .£380. 

A portrait of Mr. W. E. Gladstone, formerly 
student, painted by Mr. G. F. Watts, R.A., has 
been exhibited in the hall of Christ Church, Oxford, 
where it will find a permanent place. It is described 
as a vigorous and truthful likeness. 

Mr. C. J. Neale, architect, has been requested to 
report on the Mechanics* Institute, Mansdeld, and 
to prepare plans for its extension. 

The vestry of Bethnal-green, on the 20th ult., 
adopted plans prepared by their surveyor for the 
erection in that part of the parish churchyard, im- 
mediately opposite the vestry hall, of a mortuary, at 
an estimated cost of i;i,650, exclusive of furoitore 
and vehicles. 


July 5, 1878. 


The Great Tarmouth Town HaU Competition 
Railway Extensions and Impr»vements in and j 


The Chemistry of Building Materials.— VII. 

Hydraulic ConEtmction in America 

Notes from Edinburgh 

Ironwork at the Paris Exhibition 

Tramways in Town and Country 

Our Lithographic Illustrations 

The Popular Dictionary of Architecture 

The Architectural Association' 

! Excursion 

Ground Plans of Norwich and Peterborough Cathedrals 21 

Building Intelligence 22 

Correspondence ^^ 

Intercommunication ^ 

Water Supply and Sanitary Matters 25 

Cor Office Table 25 

Trade News '6 



Our Lithographic Illustrations. 


The site of the proposed buildinff, which we 
illustrate from the drawing now on view at the 
Eoyal Academy, is upon the banks of the 
Thames, and the principal floors of the river 
front are occupied chiefly by private sitting 
rooms, having access to balconies, and shaded 
by verandahs. The lower story will be faced 
in red brick, and the upper portion rough cast 
on brick ; the roofs will be tiled. The materials 
proposed to be employed, and the entire treat- 
ment of the building, are intended to be of the 
plainest and simplest description. The archi- 
tect is Mr. W. H. PoweU. 

next week, when we shall give further illustra- 
tions, we hope to append a few particulars 
respecting its construction. 


This new church, which it is proposed to erect 
at Mottingham, is from the designs of Mr. 
Edward P. C. Clarke, architect, of Serjeants' - 
inn. Our illustration is taken from the draw- 
ing now on view at the Royal Academy. We 
give a plan of the ground floor, which shows a 
cross church having double transepts with choir 
aisles, the south side being used for an organ. 
A rather novel and picturesque feature is made 
of the staircase and bell-turret with the porch 
under. Red brick is intended for the waUing, 
and tiles for the roof. 


These are sketches of the ordinary types of the 
old domestic timber work found so plentifully 
in many of the Norman towns. The house at 
Lisieus encloses three sides of an inner court, 
with an external stair to upper rooms. The 
beams are enriched with well-executed carving. 
That at Caudebec is one of a whole street of„___„ __ _ ___ 

ancient dwellings, few of which, however, I chur"ch increased in wealth. In the 14th, 15th, 
possess any detail other than the mouldjngs ^^^ x6th centuries we find angels, as Pugin 


THE third part of Messrs. Audsley's " Dic- 
tionary of Architecture " is before us, 
and we may say it fuUy sustains the character 
we gave it when the first number was issued. 
Part III. carries us from " Andronitis or 
Andron," to the article " Animal." The term 
" angel," as applied to conventional represen- 
tations in Christian art, is e.xhaustively treated ; 
indeed, Messrs. Audsley, in this branch of 
their encyclopaedic labour are clearly at home. 
The various attributes artists have employed 
are described. One remark is worth quoting : 
"Angels do not appear in the works of art 
which were executed during the first six cen- 
turies of the Church, and previous to the fifth 
century they were, as far as we can learn from 
existing examples, invariably represented 
without the nimbus — that attribute of divinity 
with which they were invested throughout the 
entire range of middle-age art. Tlie nimbi 
given to all the orders of the angelic hierarchy 
are circular in form with their fields either 
plain or covered with numerous radiating lines 
or rays." It is to be noted, however, that, in 
the Italian art of the 13th and 1-lth centuries 
angels are sometimes found without the 
nimbus. The white vesture spoken of by St. 
Matthew and St. John resembling the Classic 
tunica and pallium was generally employed, 
though the vesture became richer as the 

Yorkshire, is to be visited, the headquarters 
being Hull, and under the leadership of Mr. 
James Fowler, of Louth, a pleasant week's 
sketching may be anticipated. The right bank 
of the Humber is rich in a series of cathedral- 
like parochial churches of a bold type of Late 
Decorated and Third Transitional architecture, 
square-built and broad, with massive towers. 
Their details and mouldings are generally 
florid and occasionally vigorous and free, but 
the suggestive characteristics of these churches 
will probably be found in good proportions 
rather than in ornamentation. The sketch 
programme shows that a heavy week's work is 
mapped out. Monday, a carriage day, includes 
visits to Burton, Pidsea, Aldborough Church, 
with its interesting 14th century monuments, 
the fine Perpendicular church of Shirlaugh, 
and that of Swine, built into the remains of St. 
Mary's Priory ; the nave is a Transitional 
Norman structure. Tuesday,arail Journeytothe 
Early English cruciform church at Cottingham , 
and the magnificent minster of Beverley, second 
only to York in the buildings of this county of 
great churches, for grandeur of proportion and 
exquisite detail. Beverley minster must not 
absorb attention to the exclusion of St. Mary's 
— a noble if second-rate edifice — while the North 
Bar, tempo. Edward III., is worthy attention. 
On Wednesday the members will go by car- 
riage to another cruciform church — that of 
Hedon — and thence to Keyingham, Ottering- 
ham, and Patrington — the last named, a 14th 
century building, having octagonal central 
tower and spire. On Thursday the great abbey 
church of Selby, and the partly-ruined collegiate 
church of Howden will repay all the study that 
can be bestowed upon them. The next day is 
to be spent on the Lincolnshire side of the 
water at Barton-on-Humber, Thornton Abbey, 
and Thornton Curtis. Saturday will be passed 
in comparative quiet at headquarters. The 
busy and cramped port of Kingston.upon-HuU 
has attractions of its own in a few ancient 
quaint houses squeezed into oddly-named bye- 
ways, and in Holy Trinity and St. Mary's 
churches, both restored by the late Sir Gilbert 
Scott — the former a capacious cruciform struc- 
ture, with fine pinnacled central tower. 

to the massive beams carrying front. — W. Pen- 

new boarding-house, harrow school. 
This is au addition to one of the master's 
houses, which was lately occupied by the Rev. 
E. Middlemist, and now belongs to the Rev. 
J. A. Cruikshank. The new building contains 
a kitchen, scullery, and other oiBces on the 
ground and first floors. On the second floor is 
a large dining-hall for the boys, which, owing 
to the fall of the ground, is level with the road 
running behind the house, and between it and 
the churchyard. In the third floor are bed- 
rooms and a sick-room, with a nurses' room 
attached for cases of illness not serious enough 
to require removal to the school hospital. 
Rooms are provided on the two upper iloors, 
■which can be used either as studies, for improv- 
ing the boys' accommodation, or for other pur- 
poses. The architect is Mr. T. G. Jackson. I 


In Vol. X. of the Building News, p. 2C9 
(March 27, 1863), we iUustrated the present 
premises of the Prudential Assurance Company 
on Ludgate-hill, which were erected from the 
designs of Mr. R. L. Roumieu. In our descrip- 
tion of that building we gave a few fio'ures 
illustrating the rapid progress of the company 
during the preceding five years; but those 
figures, though respectable enough in them- 
selves, are insignificant compared with the 
sums which represent the present transactions 
of the office. The premises on Ludgate-hiU have 
for some time been inadequate (we are informed 
that no less than 500 clerks are employed by 
the company), and Jlr. Alfred Waterhouse, 
A.R.A., sotue time since, received instructions 
to build the imposing structure now approach- 
ing completion at the corner of Brook-street, 
in Holljorn. The building is a successful 
example of the adaptation of terra cotta, and 


AsTON. — The designs submitted on the 1st of 
last month, in competition for the new public 
offices for Aston Local Board, near Birming- 
ham, have not yet been opened. Mr. Alfred 
Waterhouse, A.R.A., has, however, been ap- 
pointed professional referee, but it is not 
expected that the matter will be gone into till 
the middle of next month, on account of the 
referee's prior engagements. 

Llandudno. — Nineteen designs have been 
received by the Llandudno School Board in 
response to an offered premium of j£10. The 
proposed expenditure, including cost of site, 
is £ifiOO. 

It was reported at the Surrey midsummer quarter 
sessions that the county surveyor had prepared and 
submitted a preliminary pketch of the proposed new 
asylum to be erected on the site lately acqaired at 

observes, vested in copes, chasubles, and dal 
matics, also in apparelled albs and stoles. 
The celestial hierarchy, as classified by Diony- 
sius the Areopagite, is given, also the 
arrangement of St. Gregory and St. Bernard, 
who make the complete hierarchy to consist of 
3 orders. The first include Seraphim, Cherubim, 
Thrones ; the second Dominations, Principali- 
ties, and Powers ; and the third Virtues, 
Archangels, Angels. We find the compilers 
have had recourse to some of the best authori- 
ties on this subject, such as " Manuel d'lcono- 
graphie Chretienne," D'Agencourt's " History 
of Art," Viollet-le-Duc, and to Mr. C. R. 
Cockerell's paper on the fine series of angels 
in the retro-choir of Lincoln Cathedral known 
as the " Angel Choir," published by the 
ArchEEological Institute. Articles on " Angle- 
buttress " and "Angle-column" are perhaps 1 Coulsdon. The sketch has been approved by the 
rather scanty. The Greek practice is not I !'"?»?? Commissioners, subject to slight alteration, 
cT^^l-or, «f .' An„l<._la»f" J^ %„»11 ,-H„»t,.,fo^ ""d 't wi". therefore, be carried _ out. Messrs. 

spoken of. "Angle-leaf" is well illustrated 
from types from Sens, Naumburg, Chartres, 
Rochester, &c. "Anglo-Saxon Architecture" 
is exhaustively treated. In the article "Angular 
Shaft," the different forms of shaft are not so 
distinguished as they might have been, and 
" Willis's Nomenclature " might have been con- 
sulted to advantage. So carefully compiled a 
dictionary should have excellent wood engrav- 
ings. Those given, though accurate in all 
essentials, rather lack spirit and life, and we 
should like to see a little more point given to 


'X'HE ninth annual excursion of the Archi- 
tectural Association is arranged to take 


place during the second week in August (12th 
to 19th). A very attractive district. South-east 

* The Popular Dictionary of Architecture. By W. J. 
and (i. A. Audsley Fellows R.I.B.A, Liverpool : Pub- 
lished by Authors, 

Docura and Son are sinking a well on the site 
under a schedule of prices at 10 per cent, profit 
on outlay. 

The Horsham Local Board accepted, on Friday 
last, the tender of Mr. J. Dickson for the execution 
of drainage works, amounting to d£7,950. 

The heavy work in connection with the great 
central tower of St. Finn Barre's Cathedral, Cork, 
preparatory to raising the tower proper, have just 
iaeen completed in accordance with Mr. Burges'a 
plans. The great arches have been turned, and the 
floor above laid, and a large quantity of wrought 
material is on the ground, so that the massive tower 
will soon rise from the crossing. 

The Midland Counties Art Museum at Notting- 
ham Castle was formally opened on Wednesday by 
the Prince and Princess of Wales. 

The question of increasing the water supply of 
Hull has been reported upon to the Corporation by 
Mr. J. Bateman, C.E., who suggests a plan for ex- 
tending the works at Springhead, which he considers 
could be carried out for i;iiJi.i,(iOU actual outlay. 
The matter is under conBideration by a committee, 
and in the meantime Deacon's waste water detec- 
tors are to be applied to the mains at various points. 

ThF. Bl'lLDINO [^Kws.JuIy S''" ]577>. 

iOriet pianatG 


^ js^ HOLBORN 




Ltto^Mrh»di-hnDt*Hib7 '--I). ,' A>praD.ii. f> ''. 

July 5, 1878. 




rpHE innumerable changes, deetructions, 
-*- and " restorations " in our great 
chiirehes within the last twenty years have 
removed many interesting buildings and 

from Blomofield, Lestrange, and Browne 
Willis, I give the ichnography of two of the 
finest East Anglian cathedrals before many 
of theii* ancient accessories had been swept 

Your crowded pages permit me only to 
draw attention to some of the most saJient 

the sacristy, St. George's, or the Wakering 
chapel, and Heyden's chapel. Above the 
latter was an anchorite's cell with a grated 
window, which commanded a view of the 
high altar. On the north side of the presby- 
tery aisle were other chapels, which are mtn- 
tioned soon after the Reformation in con- 
nection with the sanctuary men's chamber 
built in 1-R)4 upon a vault, and afterwards 
occupied by two chautry priests, and two 
adjoining chapels of St. Andrew and St. 
Anne, the latter called also Bcrni'y's chapel, 
and misplaced on Blomefield's plan. The 
stairs leading to it were fixed to the 
west wall of the Jesus Chapel. At Christ- 
church, Hants, there are two inti'nial turret 
staircases leading to St. Michael's ioft above 
the Lady Chapel. In 1554 the chapels were 
shut off from the cathedral, and with the 
chamber converted into a house. A bridge 
or galleiy still remaining communicated 
with the south presbytery aisle. 

The double chapels at the sides of the 
central apse are of remarkable form. The 
high altar stood in the chord of the apse, 
and behind, according to the basilican 
arrangement, was the bishop's throne, as at 
Canterbury. The choir was continued west- 
ward into the nave, and the stalls occupied 
also the whole space under the tower. 

The bishop's palace was exceptionally ex- 
tensive, and covered a large space of ground. 
Three chapels might be traced within its 

The infirmary stood in the same relative 
position to the refectory and dormitoi-y as 
at Gloucester, and had the peculiarity of 
having only one aisle to the hall. I have 
found one parallel instance in the Cistercian 
Abbey of Buildwas. 

The guest-house occupied the west side 
of the cloister, thus resembling the 
cellarers' hall at Canterbury. The lava- 
tories were in the west wall of the adjoining 
alley, as at Westminster, and in the Austin 
Canons' house at Kirkham. 

The gong held the same position as it did 
in the Cistercian Abbey of Netley and the 
Cluniac Priory of Lewes. 

The parlour corresponded in its site with 
that of Diu-ham. 

The chapter-house exceptionally had a 
three-sided apse, and there was at Durham 
a round eastern end, for with rare exceptions 
(as at Worcesterand Westminster) the Bene- 
dictines built oblong chambers. 

The two gate-houses for the church and 
court have their parallels at Bury St. 
Edmund's, theCathedi-al and St. Augu.stine's, 
Canterbury, and on a smaller scale at 
Gloucester. At Winchester and Rochester 
there were similar arrangements. 

A charnel chapel adjoined the west front 
at Winchester and Worcester, and probably 
the chapel in the Church-court at Peter- 
borough served the same pious use. 




internal featui-es. I avoid any allusion in i peculiarities which present themselves to the 

detail to this " burning question," or vain consideration of the archajologist. 

regret for iiTeparable losses. With the 

assistance of the MS. ground plans by the NORWICH. 

Rev. David J. Stewart, the author of an 1 The east end formerly presented a group 

admirable article on Norwich cloisters, and I of chapels of various dates. On the east 

an exhaustive history of Ely ; with hints 1 side of the transept in the south wing were 

1. Gate Honse. 

2. Buttery. 

3. Kitchea. 

4. Porch. 

5. Hall. 

6. Chapel. 

7. Palace. 

8. Old Chapel. 

9. Entry. 

10. 2n<l Chap'l. 

11. Norman Kntry, 

12. Gardens. 

13. Lady Chapel. 

14. Throne. 

15. High Altar. 

16. Jeans Chapel. 

17. St. Lake's Chapel. 

18. Stairs to Sanctuary 

— Men's Chamber. 

19. St. Andrew's Chapel. 

20. Ceauchamp Chapel. 

21. St. Anne's Chapel. 

22. Heydon's Chapel. 

23. St. Georee's Chapel. 

24. Monks' Choir. 

_„. Rood Loft. 

26. Altar of Our Lady of 


27. Altar of St. Thomas. 

28. Nave. 

29. Sacristy. 

30. Parlour. 

31. Chapter Honse. 
33. Gom,'. 

33. Dormitory (over). 

34. Chapel. 

35. Hall. 

36. Cloister Garth, 

37. Refectory. 

38. Lavatory. 

39. Guest House. 

40. Porch. 

41. Kitchen. 

42. Infirmary. 
4:5. Library. 

44. Precinct Wall. 

45. Chui-nel Chapel. 
40. Church Gate. 
47. Court Gate, 



July 5, 1878. 


I have recently spoken of in the Building 
News. The present is an oulargad and 
much fuller plan. As in the case of Nor- 
wich, many buildings delineated in it have 
of late years been swept away. The day 
probably is not far distant when some 
attempt will be made to revise the screen 
and stall -work, which were highly creditable 
to their designers at the very recent time 
when they were erected, but now urgently 
demand a total reconstruction in the County 
of Fair Churches, and in a church of superb 
dimensions, but with a nave cold and bare, 
and a choir filled with furniture at least 
laggard among its fellows in the work of 
true and necessary restoration on the old 


23. Church Gatebonse. 

1. New Work. 

2. Reredos. 

3. Screens. 

4. Hfeh Altar. 

5. Entry. 

6. Lady Chapel. 

7. Door. 

8. St. James's Chapel. 

9. St. John's Chapel. 
50. St. Oswald's Chapel. 

11. St. Benedict's Chapel. 

12. SS. Kynebnrga and 

Kyneswithas' Cha. 

13. Monks' Choir. 

14. Sacristy. 

15. Choir Screen and 


16. Eood Loft. 

17. Nave. 

18. Entry to Cemetery. 

19. Prior's Gate. 
29. Chnrch Court. 

21. Abbot's Gatehouse. 

22. Chapel. 

24. Processional Door. 

26! Slype'.' 

27. Parlour. 

28. Chapter House. 

29. Porch. 

30. Dormitory (over). 
.31. Cloister Garth. 

32. Lavatories. 

33. Refectory. 

34. Dark Entry. 

35. Gong. 

36. Kitchen. 

37. Abbot's Lodg-e. 

38. Prior's Lodge. 

39. Infirmarer's Hall. 

40. Chapel of St. Law- 


41. Chancel. 

42. Nave. 

43. HiiU. 

44. Infirmary. 

45. Precinct Wall. 

Mackenzie E. C. Walcott. 

The Bristol Master Builders' Association held 
their annual outing and diuner on Tuesday. 

The 24th annual excursion of the Brighton and 
Sussex N.itural History Society took place on Fri- 
day last, and was paid to Chichester, the cathedral 
and museum being visited and inspected. 

Tbe Blackburn Town Council last week accepted 
the tender of Mr. James Whittaker at .£5,896, out 
of 21 received, for the erection of additional muni- 
cipal offices in the market-place. The front eleva- 
tions are to be of stone, with Yorkshire parpoints 
and granite columns, up to first-floor, and above 
tbat of brick with stone dressings. The stjle is 
Gothic. Warming is by open fireplaces, and 
ventilation by Conryn's, and Ching's and Tobin's 
apparatus. The floors will be fireproof on Dennett's 

The Norwich School Board have instructed Mr. 
Brown, their architect, to prepare plans for a board 
school for 900 children, capable of future enlarge- 
ment, to be erected in Crook's-place. 

The parish church of St. Nicholas, Oakley, near 
Eye, Suffolk, has been restored and rebencbed in 
oak, under the superintendence of Mr. J. K. Colling, 

During the past month excavations have been 
made into a camp at Binchejter, a mile to the north 
of Bishop Auckland, with the result of bringing to 
light the ancient vallum of coursed masonry, 5ft. in 
height, pottery and burnt earth, coins, and human 
bones. 'The investigations are being continued. The 
site was known by the Romans as Viuovium. 

A new Roman Catholic church, dedicated to St. 
Joseph, was opened at Wigan oh Sunday. It is 
87ft. by 60ft. 6in., and accommodates 1,000 persins 
at a cost, for erection, of .£7,000. 

The fine fourteenth-century timber porch and 
door at Copford Church, near Colchester, are about 
to be restored under the superintendence of Messrs. 
Ebbetts and Cobb, of Essex-street, Strand, from 
whose designs a new pedestal of Bleu Unis marble, 
with shafts of Sienna marble, has just been placed 
under the Norman font in the church, in place of a 
plain stone column. The wovk to tbe font was 
carried out by Messrs. Cox and Sons, of Southamp- 
ton-street, Strand. 

Extensive business premises, known as London 
Honse in Patrick-street, Cork city, are being rebuilt 
(after destruction by fire) from the plana of Mr. 
W. H. Hill, architect, by Mr Longfield, contractor. 
The foundation stone was laid on Friday last. 

The restoration of Chastleton Church, Oxon, was 
commenced last wet-k. Mr. C. E. Powell, of Rolls 
Chambers, Cbancery-lano, E.C., is the ar,-hitect, and 
Mr. Alfred Groves, of Milton-under-Wychwood, 
Oxon, the contractor. 

iSuilliing $nteUtgtncc> 

East Haddon. — East Haddon parish church, 
the interior of which has undergone restora- 
tion, was recently re-opened. The tower 
arch has been opened, and the interior of the 
tower, together with the pier arches, chancel 
arch, and windows cleaned, so as to expose the 
native stone, while in the south aisle the old 
wooden lintels over the windows have been re- 
placed by stone. The east window has been 
restored, and a new stone arch and jambs have 
been introduced on the inside. It has been 
necessary to add a new organ-chamber on the 
north side of the chancel, the interior of which 
is stuccoed, like the walls of the other parts of 
the building, but the arch is of Bath stone, so 
that it matches the plaster; a yellow local 
stone having been used in the old work, which, 
had it been possible, would have been shown 
in its entirety. The floor has been relaid 
throughout, the old flagstones being used ; but 
in the chancel, which rises a step from the nave, 
it ia tiled, and within the aacrarium a pave- 
ment, with footpace, has been formed with Maw 
and Co. 'a tiles. A new pulpit, in Caen stone, 
has been erected against the north wall of the 
nave, with an arched recess at the back, and the 
church has been re-seated throughout, so that 
it will accommodate about 300 persons. The 
whole of the work has been done by Mr. Eobert 
Toung, builder, of Lincoln, under the superin- 
tendence of Messrs. E. F. Law and Sous, .archi- 
tects, of Northampton. The cost is £1,750. 

Haxbt. — The rebuilding of the parish 
church of Haxby, York, is .approaching com- 
pletion. Mr. Demaine, of York, is the archi- 
tect, and the cost of the work will be £1,900. 
The inside length of the new building is C4ft., 
the nave being 4Gft. x 25ft., and the chancel 
18ft. X 17ft. The style adopted is Early 
Gothic. The outside walling is of stone from 
Rainton, near Thirsk, and the dressings are of 
Whitby stone. The inside walling is faced 
with Darlington white pressed bricks, and there 
are string-courses of red bricks at intervals and 
also above the windows. The height of the 
nave from the floor to the inside apex of the 
roof is 28ft., and that of the chancel is 24ft. At 
the east end of the church is a three-light 
window, to be fllled in with stained glass by 
Mesara. Heaton, Butler, and Bayne. 

Hessle, near Hull. — A new orphan home 
at Hessle, near Hull, will be opened in the 
course of a week or two, which is intended to 
accommodate 25 children, trained and educated 
for domestic service. Tbe buildinfj has been 
erected for James Eeckitt, Esq., of Mentone 
House. The home and cottage adjoining have 
been erected from the designs of Mr. William 
H. Thorp, architect, of St. Andrew's Chambers, 
Park.row, Leeds, and the work of supervision 
has been shared by Mr. W. H. Kitching, of 
Hull. The cost of the entire buildings, which 
are desifrned in the Queen Anne style, has been 
about £2,300, and they are built of white brick 
which has been obtained from the Lincolnshire 
side of the Humber, and stone dressings from 
the Ancaster Quarries. The staircase ia filled 
with stained glass, supplied by Messrs. Powell 
and Co, of Park-place, Leeds. The mason'a 
and bricklayer's work has been carried out by 
the firm of Messrs. Bentley and Burn, of Wood- 
house, Leeds, and the carpenter's and joiner's 
work by Measrs. John Hall, Thorp, and Son, of 
Bowman-lane, Leeds. 

Lofttjs-in-Cleveland. — A building erec- 
ted for the National Provincial Bant Company, 
by the Right Hon. the Earl of Zetland, was 
opened for the transaction of buaineas on the 
15th ult. The premises occupy a commanding 
site in the High.street, to which there is a 
frontage of 35ft. The ground floor contains the 
banking-room, 25ft. x 17ft., with manager's- 
room, strons;.room, and lavatory adjoining. 
The first and second floors contain the necessary 
rooms for a manager's residence. The external 
walls are executed in dressed atonework from 
the quarries of Lord Zetland in the neighbour- 
hood, and the principal woodwork is in pitch- 
pine v.arnished. Every credit is due for the 
efficient manner in which the work has been 
carried out by the various contractors engaged. 
The bank has been designed and carried out 
under the superintendence of Mr. Alfred J. 

Martin, architect, of Darlington, the style 
being that of the Early French Gothic period. 
Messrs. F.armer and Brindley, of London, exe- 
cuted the carving. 

Manchester. — An institution for the adult 
deaf and dumb has been erected in Groavenor. 
street by Messrs. Robert Neill .and Sons, at a 
cost of about d£3,500, from the designs of Mr. 
J. Lowe, F.E.I.B.A., St. Ann's-square, Man- 
chester, which were selected iu competition. 
The principal elevation, fronting Grosvenor- 
street, is faced with Yorkshire stone, and is 
somewhat ornate. The buildincr is designed iu 
the First Pointed style of Gothic architecture, 
and internally is arranged in the basement as a 
gymnasium, and on the ground floor as a 
reading-room, coffee-room, secretary's ofEce, 
class-room, and conveniences. The upper floor 
is devoted to a lecture-hall, with galleried floor ; 
it is octagonal in plan, well lighted from the 
roof, and has a vestry and other requirements. 
The foundation stone was laid by Hugh Birley, 
Esq., M.P., on June 2nd, 1877, and the build- 
ins: was opened on the 8th ult., by the Lord 
Bishop of Manchester. 

Matfield. — The foundation stone of a new 
Free church has been laid at Mayfield, Edin- 
burgh. The edifice is to be in the Early 
English style, simply treated, with some later 
Transitional detail. It is a large building, with 
nave, aisles, clerestory, and transepts. A tower 
and spire form part of the design, to be built 
hereafter. The arr,angement of nave, aisles, 
&c., is peculiar, designed specially to present 
the characteristic features of the old Gothic 
hall, rather than the stereotyped form of the 
mediseval church, and the interior is intended 
to have all the advantages of one undivided 
auditorium. A gallery of moderate depth is 
thrown across the eastern end, over the vesti- 
bule. The seating is raised above passages, and 
will accommodate 850, but 50 additional occa- 
sional sittings are provided in the aisles, and 
the transepts have provisional capacity for 100 
more, making a total of 1,000 sittings. The 
work is to be carried out from the selected com- 
petition plans of Messrs. Hardy and Wight, of 
Edinburgh, and the estimates accepted for the 
whole work, including boundary walls, are 
about £5,200. 

Meteopolitan Boaed of Woeks. — At this 
board on Friday the works committee reported 
that they are considering the whole question of 
the floodings in various parts of the metropoUs 
during the rainf.all on April 10th and 11th last, 
and of storm-water overflows generally. Letters 
were ordered to be addressed to all persons who 
have asked for compensation denying the 
board's liability in respect of such floodings. 
Tenders are to be invited from six selected 
firms for providing additional pumps at Cross- 
ness pumping-station and the Effra and Falcon 
brook storm outlets — the works of fixing at the 
outlets to be executed by Messrs. Mowlem and 
Co. under their contract. Amongst the appli- 
cations granted was one from Messrs. F. and H. 
Francis, asking consent to the erection of pro- 
jecting overhanging bay windows to the Grand 
Hotel, Northumberland-avenue. 

MoELET. — A new Wesleyan chapel is being 
erected at Cross Hall, Morley. The chapel 
will be built of Morley or Finsdale stone. The 
front part of the side walls will be formed 
in regular courses of fine boasted wall stones, 
the rest of the walls being pitch-faced. The 
dressings will also be fine boasted throughout. 
The roof will be covered with Welsh vis- 
countess slates. The chapel will accommodate 
236 adults on the ground floor, and 112 in the 
gallery. The school adjoining will accommo- 
date 150 scholars, thus making accommodation 
for about 500 persons. The total cost will be 
about £1,700, exclusive of land. The architect 
is Mr. George Mallinson, of Dewabury. 

OsBALDWicK. — The parish church of Osbald- 
wick, near Y'ork, has been re-opened after 
restoration from the designs of Mr. J. O. Scott, 
at a cost of £1,400. Mr. Dennison, of York, 
was the contractor. The internal fittings have 
been entirely removed, and the flooring laid 
down in concrete, and then paved with red and 
dark-blue tiles. The outer walls are of solid 
masonry. A new font of Caen stone, plain and 
Norman in character, has been &xed at the ex- 
tremity of the north-west end of the nave. A 
new porch, similar in design to its predecessor. 

July 5, 1878. 



has been erected at the south side of the nave, 
and the new oak doors have ornamental hinges 
and ironwork. On the north side of the chancel 
a new vestry has been built, and it has door- 
ways — one leadinginto thechurch and the other 
into the churchyard. The weat wall of the 
nave has been surmonnted with a bell turret 
extending to a height of 12tt. above the crest- 
ing of the roof, and in this turret is affixed two 

PcTRSTON. — The new church dedicated to St 
Thomas, at Purston, near Pontefract, has just 
been consecrated. The style is 13th century 
Gothic. It consists of nave, side aieles, chan 
eel, organ cliapel, vestry, and porch. The nave 
is 71£t. by 2ilft., making, with the aisles, a total 
width of 51ft. It is lighted by a lofty west win- 
dow of three lancets, surmounted by a circular 
light 12ft. in diameter, also by the side aisle 
and clerestory windows. The arcade on eitlior 
side of the nave is divided into four bays with 
their columns an.l responds. The chancel is 
32ft. long by 23ft. Oin. wide, and on the north 
side are situated the organ, chapel, and vestry. 
The exterior of the church is of pitch-faced 
stones from Bracken-hill Quarries, and the 
dressings and ashlar generally have come from 
the same. The architect wsis Mr. T. Pollard, 
Bradford. The church will accommodate 550 
worshippers. The cost has been over i£U,000. 

Salisbury. — The memorial stones of a new 
Congregational church were laid in Fisherton, 
nearly opposite Salisbury Infirmary, on Wed- 
nesday week. The church is Early Decorated 
Gothic, and is pliinned with nave, aisles, and 
apse. At the south-west angle will be a tower 
and spire rising to a height of about 140ft. ; at 
the north end are ministers' and deacons' 
vestries and organ chamber. The total length 
from apse to porch is 101ft. 6in., and the height 
from floor of nave to ceiling will be 43 ft., and of 
aisles 172ft. The total cost, including site, is 
estimated at d£S,0O0, and sittings will be pro- 
vided for 600 adults on ground floor. The con- 
tract is being carried out by Mrs. Hale and 
Sons, of Salisbury, the foundations having been 
put in by Mr. Tryhorn, of the same city, from 
tne designs and under the superintendence of 
Messrs. Tarring and Wilkinson, of London. 

Sheffield. — New Roman Catholic boys' 
schools, in Surrey-street, Sheffield, were opened 
on Tuesday week. The schools are designed to 
accommodate 400 boys ; they are built of brick, 
with stone dressings, the roofs being covered 
with Broseley tiles. The design has been 
studied by the architects, Messrs. M. E. Had- 
field and Son, on the model of the English 
architecture of the late Perpendicular or Tudor 

St. Lawkence, Essex. — St. Lawrence parish 
church, in the Dengie Hundred, was reopened 
on Wednesday after being entirely rebuilt. 
The former structure had fallen into great 
dilapidation, and tlie ancient chancel had been 
replaced some few years since by an ugly brick 
excrescence. The new church is erected on the 
old lines in the Perpendicular style, and con- 
sists of nave, 45ft. x 21ft. ; chancel, 21ft. x 
17ft.; vestry and north porch. The exterior is 
faced with Kentish rag in random courses, and 
the weatherings and dressings are of Bath 
stone, most of the old material being re-used. 
The roofs are covered with the old tiles and or- 
namental ridge cresting. The nave roof is sur- 
mounted by an Oik octagonal turret, shingled, 
and rising (lOft. from ground to gridiron-vane. 
The nave windows are double light, and the 
chancel single light, the east and west ends 
being glazed in three and four lights respec- 
tively. The roofs are boarded with yellow deal, 
the constructional material being Baltic tim- 
ber and pitch-pine. The chancel seats and 
pulpit are in wainscot ; the nave seats are of 
yellow deal, stained and varnished. The floors 
are laid with Maw's encaustic tiles ; the church 
is warmed by one of Eimington's hot-air stoves. 
The total cost has been .£1,700. Mr. Robert 
Wheeler, of Tunbridge Wells, is the archi- 
tect, and Mr. Stammers, of Southminster, the 

Tewkesbubt. — A new Wesleyan chapel was 
opened here on the 5th ult. by Dr. Pope, 
president of the Conference. The style is 
Gothic, of the 14th century, and the elevation 
consists of a gable containing a five-light 
window of rich design, flanked at the angles by 
octagonal buttresses, on the top of which are 

pinnacles springing from carved string-course. 
The interior is designed to seat 320 on the 
ground floor, with 50 more in a gallery abovo 
the entrance. No side galleries are contem- 
plated. The cost is about i;3.000. Tho archi- 
tect is Mr. Cliarles Bell, of London, and the 
builder, Mr. Collins, of Tewkesbury, by whom 
the partial restoration of the abl>ey, under the 
late Sir Gilbert Scott, has been executed. 

Tewkesbury Abbey. — .^.t a meeting of tho 
restoration committee, held on Friday week, an 
osstimate for the restoration of the porch, and 
lowering the approach from the street, w.aa 
accepted subject to the architect's approval. 
Mr. T. Gambier Parry announced that after 
carefully inspecting the roof of the nave, he 
was of opinion that, owing to the bosses being 
in a mutilated state, it would be better not to 
attempt to restore them. It was decided to 
consult the architect as to whether it would be 
expedient to leave the bosses as at present, and, 
if so, what should be done with the two bays 
already coloured. A suggestion to open the 
Clarence Vault for public inspection was also 
referred to the architect. 

Tonbkidoe Chapel, Euston-koad, W.C. — 
This chapel, one of the largest and oldest in 
that part of London, just been reopened 
after thorough restoration. The works have 
been carried out from the designs, and under 
the immediate superintendence of Mr. Henry 
Hall, architect, of 19, Doughty-street, Meck- 
lenburg-square, W.C. The chapel is of the 
square old Congregational style, and of Classic 
design. The additions and alterations are in 
the same style freely treated. They embrace 
new windows throughout, these being gla/.ed 
with semi-opaque cathedral tinted glass. The 
galleries have been taken down and re-erected 
at a more acute angle. Their fronts and seat- 
ings are all new. The old-fashioned pews in 
the body of the chapel have been removed, and 
the entire area is now reseated with open 
benches of approved modern style. The un- 
sightly great lobby at the west end of the 
building has been cleared away, and smaller 
and more suitable ones substituted. All the 
woodwork throughout is of pitch pine and var- 
nished. An arched recess moulded and carved 
has been sunk behind the pulpit, and the walls 
generally and the ceiling have been painted 
and coloured. The gas fittings are new, and, 
altogether, the building, which, prior to the 
restoration, had fallen into a lamentable state 
of decay, now presents a very creditable 
appearance. The contractor for the whole of 
the works was Mr. Harry Hems, Ecclesiastical 
Art Works, Exeter, the foreman of works 
being Mr. J. T. G. Berridge. About jei,000 has 
been expended. 

TwYFOED. — The parish church of Twyford, 
Hants, has been rebuilt under the direction of 
Mr. A. Waterhouse, A.E.A., at a cost of je7,000. 
It consists of a nave and aisles, chancel, and 
south aisle, with two vestries on the north side 
of the chancel, and a tower and spire rising to 
the height of 110ft. ; and is constructed 
throughout of flint, with red brick bands and 
Bath stone dressings, the roofs and the spire 
being covered with Broseley tiles. The builders 
are Messrs. J. H. and E. Dyer, of Alton. 

Westminster. — The ancient and famous 
church of St. Margaret's, Westminster, was 
opened on Sunday, after complete restoration 
from designs by the late Sir Gilbert Scott. The 
galleries and high pews which blocked it up 
have been swept away ; the space wasted by 
lobbies and passages have been thrown into the 
church ; the organ has been moved from the 
west gallery to the north aisle ; the west 
window has been opened, the tracery of all the 
clerestory windows, and of as many of the 
windows in the aisles as funds permitted, has 
been restored to its original condition from the 
mean tracery by which it had been disfigured. 
The plaster ceiling has been replaced by one of 
solid oak ; a reredos has been erected, and the 
old false apse of lath and plaster has been re- 
moved. 'The church has been repaved with 
tiles. An altar-cloth has been presented by 
Sir Walter and Lady James ; a credence table 
of marble and alabaster by Sir Stafford North- 
cote, M.P. ; and a fine eagle lectern by Mr. T. B. 
Vacher. Painted windows have been presented 
by Miss Wainwright and the family of the 
Messrs. Trollope. 

uiidur fJio uotloo of munuraoiurum, muohnn'c^. Aoiuntlflc workeni. 
Price TwoD^no«, of alt bookii«U«ni and rcws. 
Poat.froo 2itl. Ofllco: 31, TavUtook-street, Covent- 


[We do not hold onrBClvos re^jponsihlo for t!io opinions of 

our corroepondents. Tho Editor resiwctfully requrato 

that a-U communications should bo dniwu up as briety 

a.'' posiiible, as there are many claiinanta upon the space 

allotted to correspondence.] 

AU k'ttorn should be addrosnod to the HDITOR, 31, 

To Our IIeadkus. — We shall feel obliged to any of onr 
readers who will favour ns with brief notas of works 
contemplated or in profrress in the province's. 

Cheques and Po8t.offico Orders to bo made payable to 
J. Passmobe Kdwabds. 


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Drawings Received.— W. L. Vernon.— W. S. W.— J. L. 
H. Benstead.— C. P. E.— J. S. Quilter.— T. SlitcheU.— 
Camm Bros. 

W. P. BncHAN. (There is little good to be derived from a, 
continuation of the controversy. )— A. L. Bradbeeb. 
(The English Mc-hanic and World of Scitnce, 2d., the 
Engineer, 6d., Engineering, 6d., and the Art Jourrml, 
monthly, 2s. 6d.)— Jdstice. (The referee is scarcely 
likely to publish his award seeing that it is marked 
"private." We understand he remarked strongly on 
various defects in the submitted designs.)— R. S. F. 
(Write to B. T. Batsford, 52. High Holbom, W.C.)— 
B. and Co. (The general observations in your letter on 
the fire-proof qualities of concrete have been made long 
ago by ourselves and by other correspondents. "The 
rest is merely an eulogy of your own system which 
could only appear as an advertisement.) 



To the Ediior of the Building News. 

Sib, — A few words by your permission anent 
the designs for the new church of the Oratory 
at Brompton. I faU to agree with your critic 
that they are, taken as a whole, creditable to 
the Renaissance architects of tlie day. 

Many of the designs have very few, if any, 
details in common with the Italian Renaissance 
of the 16th century, the style, I believe, re- 
quired by the conditions of competition— some 
even show Romanesque features. The majority 
seem to me to belong rather to the Classic school 
of Wren, Inigo Jones, and the 17th century 
French. Those modelled on the Certosa and the 
Siennese churches can scarcely be classed as 
Italian Renaissance. Amongst all this eclec- 
ticism one design stands out worthily as a pur© 
Roman church of the best period of Italian art 
— viz., that bearing the motto " In Gloriam S. 
Phillipi." The clever arrangement of the 
chapels, the noble sacristy, correctly arranged 
with altar, &c., and the grand simplicity and 
purity of the general design and detail, call 
forth high commendation. One fails to see why 
the r<<chauffi<eoi St. Paul's, the Lowther Arcade, 
and Newgate, could be preferred to this design. 



July 5, 1878. 

Taking the drawings as a whole they are 
creditable, but they lack, in almost every case, 
that delicacy of line and delineation requisite 
for perfect Classic draughtsmanship. A careful 
study of " Letarouilly's Eome Modeme " would 
vastly benefit many of our showy but indistinct 
draughtsmen. — I am, &e.. 

One who has no Intebest in the 

4th July, 1878. Competition. 




Sib, — Reading your account of this meeting 
in Building News, June 14th, p. 609, I was 
surprised Mr. Boult should have expressed 
himself in his paper in the manner he did as to 
architects being more capable to act as district 
surveyors, under a general buUding Act, than 
surveyors to local authorities. As regards 
depositing plans and beguiling surveyors, and 
as to an architect being appointed for one or 
more districts (here's the rub), and deceiving 
men of more intelligence and honourable 
character, I think Mr. Boult has overshot the 
bolt. I myself have been a surveyor, and a 
surveyor of buildings also, in a large city for 
years, and if Mr. Boult had seen as much of 
architects and their plans as I have, he would 
feel ashamed of the profession to which he 
belongs. He had no reason to think it worth 
the while of a surveyor to use plans improperly, 
no more than an architect would do if he was a 
district surveyor in private practice, as he 
suggests. A surveyor to a local authority is 
not allowed private practice generally. Now, 
which would be uost likely to be honourable, 
does Mr. Boult think ? And why should he pry 
into other architects' plans more than a surveyor 
to a local authority, or monopolise any districts p 
I am glad Mr. Ellice Clark was present and 
spoke out and exposed Mr. Boult's bad reason- 
ing and uncalled-for expressions. It is a well- 
known fact to building surveyors that not one 
out of ten architects send better arranged plans 
than builders and other tradesmen, especially 
as regards internal or domestic arrangements, 
and as for the drawings and colourings lads in 
a school of art are equal to many architects. 
Perhaps it is felt the profession is overcrowded, 
and a new market for their services is aimed 
at — but surely they are not more infallible or 
proof against temptations than surveyors 
generally. I am sorry to speak thus, but if 
any one is capable of carrying out plans 
deposited, or seeing the material and structural 
requirements are correct, building surveyors 
are the men, and now-a-daya they are chiefly 
well educated and respectable, and quite as 
honourable and able in every respect to be 
intrusted with such duties as architects, who 
are found often to be theorists only. There is 
plenty to be learnt in the profession yet, with- 
out thrusting the services of architects into 
collision with these of practical surveyors. It 
is to be hoped the Government will not pass an 
Act to carry out Mr. Boult's ideas at all, and 
in;jure another class of good men and the com- 
munity. I may mention the architect would 
find it profitable to confer with the housekeeper 
before he completes his internal arrangements. 
Here, Mr. Editor, is a new field of employment 
for architects if they require it. They will find 
domestic convenience quite as creditable as 
patched up, elaborately cooked exteriors that 
have no name or order. — I am, &c., 

June 28th, 1878. An Old SuevetuR. 

and are good in colour and first-class weather 

Strong rooms, when lined and ceiled with 
these stones, are as proof against fire as the 
glass furnaces referred to. We ought to thank 
Mr. Jennings for his argument in favour of stone 
staircases. These, when constructed of fine- 
grained sandstone, free from laminse, stand an 
immense heat, and thus afford (as they ought) 
a sure mode of egress in case of fire. Un- 
fortunately, most staircases, when constructed 
of stone, are made of soft limestone, which, in 
the event of fiie, quickly becomes calcined, and 
needs only water from the fireman's hose to 
cause it to fall to powder. 

Laminated sandstones stand a much greater 
heat than limestones, but when hot are apt to 
split upon the hose being turned on them. Not 
so the homogeneous sandstones above referred 
to. These will stand the fiercest heat, and even 
when red-hot will not crumble or fall to pieces 
under the fireman's hose. 

Mr. Jennings is, therefore, quite right when 
he says : " For the protection of life stone is 
the best material for staircases." 

Samuel Tbickett, 


Sib, — In the paper on " Concrete and Fire- 
resisting Construction," read by Arthur Gates, 
Esq., at the General Conference of Archit-ects, 
reference is made to the "Minera" stone used 
by J. Whichcord, Esq., in building the patent 
safe, as " a sandstonepromising satisfactory fire- 
resisting power." 

I wish to add, for the benefit of your readers, 
that " Minera " stone is extensively used with 
success for the lining of glass furnaces at St. 
Helen's and elsewhere, and that it cannot be too 
generally known that many fine-grained homo- 
geneous sandstones produced from quarries in 
Wales, Yorkshire, Newcastle, and Scotland, are 
equally suitable for erecting fireproof buildings. 

Sir, — " Clerk of Works " asks " what rela- 
tion has bad brickwork, honeycomb walls, &c., 
to strikes ?" This. The men are acting on 
union system, and will, I believe, rather strike 
than improve their method. I have found that 
men prefer dismissal from a job rather than 
improve in mode. In answer to the second 
query as to how the subject affects clerks of 
works, I say this, that if clerks of works had 
done their duty this atrociously bad style of 
work complained of never could have become 
general. I hope architects will see for them- 
selves, and .act decisively. There are some 
ood English workmen, no doubt, in the service 
of old firms of high standing, masters and 
men holding together ; but the striking men 
are a strikingly bad lot, selfish, greedy, and 
grudging, whose whole soul is in the base en- 
deavour to get as much as they can in wages 
and to do as little as they can in work. Sys- 
tematic idlers, lazy on principle, I hope they 
see themselves as depicted in the pages of Fun. 
There the " British workman " is done to a 
nicety. — I am, &c., M. 


SiK, — Haviner pernsed the list of tenders published 
in your valuable journal of Jnne 21 I was las, doubt, 
less, many others were) struck with the disparity in 
the builder's estimates for new schools in Oxford- 
street for the School Board for Plymouth, compared 
with the architect's estimate of the work. 

The highest tender amounted to ^£7,130, and the 
lowest to ^6,120 ; there were also eicrht other ten- 
ders, varying from .£7,100 to .£6,248 16s. ; the lowest 
of all was considered too hierh, the architect having 
estimated the work at .£3,700. 

Now, as a coBstant reader of your journal, I should 
be very pleased to see some light thrown on this 
apparent discrepancy, and in this request I feel I am 
expressing the wishes of many. — I am, &c., J. S. 

Jnne 26th, 1878. 

SiK, — Will yon allow me to make one correction 
with regard to the information which was published 
last week as to the pupilage of the late C. J. 
Matthews f He was articled to and served his 
time with Augustus Pugin the elder, and not with 
John Pugin, as stated. It may be interesting to add 
that some plates illustrating St. Paul's Cathedral, 
signed by C. J. Matthews, were pnbUshed in Britton 
and Le Keux's *' Churches of London," Vol. I. 
Charles Matthews was district surveyor for Poplar 
and Bow for some time. — I am, &c.. 

An Old Tee Square. 

The weathercock on the spire of Holy Trinity 
Church, Hurstpierpoint, which is 135ft. in height, 
was repaired on Saturday week by a man named 
Bishop, who climbed the last 55ft. by clinging to 
the beading of the spire with hands and toes. 

Cardinal Manning has opened at St. Alban's the 
Church of SS. Alban and Stephen, built from the 
designs of Mr. NichoU. The building as opened is 
the first portion of a scheme, the carrying out of 
which will involve an outLay of ^£13,000. 

Wellington-square Baptist Chapel, Hastings, was 
re-opened on Sunday week, after alterations, caiTied 
out from the plans of Mr. Elworth, of the same 
town, at a cost, including re-painting and plastering, 
of .£750. 



[5428.]— Granite Setts or Pitchings.— Can any 
of your numerous readers say if there is any reliable 
information to be obtained as to the quantity of 
pranite setts or pitching used in London annually r — 

[5429.] — Lewes — Drawings from Measure- 
ment. — I inteed spending a abort holiday at Lewes, 
and should feel obliged for information as to the 
most suitable buildings in or about that town from 
which to take measured drawings. — Northern 

[5430.]— Heat Through 'Walls.— One Bide of a 
new house that I have built joins up to a bakehouse, 
and although a space of Sin. is left between the new 
building and where the oven stands in the adjoining 
property, the heat from the oven comes through very 
much, and renders the house almost unbearably hot, 
I shall be glad to know what would bo the best coursa 
to adopt to remedy the defect.— G. E. 

[5i31.]— Keeping Down a Spring ofWater.— 
A chamber has been built under the ground, in which 
the water rises to a maximum level of about 4ft. 6in. 
above the intended floor line. Circumstances render 
draining undesirable. What kind of floor is abso- 
lutely safe to prevent water lifting it ? Is there any- 
thing better than a bed of clav or concrete and a 
layer of asphalte ? The size of floor is about 12ft. x 
9ft.— Perplexed. 

[5432.]— Broach Spire.— Will any of your readers 
kindly inform me how the term " broach spire " was 
first originated, and why it was called so ?— C C. S., 

[5433.]— Professional Charges.— On page 690 I 
notice some very useful information given to " Pro- 
vincial Architect " respecting " professional charges." 
Will you kindly siipplement and complete the in- 
formation there given by informing your readers if 
the 2^ per cent, chargeable for general design and 
contract drawings includes tracings made for local 
board ; also if the U per cent, for preparing quanti- 
ties includes supplying same to contractors, or if the 
sum of i per cent, for examining tenders includes 
supplying contractors with quantities ? — C. J. 
Smith, Architect. 


[5409.1 — Fixing Columns. — In answer to 
'* F. J. C.'s " question 1 send the following sketcb. 
He will see that the heads and feet of columns are 
not fixed on to girder, but that the girders rest upon 


strong brackets cast on to columns. The colamns 
are jointed together between floor and girder, as 
shown in sketch, thus making one continuous shaft 
from top to bottom, and each set of brackets receiv- 
ing the weight of one floor only. — R. J, 

[5421.] — Ventilation.— Ah air trunk placed be- 
tween the timbers, and led into flue, would draw off 
the vitiated air. For a room of the size mentioned, 
channels for the admission of fresh air are neces- 
sary, and should be made in the floor, with inlets 
made either in the lower part of walls or along the 
floor.— G. H. G. 

[5422;]— Pulpit in Exeter Cathedral.— This 
pulpit is a memorial one to the martyred Bishop 
Patteson, who was closely connected with Exeter. 
The stone of which it is composed is yellow Mans- 
field. It was de.^igned by the late Sir G. Gilbert 
Scott, R.A., made by Mr- E. L. Luscombe, and 
carved byiMessrs. Farmer and Brindley. Everyone 
is acquainted with some or other of the many beauti- 
ful carvings Sir Gilbert's favourite pupil, Mr. Wil- 
liam Brindley, has produced ; but of these there are 
none more successful, perhaps, than are those upoa 
this charming pulpit. Mr. Brindley has risen to his 
present high position entirely by his own merit. He 
has overcome the greatest possible difficulties with 
an energy and perseverance seldom equalled, and 
rarely excelled, and the merit for this clever work, 
as well as of much else, is entirely hia own. — 
Harry Hems. 

[5423.]— Oak Floors. — " Provincial " might mix 
sawdust and hot glue, and brush over the open 
joints. Of course the sawdust must be very fiiie. 
— G. 

July 5, 1878. 



The dirpctora of tbo London and North Western 
Eailway Company have accepterl the tender of Jlessrs. 
Baker and Firhank, of Dewslmry, for widening that 
portion of theLivf.rpool and Manchester line between 
Barton Moss and Cross-lane stations, a length of 
abont 51 miles. 

The Ilkeston Local Board recently received no 
fewer thiin 1 10 tenders for the supply of materials 
or labour for the proposed new auxiliary waterworks. 
These w-re referred to Mr. Fearn, C.E., of Chester- 
field, their engineer, and, in accord.inee with his 
advice, tenders have been accepted in most of the 
sections. The works are to be commenced forthwith, 
and will be completed, it is expected, at the close of 
the year. 


Halifax. — A picnic has been held by the Mayor 
of Halifax and friends, at Widiop reservoir, at tbo 
head of the Hebdeti Vnlley, to celehrate the com- 
pletion of thfl undertakin*r The valley is shut in 
by high hills, and an embankment has been thrown 
across the lowest part, 270 yards lone and 77ft. at 
its greatest heiplit ; it contains li.^.OOO cubic yards 
of earthwork, :iO,OliO of puddle, I!, .WO of concrete, 
7,100 of stona pitchin<?, and 2,000 of soil. The 
drainage area thus enclosed is 2,223 acres, with a 
water area of 92 acres, and a capacity of storage of 
65.1,000 gallons. The conduit bringing the water 
from "Widdop to Castle Carr is partly iron piping (for 
crossing valleys) and partly by tunnel. The latter 
works are executfd in concrete, and measure 2ft. l>ln. 
bv 3ft Gin. The large siphon across the Crimsworth 
Valley is 913 yards in extent, and the chief tunnel 
is 2,.i05 yards long. The main conduit coat £26,602, 
■Wadsworth to Midgley Moors and Shore End Wood 
and the CasMe C-irr siphon i;i,900, and tunnels at 
Castle CarrX3l,23?. The total cost of the Widdop 
scheme, which ba^ been in course of execution since 
1871. has been XllS.SOO. The works were designed 
by Mr. J. Bnteman, C E., and have been carried 
out under the superintendence of Mr. J. A. Paskin, 
C.E., of Halifax. 

Wall^vsea. — At a special meeting of the Wallasea 
Local Board, held on the 2 tth ult., the alleged defects 
in the sewers, now being constructed in the village, 
were the suhiect of animated proceedings. A 
report by Mr. Kdward Pritchard, C.E., was read, in 
which the works were stated to be inadequate for the 
purpose, and not in accordance with the plans and 
specifications of the surveyor (Jlr. James T. Lea). 
Had the works bnen carried out as originally designed 
they would have been sufficient, but the concrete 
foundations in faulty ground, and the construction 
of manholes, had been omitted, and in consequence 
of the treacherous nature of the quicksand, the for- 
mer omission might become a danger to the roads 
and buildings which might be undermined. A letter 
was read from Mr. Lea, stating that the alterations 
were made in the interests of economy, but it having 
been stated that the alterations would cost dfilO.OOO, 
a resolution was passed expressing the "opinion that 
the course taken by the surveyor in ordering verbally 
deviations and omissions from the works as specified, 
without asking the consent of this committee, calls 
formost severe censure," and recording extreme dis- 
satisfaction with the manner in which the work has 
been superintended by the surveyor. It was also 
decided that the works be taken out of his hands, 
and that Mr. Pritchard be requested to complete the 
examination and to superintend the completion of the 
works, as nearly as possible in accordance with the 
plans and specifications approved by the local autho- 
rity and by the Local Government Board. 

Leeiis — The Hook memorial at the Leeds parish 
church was unveiled on Saturday. The memorial 
1 consists of a recumbent figure in white marble, 
I representing the Deau in his ecclesiastical vr-st- 
1 meats, and has been executed by Mr. AV. Day Key- 
I worth, juu., sculptor, of Buckingham Piilace-road, 
I London. The figure rests upon a Gothic alabaster 
tomb, which has been executed by Mr. Anthony 
Welsh, Woodhonse-lane, Leeds, from drawings 
furnished by the late Sir Gilbert Scott shortly 
before his own death. The total oost of the memorial 
is neorly £1,000. 


WiRKSWOUTu Chuucu. — Two windows have been 
placed in the Gell Chapel as memorials to some mem- 
bers of the Geil family. The east window contains 
the subj-'ct of the " Resurrection," and the 
"Agony in the Garden" as a base. The north 
window, '* The Raising of Jairus* daughter," and 
" Setting a little child in the midst by the Lord, 
teaching a lesson of humility." They were executed 
by Camm Bros., 41, Frederick-street, Birmingham. 

The new Wesleyan Church at Alexandria, N.B., 
was opened on Sunday last. Accommodation is 
provided for 230, and the entire structure will cost 
about .£1,350. It was erected from designs, and 
under the superintendence, of Mr. Malcolm Stark, 
jnn., architect, Glasgow. 

The following grants, in aid of church restoration, 
were voted at the Ely Diocesan Conference last 
week ; — Walsham-le- Willows, Wuterbeach, Tharn- 
ing, and Houghton Regis, each £^0 ; Wicken, 
Snailwell, Sidiam, andSwaffham (Cams.), each £30; 
Felsham and Wattisfield, £25 each ; Ely, St. Mary, 
Hopton, Horseheath, and Landbeach, £20 each ; 
.and Shudy Camns, £15. For a new church at 
Guyhirn, near Wisbech, £25 ; enlargement of St. 
Barnabas, Cambridge, £100; and mission chapel, 
St. Paul. Bedford, £20 were voted ; and grants were 
also made towards vicarage houses at Luton, St. 
Matthew, and Upwood-cum-Kaveley Magna, and 
rectory at Coates. A resolution was passed declar- 
ing it advisable that a diocesan architect be ap- 

It is proposed to make some alterations to the 
parish church of Llanfairisgar, near Carnarvon. 
They will be carried out from the designs of Messrs. 
Pugin, Ashlin, and Pugin, of Westminster. 

A new cloister has just been commenced at St. 
Benedict's Monastery, Fort Augustus, N.B. The 
style is thirteenth century. Messrs. Pugin, Ashlin, 
and Pugin, of Westminster, are the architects. 

A new Wesleyan chapel has been opened at 
Wroughton, Wilts. The style is Gothic, and the 
building, which is of red brick, with bands of white 
and black bricks and Bath stone dressings, will seat 
240 persons. The architect is Mr. Orlando Baker, 
of New Swindon, and the builder Mr. Geo. Wilt- 
shire, of the same place ; the cost is £700. 

The new winter gardens and pavilion at Black- 
pool, Lancashire, which have been erected at an 
expense of £100,000, are to be opened by the Lord 
Mayor and Sheriffs of London on Thursday next, 
the 11th inst. 

The Felstead and Rayne School Board have 
adopted plans prepared by Mr. Charles Pertwee, of 
Chelmsford, for a school to be erected near the 
Watch-house, Felstead, and another near the Rayne 
railway station ; and these having been approved by 
the Education Department, tenders are wanted at 

(Dur ©fficc EMt 

The following are the awards in the Archi- 
tectural Department of University College, 
London ;— Prof . T. Hnj ter Lewis, F!e.I.B.A.— 
Fine Art, Senior Class: Donaldson Silver 
Medal, F. D. Tophani, of London. Certificates, 
2. E. K. Hewitt, of London ; 3. A. G. Morton, 
of London. — Junior Class : Prize, K. E. Smith, 
of Forest-hill. — Construction, Senior Class: 
Prize, V. D. Topham, of London. Certificate, 
2. K. H. Willis, of London. — Junior Class: 
Prize, W. W. K. Clarke, of London. Certifi- 
cates, 2. W. Grellier, of London ; 3. A. (i. 
Morton, of London ; 4. A. J. Gale, of London ; 
5. J. D. Butler, of London. 

Mb. H. Faija, whose paper on " Portland 
Cement" we published three years since, has 
established a Portland cement testing room 
and laboratory at 4, Great Queen-street, West- 
minster. Ho has made arrangements which 
will enable him to carry out, in an efficient and 
thoroughly reliable manner, all such tests as 
are usually required by engineers and archi- 
tects, and also to make such analysis of raw 
materials as are often necessary for manu- 
facturing purposes. All tests and analyses are 
carried out under his personal supervision, and 
with each test or analysis Mr. F.aija gives a 
guarantee that the results arrived at are in 
every respect the true ones. Each test, except 
when especially required otherwise, will consist 
of tests for weight, fineness, tensile strength, 
exp.insion, and contraction. The fee for such 
a test is two guineas, and other tests and 
analysis will be carried out at a proportionate 

Mr. Artuur Wallis Colling, the clerk of 
the works at the New Law Courts, under Mr. 
G. E. Street, E.A., died on the 24th of June 
last, after a short illness, in the Olst year of 
his age, having held the office for eight years 
and a half. Mr. A. W. Colling, who was the 
brother of Mr. James K. Colling, commenced 
his career many years ago as a clerk of works 
for several buildings under the late Sir G. 
Gilbert Scott, when that gentleman was in 
partnership with Mr. Moffatt. He afterwards 
was for several years in the employ of Messrs. 
Peto and Betts, and carried out for them, 
having the sole management, very extensive 
building works on the Great Eastern Rail- 
way, as weU as, subsequently, others of a character on the loop-line through Lin- 
colnshire of the Great Northern Railway. 
Having left their service at the termination of 
these works, he became engaged under the late 
Mr. William Burn, the architect, and re- 
mained in his service until that gentleman 
died. Among many other works which he 
superintended while under Mr. Bum, were some 
very important alterations and additions to 
Holkham Hall, for the Earl of Leicester, and 
the erection of Montagu House, Whitehall, for 
the Duke of Buccleuch. At the termination of 
this large and somewhat difficult work, he 
passed into the service of Mr. Street, who en- 






p. E. CHAPPUIS, Patentee. Factory, 69. Fleet-street, London., E.G. 



July 5, 1878. 

gaged liim as his principal clerk of the works 
for the New Law Courts, where, had he lived, 
he doubtless would have reuiained until their 

A THKEE-STOBiED house is reported to have 
fallen at Baltimore, burjina: eight men, killing 
the master bricklayer, and injuring, all the 
others. The cause in this case is not far to 
seek. It appears, from our American contem- 
porary, the house was exposed on one side, and 
that a 45in. party wall was built the whole 
height. This wall was not stayed by any 
means, we are informed, and the bare weight 
of the i3oor and roof, which latter was being 
put on, caused the accident. We only point to 
the case to show what foolhardiness there 
exists in large building communities. The 
American Institute of Architects have been 
trying hard to pass building enactments, but 
have been defeated by the opposition of 
builders, and we are informed it is not uncom- 
mon to build walls of 3 or 4 stories in this reck- 
less manner. In Indiana, too, a wood an i iron 
bridge of a new pattern has fallen, built about 
nine years ago. 


On Sntiirtlay the grounds of the Pottprnewton 
Recreation Club, which are situated in RegiDaM- 
terraCR, Chapeltown-road, Leeds, were formally 
opened. They comprise a tennis and croquet la,vn, 
bowling gi'een, archery ground, and playground for 
children, in .addition to promenades and shrubberies. 
It is intended to erect a club, and the plans of Mr 
Charles Fowler, architect, have beeu accepted. This 
building will comprise a reading-room, saioke-room, 
billiard-room, ladies'-room, and assembly-room, &c. 
The cost of both ground and club will probably 
reach between .£5,000 and .£6,000. The club will ba 
built in the Swiss style. 

The foundation stone of the new church of St. 
Philip, Rifle Butts-row, Mill-road, Cambridge, was 
laid on Thursday, the 27th ult. The church is to be 
built of wood, brick, and stone, with plain tiles, and 
will be fitted with open benches. The dimensions 
are 50ft. by lOtt. in width, and 20ft. to roof top 
apes. In front will be a porch. Mr. Pate, of Cam- 
bridge, is the builder. 

Foundation stones have been laid of a Welsh 
Congregational shapel at Llandiloes. The contract 
has been taken at ^1,5.50, and the chapel will be 
Grecian in style, and will seat 455 persons- 

The Trinity Board have decided to build the new 
Eddyatone Lighthouse not under contract. The 
estimate of the boird's engineer was 490.000. 
There were three tenders, that of Mr- Pethick, of 
Plymouth, the lowest, being .£105,000- 

We might have stated last week, in our descrip- 
tion of Stonyhurst College, that all the flat roof is 
covered with asphalte from the Pvrimont deposit, 
now called, as in 1838, Claridge's, for the better 
securing the use of such p.irticular asphalte. The 
word "Seyssel " ia now occasionally given to any 
make of bituminous mastic. The roof referred to 
contains close upon 50,000ft. superficial. 

Schemes for drainage and water supply of Polruan, 
Cornwall, are in course of preparation by Mr. E. 
Appleton, ot Torquay, from whose designs water- 
works have jubt been completed at West Looe. 

West Hackney Church is about to be renovated 
and decorated in accordance with the plans of Mr. 

The departure from Warwickshire of Mr. J. Tom 
Burgfss, F S A., who has been for thirteen years the 
editor of the Leaminrifon Spa Courier, to take up 
a similar position on Berrmv's Worcester Journal, 
was marked, on the 24th ult.. by the presentation, 
on behalf ot the leading clergy and geutry, as well 
as of those known in the antiquarian, arcbaiological, 
and literary world, as a token of remembrance and 
respect, of a purse containing d£150, and a handsome 
gold watch and chain. In the evening the literary 
staff of the Leamington Courier and a few friends 
entertained Mr. Burgess at a farewell dinner. In 
the course of the proceedings, Mr. Barter White, who 
had been d with Mr. Burgess for the pa<t 
twelve years, presented him with an illuminated 
address and a valuable pocket aneroid barometer. 
Mr. Burgess was also presenle-i with a silver-gilt 
inkstand, and some valuable books and drawings. 

The re-opening of the nave of the parish church 
of Havant took place on Tuesday week. The nave 
was originally built ia 1831, and its restoration has 
been a part of an almost entire reconstruction of the 
fine building, at a total cost of .£1,500, under the 
superintendence of Mr. Abler, the agent of the con- 
;raotors, Messrs. Hale and Son, builders, of Salis- 

Friday next is fixed for the reopening of the 
chancel of Ashbourne Church, Derbyshire. It is now 
two years since the work of restoration commenced. 
The work baa been carried out by Mr. Collins, of 
Tewkesbury, under the direction of the late Sir G. 
Gilbert Scott, E A. 

A new club has been erected at North Shields by 
Mr. Robert Bolton, iiin., from designs by Mr. Henry 
Miller, architect. The building is of brick, with bay 
windows and dressings of stone. Ihe coat, including 
the land, ia about ^£3,500. 

The Cotswold Field Cbib visited the Forest of 
Dean on the 25*h ult., when they inspected the 
church of St. Briavels. an edifice restored in 1830, 
but still containing Norman pifrs and arcade on 
south side a'^d some Early English work, and the 
ruins of St. Briavel^se Castle, among thera noting 
the numerous portcullises and the rudely sculptured 
and very early chimney-piece. 

The foundation stones of a new Baptist chapel 
were laid in Ootavius-street, Donglas-street, Dept- 
ford, on Tuesday week. The chapel will be of red 
and white brick, with Bath stone dressings, and will 
seat, with gallery on three sides, about 500 peraona- 
Mr. C. J. Porter, of New Cross-road, is thearchi- 
tect, and Mr. J. Morter, of Stratford, Essex, the 
builder. The contract price for erection is .£2,605. 

The judges in Queen's Bench regard the question 
whether the Rev. F. G. Lee, D D., the vicar, is the 
owner of the church of All Saints, Lambeth, and 
therefore liable for the repairs recently executed to 
the tower and spire, as too doubtful to be decided in 
connection with the rule nisi that had been obtained 
by the Metropolitan Board of Works; 

The East Cowes Local Board of Health resolved 
last week to adopt plans and a scheme for draining 
and sewering the new district known as the Park 
Estate, prepared by Mr. G. Wheeler, and estimated 
to cost .£4,700 ia execution. Application has been 
made to the Local Government Board for a loan ot 
d£5,000 to carry out the work. 

The School Board for Newport, Mou.,on Friday 
last, again corsiJered the plans sent in competition 
for new schools, and decided to adopt the amended 
ones by Mr. Fawckner. 

The guardians of the City of London have accepted 
a tender for .£6,109 for building porter's lodge, &c., 
at Homerton workhouse; the estimated cost was 


(Patented in England, France, and Germany), 

Effect a Great Saving in Clmrginri and Dischargii 
50 per cent, of Fuel. 

I <ml 

€xm Btks. 

Glasgow. — The Glasgow glaziers came out oa 
strike on Saturday against the proposed rednctioa 
of their wages from 7^d. to 7d. per hour. 

Runcorn.— On May 1st the joiners of RuncoBt 
struck work for an advance of wages from 33s. 6d, 
to 363. per week, and 53.V instead of 55:^ hours per 
week. A general meeting of the men was held last 
week, and they decided to go in on the old ternu, 
so that the strike has now terminated. 

Ehos Slate Qctarrier.— Mr. Parry, arbitrator 
in the strike at the Rhoa Slate Qu.arries, which has 
continued for five weeks, has decided adversely to the 
men, who have accepted the decision. 


These SLATES t 

B stout, and made la 

HoUoway's Ointment is not only fitted fat 

healine -=ores, wounds, and jv.UevlnK external ailment^;, but riibbid 
up^n the abdomen it acts as a derivative, and thus ciispliiys thb 
utmost salutary influence over storaachic disrrderp, derange- 
'"' ■■ irregularity of the bowels, and other iut*;stii» 

iacoaveuieuces which i 

,q'8 comfort. 


Barnet. — For alterations and additions to house and 
stables and a gardener's cottagre at Barnet, Herts, Cgr 
F. A. Bevan, Esq. Mr, John Usher, architect, Bedford; 

Foster, S X'5,7(X) 

Twelvetrees, E 5.(360 

Ashby and Horner 5. +52 

Edy, T 5,306 

Wood, F. and F. J. (accepted) 5,287 

BiDWAS. — For the erection of schools at Bid was for 4b 
Governors of Aldworth Charity. Mr. J. J. Evans, M 
Treorky, arohitect : — T 

Jenkins, J. T., of Treforest (accepted) ...£1,930 
Blackburn. — For the erection of additional municMB 
offices in the mai'ket-plaej for the Blu^kburn Tofi 
Council : — I 

Whittaker, Jas. (accepted) £5,896 

[21 tenders were sent in.J 

BiSHOPSGATE. — For the pullinfj down and rcbnildin^of 

No. 33, Norton Foliate. BishopsL'ate, E., for Wm. liarker, 

Esq. Mr. J. H. Rowley, ardntect, No. 13, Walbrook. 

E.C. ; quantities supplied by Mr. Wm. Allport: — 

Downea £1,683 

Bellam and Co 1,628 

Scrivener and Co 1,598 

Garrard 1.583 

BoTce 1,5^9 

Johnston 1,470 ' 

Smith and Son 1,464 

Wagner 1,396 

Johnson 1,373 t 

Marr (accepted) 1,256 | 

Camefrwell, S.E.— For brick and pipe sewers toB»'| 
laid in Melbourne-grove, for the Vestry of CamberweU^ 

Denyer, D. (accepted) £725 ju 

Camberwell, S.E.— For brick and pipe sewera ^ 
Colleffe-road, for the Camberwell Ye.-^try : — 

Pearson, Mrs. Caroline (accepted) £187 




Now largely used. 



Made in same Material to any Patterns or Designs. 

The Cheapest and Host Durable Paving 
now in use. 




For resisting DAMP, 


Made from this Material. 


Through the widespread reputation which these goods have gained, many makers have been induced to send into the London and other markets aporioii 
imitations, which are only COIiOUJRED by a chemical process, and will not bear any comparison for strength, durability, otc, with the genoioe article. 
Gold and Silver Medals Awarded at Paris and Brussels Exhibitions. 


July 12, 1878. 






COMPETITION estimates arc a source 
of constant perplexity both to the 
public and to architects ; and the profession 
have almost a proverbial reputation for 
exceeding their estimates. Recently two 
competitions of importance reviewed in our 
pages have given rise to some remarks upon 
this point. In one case — that of the church 
for the Oratory at Brompton — the instruc- 
tions issued to architects left them per- 
fectly free as regards cost, with the result 
that the design selected has been chosen 
from among the most costly, and that some 
of the competitors are dissatisfied with the 
decision. In the second instance — that of 
the Town Hall for Great Yarmouth— the 
stipulation as to cost is to be strictly 
adhered to — at least, if we are to give credit 
to the expressed intentions of the Town 
Coimcil. Now, there is either fairness or 
unfairness in either of these conditions. If 
the cost is to be disregarded, the competi- 
tors should certainly have been informed of 
the intention before the preparation of their 
designs; for to ignore the element of cost 
altogether is obviously to place many upon 
an unequal footing. It seems time that 
some rule were agreed upon to make so 
fundamental a condition compulsory, or to 
abandon the restriction as to cost alto- 
gether. The present lax mode of conducting 
competitions, and the constant trouble and 
dissatisfaction they give rise to, spring 
mainly from ignoring this crucial test of 
the value of a design. It may be argued 
that competitors themselves are so careless 
in making competition estimates that little 
reliance can be placed upon them, and that 
the only means of judging of the cost of a 
design is by comparing it with those of 
other authors. This is very true ; but 
architects have been taught to disregard 
correct estimates by the very unsatisfac- 
toi-y decisions generally made. They have 
come to estimate their chances solely 
by architectural display, by favouritism — 
which they know will always have the 
greatest weight by division of votes — or 
by the other loose modes of decision com- 
mittees and individuals invariably adopt. 
It is not surprising, therefore, to find this 
careless disregard for estimates growing ; 
but the most unfortunate circumstance 
about it is that the system holds out a 
premium to the unscrupulous, and operates 
to the disadvantage of those who have con- 
scientiously kept the question of cost in 
view, while the employers, on the other 
hand, find out when too late that they have 
committed themselves to a design that will 
cost more than their funds permit. 

There may be something to urge against 
the cost condition. It may be thought to mis- 
lead the public on the one hand, or to fetter 
the architect on the other; but how, -we 
ask, can any competition be fair that does 
not stipulate cost as one of the plainly- 
recognised tests of merit ? In the Brompton 
Oratory competition several creditable pro- 
ductions have been eclipsed and set aside 
by the greater pretensions of others ; and 
the same -will happen if the Corporation of 
Great Yarmouth do not carefully keep in 
Tiew the limit they have set out with. It 
is very tru'? that an architect's estimate 
occasionally misleads ; Ijut the framers of 
competitions have the matter in their own 
hands, if they cared to exercise due caution. 
A simple clause to the effect that the cost 
shall not exceed a certain sum, or a certain 
percentage of it, is not a guarantee, unless 
the committee appoint a siu-veyor to esti- 
mate the quantities of the several designs. 

Our experience of competitions has shown 
the unreliability of placing much confidence 
in cubed estimates — the only process usually 
adopteil by competitors — as the design is 
almost invariably made and finished before 
the cubical measurement is thought of, and 
with what consequence we need hardly say : 
the cubing is made to fit the design — not 
the design the cost. The elasticity of com- 
petition cubing is amazing. The competitor 
may relieve his conscience by omitting his 
roof or basement, his tower, &c., from the 
measurements, or, if the cubic contents are 
fairly worked out, the difference can almost 
as easily be adjusted by estimating at 2d. 
or 3d. per foot less. When we find mem- 
bers of the profession coolly informing their 
employers that they have estimated their 
building at 6d. or 6hi. per foot, wo may 
well smile at the very facife and compliant 
figures of competing architects. As this 
method of estimating, however, is not likely 
to be abandoned by competitors, we may 
suggest a mode of dealing with it that 
would obviate the inconveniences and ano- 
malies we have referred to. Let every 
architect be required to give the area or 
cubic capacity of his design in a scheduled 
form, instead of the cost merely. By this 
means every design could be relatively 
estimated by the surveyor or referee. If a 
blunder iu stating the capacity occurred, it 
should be held to be an inf ringemfut of the 
terms of competition. In the Yarmouth 
competition an area of 11,000 square feet 
was given as the site. Few of the com- 
petitors have kept their buildings much 
within this area. But, taking it as a basis, 
the committee may approximately estimate 
the contents of the various designs by 
simply comparing their third dimension — 
the height— when they must inevitably 
reject more than one very lofty elevation as 
excessive in cost. Although a second floor 
in this instance was required for the hall- 
keeper's residence, kitchen, and offices, 
the accommodation has been most suc- 
cessfully met in many designs by keep- 
ing the main building down to two prin- 
cipal stories or orders, and obtaining 
the third story by dormers over some 
portion of the official departments. By this 
plan the height of the building, and conse- 
quently its cost, is reduced. Calculating 
14.000 square feet as the area, and taking 
a fair height — say, 55 or 60 feet — we obtain 
a cubical measurement that, if worked out 
at lOd. per foot, which we consider the very 
lowest figure possible for buildings of this 
class, will rather exceed the proposed out- 
lay than fall within it. Our examination of 
the designs clearly shows that many of 
them could not be carried out for this sum — 
for some of them, indeed, 14d. per foot would 
not be too high an estimate. What we con- 
tend for here is that some criterion or basis 
should be made a sine qua non, and we 
believe that it would sei-ve all the purposes 
of justice if the cubic contents of each 
building, estimated upon certain principles, 
were to be given with each design, so that 
the committee or their professional adviser 
could attach a fair and workable price to 
the design submitted. A floiid Gothic or 
palatial Italian design, we know pretty 
well, costs at least from 25 to 30 per cent, 
more than one in a simply-treated or 
Vernacular style, in which effect is ob- 
tained by the groujiing of the parts, by the 
decorative use of brick, and by visible 
roofs ; but every practical architect, if he 
knows his cubing is con-ect, can attach a 
fair price to any design. So far, then, there 
is no real need for a committee to be 
misled by false or spurious estimates. We 
may just add that we have little faith in 
guaranteed estimates. There may be some 
protection if a respectable builder guaran- 
tees to execute a design for a certain sum ; 
but there are hundi-eds of loopholes by 
which he can escape from carrying out his 

pledge, and our experience of guaranteed 
estimates is simply this — that they are alto- 
gether fallacious. We have never yet heard 
of one instance where the guarantor secured 
the performance of a contract. 

Coming to the second objection — that 
this condition fetters inventive design and 
the art-skill of the architect — we may say 
the notion is preposterous. When an archi- 
tect knows ho cannot go beyond a certain 
amount he generally uses more thought and 
contrivance in his plans : he tries to econo- 
mise every bit of space, to reduce the 
length of his corridors, and, in short, to 
condense his scheme to the utmost. We 
have never known an instance where this 
process has not resulted in decided gain 
architecturally. It is the unrestricted use 
of space, money, and ornament that has 
been the curse of modern architecture. 
Architects, under this r/gime, have little to 
think about but to " design ;" they contrive 
loosely ; their compositions lack the method 
and economy of well-thought-out problems ; 
and we find all sorts of extravagant ideas 
perpetrated, not only upon people, but in 
bricks and mortar. The best designs have 
been those in which the economy has been 
exercised from the first, in the initial plan, 
instead of in cutting and shaving down an 
extravagant design afterwards, with the 
effect of robbing it of all solidity of fea- 
ture, and reducing its architectural adorn- 
ment to skin deep proportions. We have 
no faith in this last kind of economy either 
iu art or in industry. 

Related to this question is the other one 
of style. As long as the public and archi- 
tects look for style in building we are bound 
to acknowledge it as a potent element in 
competition. Unfortunately its extravagant 
pretensions in some hands have an over- 
powering influence, and here, again, we find 
the value of restricting the display of mere 
ornamentation by some regard to cost. In 
both the Brompton and the Great Yar- 
mouth competitions the Renaissance has 
been the ascendant style. This is a result 
we were among the first to prophesy. If, 
however, the Renaissance is to supplant 
Gothic, and to obtain public recognition, 
we plainly see that its claims must be 
largely supported by economy. In these 
two competitions the style will be put 
upon its trial, and we hope that its second 
revival amongst us will not be jeopardised 
by the more ardent and immoderate ideas 
of its disciples and converts. 


XT is something that any of the City 
Companies should not be ashamed of 
the trade to which they owe their existence 
The Fanmakers' Company are doing well 
in their attempt to revive the interest in 
their special craft. Fans have been in use, 
doubtless, as long as any article of comfort 
or luxury, and very beautiful have many 
examples been. In England, where our 
weather is usually cold or temperate, we do 
not actually need them, except after violent 
exercise ; and, so fashionable as-they were 
till towards the end of last century, the art 
of fan-making bade fair to die out. " How 
completely," says Mr. G. A. Sala in his 
clever preface to the catalogue, "fan- 
making, as a branch of British manufactur- 
ing industry, had declined among us at so 
recent a period as the fourteenth year of 
the reign of Her Majesty Queen Victoria, 
will be shown by referring to the official 
description and illustrated catalogue of the 
exhibition of the works of industry of all 
nations in 1851. From Spain Senores Don 
Antonio Pascal-y-Ahad, of Valencia, and 
Don Rafael Mitzana, of Malaga, sent a 
series of fans, and paintings for fans. 
Exhibits of a like kind were displayed by 
Holmes, of British Guiana, Henderson and 



JuLT 12, 1878. 

Rocheleau, of Canada ; Douoevt and Petit, 
Felia and Davelleroy, of Paris. Fans, 
either dainty or quaint, or quaintly savage 
in design, were sent from Ceylon, from 
China, from Egypt, from Trinidad, in the 
West Indies, and from the West Coast of 
Africa. From Great Britain, in the way of 
production, came nothing whatever." In 
this art, as in many others requiring taste, 
it was taken for granted that the French 
alone were capable of excelling. How 
foolish the idea was has been proved in 
many ways — very remarkably by the great 
.revival in the trade of which the present is 
the outcome, and it is to be desired that 
the spirited action of the Fan-makers' 
Company will still more stimulate the pro- 
duction of this useful, and often very beau- 
tiful, article of luxury. The Company 
invited competition in every description of 
fans — ancient and modern, cheap and 
costly, simple and elaborate, proposing 
prizes under certain conditions for all sorts. 
For the purpose of discriminating they 
divided the collection into four classes, 
with certain sectional classifications in 
particular cases. To shew how extensive is 
the range of the competition, we have only 
to mention that one fan is valued at £400 — 
one, also a present, being probably worth 
twice that sum, while there are others as 
low as 2d., or even Id. a-piece ; and this is 
as it should be. The industry can never 
flourish on the manufacture of the costliest 
kind of fans. First of all, we want such as 
will be practically useful for the purpose 
for which they are made. If merely orna- 
mental, they are only a useless extrava- 
gance, and will only be bought in obedience 
to a wasteful fashion. If thoroughly an- 
swering the purpose for which they are 
wanted, then they cannot be too highly 
ornamented — and it is astonishing how 
very beautiful many examples are. Nor is 
it quite necessary that, because beautiful, a 
fan need be very costly ? To produce such 
as were made in the most extravagant times 
of the French Monarchy, no doubt much 
time, talent, and money were required. As 
the French spent fortunes upon their furni- 
ture, china, bronzes, and other articles of 
luxury, so no pains were spared in their 
fan-making, as may be seen in many 
splendid examples in the present exhibi- 
tion ; but we know many processes which 
were unknown to them, and we have also 
materials of which they knew nothing, and 
BO should be able to greatly reduce the 
price without detracting from the effective- 
ness. Hence copying of old patterns and 
designs, at however great a cost of skill 
and time it is performed, will never be 
wholly satisfactory, or, in fact, at all worth 
the time and skill bestowed. This is clear 
from several examples in the present exhi- 
bition. No. 342, exhibited by Messrs. 
Triepus and Ettlingess, is said to have taken 
6 months to make, and the value is set 
down at £125. Another, with sticks of a 
somewhat similar kind, elaborately carved 
in mother-of-pearl, 623, shown by the 
Crown Perfumery Company, is priced at 
£157 10s. ; but though each is admirably 
carved and fairly designed, there is lacking 
that freshness and feeling of original work 
that no amount of pains can supply. There 
is evidence throughout the exhibition of 
new life in many directions, and that is 
what we want. Some good effects ai-e pro- 
duced in an easier manner than used to be 
possible — though, of course, handiwoi-k 
will always be more valuable and satisfac- 
tory than mechanical skill, as all cannot 
afford to have it. A company like the Fan- 
makers, having the life of its craft at 
heart, should welcome any process or mate- 
rial that would conduce to the production 
of a useful and a peculiar article that could 
be sold at a reasonable price. Tortoise- 
shell, enriched with pique ornaments, as 
may be seen in some rarely choice examples 

in the collections of Mr. E. Joseph and 
Lady Musgrave, is quite charming, but 
very expensive. Almost as good an effect 
is shown in many modern mounts where 
the sui-face is etched or even stamped, and 
filled in with thick gold leaf. The present 
shape of fans appears to be sensible, and 
likely to endure, but we doubt if it is 
altogether wise to be so weddi'd to the 
seventeenth and eighteenth ceutaiy style 
of figui-e or flower decoration, painted on 
skin or other material. Some of the 
Chinese ivory lace- work fans, in which each 
stick is ornamented separately, though, of 
course, with a relation to its neighbour, 
are, on the whole, so good in design as well 
as faultless in execution, that many good 
hints might be taken by real artists. At 
any rate, a stereotyped form of fan and 
mount will be sure, in time, to injure the 
craft and prevent the progress, which cannot 
be maintained without novelty. 

The exhibition may be pronounced to be 
a decided success. The hall, however, in 
which it is held, though splendidly fitted 
for the grand entertainments which take 
place there, is scarcely suitable for an art 
exhibition ; consequently, a large proportion 
of the old work is scarcely to be seen at all. 
Those who bad to classify the ancient 
portion wanted more room and much more 
light, and so seem pretty nearly to have 
abandoned the matter in despair. The 
catalogue is very imperfect, and carelessly 
got up. 

Naturally suffering from the great dis- 
advantage of want of light, the committee 
first had to pay attention to the display of 
the modern work, and in this they have 
been fairly successful. The greater part of 
the most interesting and important exam- 
ples can be well seen. Thereis aprodigous 
number of unmounted fans, and designs of 
very various merit. The production of 
them being so pleasant and interesting, 
and not having the drawbacks attaching to 
other decorative pursuits, makes it parti- 
cularly suitable for ladies ; and so, as a 
matter of fact, we have many painted, and 
well painted, by them. A. Danos, of Paris, 
an amateur, sends (142) a very effective 
painting in water-colour on black silk, 
representing " The Spanish Wedding." 
Another, a moonlight love scene, without a 
number, but by G. Rey, is particularly 
pleasing. 225, by Miss Marie O'Keonan, is 
good, and so are several exhibited by 
W. B. Henley. Throughout this section 
there is much good, some admirable work. 

The Crown Perfumery Company has an 
interesting case containing articles explana- 
tory of the manufacture. Their collection, 
generally, is full of interest, among the 
best of them many fine fans may be men- 
tioned — Nos. 623-634,Chantilly lace mounted 
on black, pearl cai-ved and inlaid, and 656 
in the Renaissance style, the subject being 
" A Marriage of Nobles " painted on skin. 
Count Wils, of Paris, who is a good artist, 
is in the habit of painting views aad 
giving them as kindly reminiscences of 
his visits to his friends. 841a, belonging 
to the Princess of Wales, and 691, to 
Countess Somers, are especially good. The 
most costly presentation fan in the whole 
collection is that which Dhuleep Singh gave 
to Princess Alice ; the outside sticks and 
tassels are covered with fine Oriental pearls, 
emeralds, and rubies. The fan itself is 
hardly equal to its cover. Messrs. Triefus 
and Ettlingess' extensive and very varied 
collection has attracted many English 
buyers. The prices vary from £125 to 
£1 10s. Many are to be commended for 
their strength and lightness, as well as for 
artistic qualities. H. F. Daltray and Co. 
exhibit many good specimens, but no prices 
or descriptions are given. One of the best 
fans in the ancient style is No. 469, the 
mount of mother-of-pearl being brightened 
in varnished colours. W. B. Henley's 

beautiful series competes favourably with 
most of the others in quality, and especially 
in price. No. 571 strikes us as particularly 
good and reasonable. Austria sends many 
useful and pretty fans, mostly made partly 
of feathers. Much originality and variety 
is to be observed in the cases of V. Marcot ; 
728, 735, and 738 are good specimens of 
various prices. J. Duvelleroy does not fall 
short of his great reputation. His collec- 
tion embraces fans of the most costly 
description — unmounted fans on skin, 
valued at from £130 to £25 each, some 
beautiful lace, Brussels and Chantilly, and 
fine fan mounts. The carving and general 
harmony of colour and design shown in the 
best of these fans leaves little to be desired. 
To describe the really magnificent collec- 
tion of ancient fans, as at present exhibited, 
would be impossible. There are superb 
examples of almost all styles of the 
latter part of the 17th and of the 18th 
centuries. Such dates as that given 
to NO; 792 (a.d. 1500) and a few others 
are qiiite out of the question. The paintings 
ascribed to Boucher and Watteau were — 
in all the examjales we could identify with 
the published numbers — decidedly not the 
work of either of those artists. It would be 
very interesting to know whether the fans 
said to belong to Queens Anne and Char- 
lotte were ever really theirs. The latter 
seems scarcely such as even a really homely 
queen would have used. Though practi- 
cally without arrangement, and, for the 
most part, only partly visible, there can be 
no doubt that a far finer collection has been 
brought together in Drapers' Hall than we 
have had the chance of seeing before. For 
this reason it is very vexatious that a more 
fitting place of exhibition was not available 
in the City, and that more time and know- 
ledge of the subject, suSicient properly to 
describe, classify, and exhibit these really 
beautiful works of art, was not to be had. 


Cbotdon. — A limited competition has just 
been held at Croydon, at the invitation of the 
School Board of the town, for new schools to be 
erected in the Mitcham-road, Croydon. The 
award was arrived at last week. Five archi- 
tects sent in plans : of these two were selected 
for final award — viz., those by Messrs. Rutley 
and Blackwell, architects, of Dowgate-hill, 
E.C., and by Mr. S. Brooks, of Croydon. The 
design of the former firm has been determined 
upon, and the work will proceed forthwith. 

Nottingham. — A new school is to be erected 
at Nottingham by the School Board who have 
received no less than 22 or 23 sets of designs, 
although the competition was not advertised in 
the London papers, having more a local than 
open character. The plans were received during 
the latter part of last week. 

SouTHPOET. — We published Mr. Water- 
house's report as professional referee in this 
competition (see Building News, Dec. 14th, 
1877), which was adopted by the town council 
who, in accordance with the terms of the com- 
petition, paid the premium. The first was 
taken by Messrs. Coe and Robinson, architects, 
of Furnival's-inn, E.G., the second by Messrs. 
Bell and Eoper, architects, London, and Man- 
chester, and the third by a local firm of archi- 
tects, Messrs. Mellor and Sutton, with Mr. 
John Dence. It has now been determined, we 
are informed by a correspondent who refers to 
the matter as "one of the most glaring pieces 
of injustice he has known " — that neither the 
first nor second design is to be executed, but 
that the works are to be proceeded with from 
the design and under the superintendence of 
the last-named architects, Messrs. Meller and 
Sutton, of Southport. Mr. Alderman Sutton, 
chairman of the markets committee, is brother 
to the architect engaged, we hear. Ashamed 
apparently of the manner in which they have 
acted, it seems the committee will not allow 
the publication of the premiated designs. 

New Church of England schools are about to be 
erected in Church-street, Gainsborough, from the 
designs o£ Mr. E. Wright, of that town. 



The BuiLDiNc, I^Kws.JuIy \2™ IfJo. 



~W^~^ I pr^ess-'Clai-k-Hunfe^ 

ver- and-Rew- Ardirte 

The Bluldinc. l>Kv.'^.JuIy '.Z"^- :.\77v. 

A W Blomf1«Ja M A Ar<-_ri,< 

Church of the Holy Trinity. Privett. Hants. 

4^ i i JJS.. 

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1, g f - ih ' — ^°^ tt "^a— ^i" j»5 -^g^ fc4 

July 12, 1878. 




Competition, Cost, ami Stylo -' 

The Exhibition of Fans at Drapers' Uall 27 

Compotitiona " 

Our Lithographic Illustrations ■*! 

The Archicologioal Congresses -H 

Out Office Table •*- 

To Correspondents '^^ 

Chips ■" 

Tenders ** 



OUR Lithographic Illustrations. 


The decision of the Metropolitan Board of 
Works to widen Hifrh-street, Shoreditch, ren- 
dered it necessary to pull down the front por- 
tion of the premises then occupied by Messi-s. 
Clark, Hunt, and Co., wholesale ironmongfrs 
and stove and range manufacturers, who there- 
upon determined to pull down the whole of the 
premises and erect new and more commodious 
buildings upon the remainder of the site, in- 
cluding therewith the adjoining plot of land, 
which was then vacant. The various spacious 
Uoors are constructed for carrying great 
weights, the ground floor being fitted up as a 
store for all classes of ironmongery. The 
oSices of the firm are also on this floor. The 
first floor is a show-room for the display of 
Abbotsford stoves, marble chimney-pieces, 
close and open fire ranges, &c., the second 
and third floors being used as store-rooms for 
the class of goods in which this firm trades. 
In the basement are stored large quantities of 
nails, rainwater castings, &c. The new build- 
ings, which are of a most substantial character, 
are executed chiefly in brick — Fareham red 
facings, with a small portion of red Corshill 
stone and red terra cotta, being used in the 
principal front. The roof is covered with 
Brosely tiles. Messrs. Clarke and Bracey are 
the builders, whose contract was .£5,116. The 
architects are Messrs. Driver and Rew, of Vic- 
toria-street, S.W. 


We illustrate this week Cavendish College, 
Cambridge, a new wing of which was opened 
on May 22nd by Dean Stanley. The part 
erected and opened some two years ago by the 
Duke of Devonshire (who gave his name to it), 
was sufficient to accommodate about 70 
students, and the necessity soon arose for an 
enlargement. When complete the college will 
accommodate 300 students besides tutors, and 
residences for warden and sub-warden. 
Economy has been studied throughout, both in 
the architecture of the building itself and its 
general arrangements. The plan is that of a 
number of single rooms to be used as bedrooms 
and for private study, in addition to the large 
rooms in common, libraries, dining hall, &c. 
Cavendish College is intended, to some extent, 
to solve the vexed question of university exten- 
sion — 1st, by enabling students somewhat 
jounger than ordinary undergraduates to pass 
through a University course and obtain a 
degree. 2nd, to train in the art of teaching 
those students who intend to become school- 
masters. 3rd, to offer to parents and students 
the advantage of a wise economy. The cost 
to each student is under ilOO per annum, 
which gives three terms of residence, in each 
of the three years, during which the student 
must remain to obtain his degree. The cost of 
the buildings already erected, and occupied by 
a number of students, is about ^13,000. The 
number capable of being accommodated is one 
hundred, beside wardens' and tutors' apart- 
ments, kitchen offices, &c. The architects are 
Messrs. John Giles and Gough, of Craven- 
street, Charing-cross, and the builder Mr. 
Sharman, of Bishopgate-street, London. The 
drawing from which our Ulustration was taken 
is now on view at the Eoyal Academy. 

pernacres, fulmeb, near BLOroit. 
We illustrate this week the entrance front and 
plan of this house, which has lately been 
erected from the designs and under the superin- 
tendence of Mr. Robert W. Edis, F.S.A., archi- 
tect, of li, Fitzroy-square. Owing to the 
principal views being to the north-west and 
north-east, and to the peculiarities of the site, 
special arrangement of plan was found neces- 
sary. The house is built of red brick, with 
half timber and tile hanging in portions of the 
upper part, and the works have been well and 
satisfactorily carried out from the designs of 
the architect by Mr. E. Conder, builder, of 
Kingsland-bridge-road, London. 


This church replaces a much smaller edifice of 
no architectural character or interest. The new 
building h.-vs no peculiarity of plan, consisting 
simply of nave, aisles, and chancel, with tran- 
septs, and a tower and spire at the west end. 
The external facework is of rough flint, with 
which the neighbourhood abounds. The whole 
of the external dressed stonework is of Doult- 
ing stone. Internally Bath stone has been used 
for columns, arches, and other details, the 
general face being lined with Ham-hill stone, 
banded with Bath. Up to the sills of the aisle 
windows the walls are lined with rubbed Corse- 
hill stone, finished at the top with a moulded 
string-course. The interior of the church is 
treated in a much richer manner than is indi- 
cated by its external details. All the detached 
shafts used in the chancel .are of Purbeck 
marble, as also are the slab of the super-altar, 
the top of a recessed tomb in the chancel, in 
memory of a sister of the founder, and the 
seats of the sedilia. The roofs are of pitch 
pine, covered with Broseley tiles. The whole 
of the floors are of Italian mosaic, executed by 
Messrs. Burke and Co. That in the chancel is 
of somewhat elaborate design, with plaques of 
marble and porphyry introduced in the sanc- 
tuary. All the steps in the chancel are of 
Belgian marble. The reredos occupies the 
whole of the east wall, and forms part of the 
architecture. It consists of an interlaced 
arcading, having in the centre a larger arch 
containing a sculptured representation of the 
Supper at Emmaus. The windows in the 
chancel and the west window in the tower are 
filled with stained glass by Messrs. Beaton, 
Butler, and Bayne ; those in the chancel being 
the gift of the two sisters of the founder. The 
pulpit is of Caen stone, with Purbeck marble 
shafts. The font (a special gift) is of Bolsover 
stone ; the plan is squnre, the sides being richly 
carved, and it is supported on clustered shafts 
of Purbeck marble. The wh»l» of the sittings 
and fittings and the doors are of oak. The 
organ, which is placed in the north transept, is 
by Lewis. Under the chancel and transepts is 
a crypt, in which is placed the heating appa- 
ratus. In the tower is a peal of eight bells. 
The contractors for the works were Messrs. 
Dove, Bros., of Islington. The carving was 
executed by Messrs. Farmer and Brindley. The 
height of tower and spire is about 180ft. The 
cost of the whole work has been defrayed by W. 
Nicholson, Esq., of Basing Park. 


We have received no description of this new 
building to accompany our illustrations, which 
are in continuation of those we gave last week. 
We have already described the structure and 
its principal feature — the successful combina- 
tion of brick and terra cotta — in an article 
entitled " Building in Terra Cotta," which ap- 
peared on p. 353 of our last volume (April 5, 
1878). ^ 

William Marshall Hunt, builder, formerly of St. 
Sidwells, was last week sentenced to six weeks' 
imprisonment at Exeter, for having fraudulently 
failed to deliver up all his property to the trustee in 

On Sunday, tbe new Catholic church, which has 
been erected in Caroline-strpct, Wigan, and dedicated 
to St. Joseph, was opened. The church, which is 
designed by Messrs. Goldie and Child, consists of 
nave and aisles, giving a total length of 87 feet, by 
a total width of GOft. 6in. The presbytery 
immediately adjoins the church, and its simple 
facade harmonises well with that of the latter. The 
contract for the whole block was .£5,647. 


THE two great archa; dogical societies have 
just issued their programmes, showing 
the districts proposed to be visited in their 
annual excursions. The areas selected for the 
congresses of 1878 are much nearer London 
than were those of last year, and not far re- 
moved from one another — Northampton being 
the headquarters for the Institute meeting, 
.and Wisbech that of the Association. 

Tlie Royal Archmological Institute meets on 
Tuesday, the 30th inst. The great fire of 1073 
destroyed most of the domestic buildings in 
Northampton, but there are left a splendid 
example of Transitional Norman in St. Peter's 
Church ; low circular towers, and other remains 
of an early castle just outside the borough ; St. 
Sepulchre's Church, in the centre of which are 
embedded fragments, more or less restored, of 
a " round " Templars' church ; the largo cruci- 
form church of St. Giles, and an almshouse 
known as St. John's Hospital (founded 1137), 
containing some rude local carving, and a little 
stained glass. Within two miles of the town is 
the exquisite Queen Eleanor's Cross, and the 
visitors to it will have the opportunity of con- 
sidering the manner in which the Queen Anne 
period restorers respected 13th century archi- 
tects' intentions. Not far from here is " Dane's 
Camp," Hunsborough-hill, which may form a 
crux to advocates of the British, Roman, Saxon, 
or Danish origin of these rude earthworks. The 
etymology suggests discussions wide rather 
than conclusive. Amongst outlying places to 
be visited are Althorpe Church, a quarry of 
examples of every style from very Early 
English to debased Perpendicular ; Althorpe 
Hall, rich in pictures by the old masters, and 
in statuary ; Spratton, a Norman church, and 
the unique church of Brixworth, " basilican " 
in plan, with long and short work, plentiful 
brick arches, and other reputed Saxon features, 
a crypt at east end, and singular circular turret 
attached to face of tower. Another day's excur. 
sion is to bootmaking Wellingborough, and to 
the Early church of Irchester and the adjacent 
Roman camp, and to the fine churches at Rush- 
den and Higham Ferrars, where the party 
divide — one section visiting the grand group of 
14th-century spired churches at Raunds, Stan- 
wick, Irthlingborough, and Finedon ; the other 
proceed to Thrapston and its hermitage on the 
bridge, Islip, and Loweck, and to the singular 
Elizabethan house of Drayton. Another after- 
noon is to be occupied by visits to the best 
known of the " Sixon" churches, that of Earl's 
Barton, and from thence to the Marquis of 
Northampton's seat at Castle Ashley, an 
Elizabethan structure altered by Inigo Jones, 
and the late 15th century churches in that 
village and at Whiston, where also is a manor- 
house, known as King John's, returning by 
Cogenloe, where is an Early English church. 
The market town of Kettering, with its fine 
church, is to be inspected on the Saturday, an 
excursion being made from that town to 
Bothwell Priory, Rushton Hall, with its tri- 
angular lodge, the hexagonal Eleanor Cross at 
Geddington, Kirby, and the great castle and 
partly-ruined church of Rockingham. On Mon- 
day Cotterstock, a Roman station, and the 
scanty traces of Fotheringhay Castle, will be 
visited from Oundle, and one-half the party 
will proceed to see the Early church of Barnack 
and the art treasures of Burleigh House ; and 
the second half to Peterborough, where the 
Cathedral, the great Church of St. John, and 
the quaint Elizab«than market-house, suggest 
a busy afternoon's work. On the closing day, 
Tuesday, August 0th, it is proposed, if the rail, 
way be opened, to go to Canon's Ashley. To 
the students of mediieval sculpture, iirmour, 
and heraldry, this visit to the county which 
Britton declared "excelled any other part of 
the kingdom of equal extent, excepting London, 
in its sepulchral monuments," wiU be one of 
interest and profit. 

The Archaxilogical Association's congress in 
the Pen Country is arranged to take place 
between Monday, August Wth, and Tuesday, 
the 27th. The town of Wisbech has not much, 
to detain the visitors, although on the site of a 
Roman settlement, except the double-uaved and 
aisled church of SS. Peter and Paul, and the 
vaults under Inigo Jones's rebuilding of the 
Castle. But in the half-dozen counties uniting 



July 12, 1878. 

in the Fen district there are some noble speci- 
mens of uiediEBval architecture. The programme 
provides for a day to be spent in the examina- 
tion of Ely Cathedral, and two others in per- 
ambulation of the colleges, churches, and old 
houses of Cambridge. At King's Lynn the dis- 
similnr twin towers of St. Margaret's Church 
will suggest inquiry, and the ruins of Grey- 
friars' octagonal tower, and the south gate wUl 
repay examination ; a promise is held out of 
the exhibition of the ancient charters and 
the quaint regalia of the borough. The 
magnifieent priory and castle ruins at Castle 
Eising, the abbey and triangular bridge at 
Thorney, the castle (" Towers") of Middleton, 
Thorney Abbey, Spalding Church and cell are 
amongst the featui-es of interest suggested by 
the Association's programme, and it is possible 
a visit may be paid to the Prince of "Wales's 
seat at Sandringham. We understand the in- 
tended journeys to the city of Peterborough 
and Burleigh House will be struck out of the 
agenda, as they will form features of the Insti- 
tute's meeting three weeks earlier. 

The memorial etone of a new Baptist chapel was 
laid near Goudhurst, on the 25t,h ult. The buildings 
consist of a chapol, with external porch, vestries, 
school, boiler-room, and latrines. 'The bailding ia 
in the Gothic style, faced externally with local clamp 
bricks of a dark colour, the bays and buttresses 
being executed in red brick and the copings, arches, 
strings, sills, and plinths In ing in plain and moulded 
white bricks ; stone being sparingly used. The 
buildfr is Mr. Miles Tnlly, of Tudely, Tunbridge, 
and the architect Bh*. Wm. 'Theobalds, of London. 

Excavations are being made on the summit of 
Cfesar's Camp, Folkestone, under the personal 
Bnperintendence of General Fox, Lord Eadnor 
having given permission, on the understanding that 
everything found should be placfd in the Folkestone 
Museum. The extraordinary discovery has been 
made that the structure is neither British nor 
Koman, but Norn^an. An ancient well has been 
opened to a depth of eighty feet, and a coin of the 
reign of Stephen, a broken bone flute and some 
pieces of pottery have been found. 

The memorial stones of a new Baptist chapel at 
Ottery St. Mary, Devon, were laid on Wednesday 
week. The architects for the new building are 
MessBS. Packham and Croote, Paris-street, Exeter, 
and the builder Mr. Edward Carnell, Ottery. 

The Town Council of Canterbury accepted, on 
Wednesday week, the tender of Mr. Hill for the 
repair of the towers of Westgate, an ancient gate- 
way which spans the main street. They also granted 
the use of the chapel in the towers for the storing, 
by the museum committee, of patents and other 

A bust of the Irish composer, Michael William 
Balfe, was unveiled in the Irish portrait chamber of 
the National Gallery, Dublin, on Saturday. The 
bust is of mnrble, and was executed by Mr. Thomas 
Farrell, K H.A. 

A painted window has just been placed in the 
Hempstead Church, near Gloucester. It represents 
incidents in the life of St. John the Baptist. Messrs. 
Camm, of Birmingham, were the artists. 

The county magistrates of Gloucestershire have 
purchased for ^£12,100 an estate at Barnwood, as 
the site of a proposed n-.w county pauper lunatic 
asylum, the plans for which are to bo prepared by 
the county surveyor. 

The Newhaven harbour trustees are about to 
build a new iron bridge at Sonthease from plans to be 
prepared by Mr. H. E. Wallis, of Westminster 
Chambers, who has rocently carried out several 
county bridges for the West Sussex magistrates. 

The Portsmouth Town Council have confirDaed the 
appointment of Mr. Adames, who for six months 
has been acting borough engineer, and have voted 
to him an annual salary of d£-100 a year. At the 
same meeting a letter from the sureties of 
Mr. Quick, contractor for the new asylum, was 
considered, in which it was stated that men would 
not work at the building at town rates of wages on 
acconnt of its distance trom the town. They asked 
therefore that the council and Mr. Quick should 
divide the expense {estimated at ^£1,0110) of giving 
an additional Id. an hour to those on time work. 
This the council declined to accede to, a resolution 
being passed empowering the authority under the 
17th clause in the contract to enter the premises and 
execute the work themselves, at the contractor's 

At the county of Cumberland Pauper Lunatic 
Asylum at Garlands, a new superintendent's resi- 
dence is in course of erection from the plans of Mr. 
J. A. Cory, county surveyor. Mr. Cory's plans for 
new workshops, preparatory to an enlargement of 
the asylum, were approved by the county magis- 
trates last week, and tenders have been invited for 
the work. 

Fkom the list of subscriptions already 
obtained by the Scott Memorial Committee, it 
seems more than probable that tlie original 
scheme of founding an art workman's teacher- 
ship at the Royal Architectural Museum in 
memory of its founder, the late Sir Gilbert 
Scott, will be realised. Mr. Geo. Edmund 
Street, E.A., has undertaken to design the 
memorial brass, which is to be placed over the 
grave in Westminster Abbey. This will be 
procoeded with at once. As the advantages of 
the Pugin Studentship have been so evident 
in the case of architectural students, it is cer- 
t.aiuly to be hoped that the intended teacher- 
ship for art workmen will be thoroughly well 
supported. At present the latter are unprovided 
for, excepting by the schools of art in connec- 
tion with the Science and Art Department, but 
as every one knows, the technical instruction 
given in these schools is by no means equal to 
the wants of, or of the kind required by, the 
strictly architectural craftsman, admirable as it 
may be in its way. We see well-known 
architects' names on the list of donations, and 
we should like to see more. 

The annual meeting of the members of the 
North St:»ffordshire Brick and Tile Masters' 
Association was held at Trentham on Monday 
week ; Mr. W. A. Peake, of Hanford, presiding. 
It appeared to be the general opinion of the 
members present that, although the brick and 
tile trade was dull, there was no immediate 
necessity for a reduction of prices, as it was 
believed trade would revive befora long. The 
association was said to be in a flourishing con- 
dition and steadily increasing in numbers. Mr. 
S. Wheatley was elected president of the asso- 
ciation for the ensuing year, and Mr. G. Boul- 
ton, of Tunstall, was appointed vice-chairman. 
At the close of the business meeting the cus- 
tomary dinner was held; Mr. W. A. Peake 
occupied the chair, and Mr. J. N. Peake acted 
as vice-chairman. Mr. W. Brough (Silverdale) 
proposed " Success to the Brick and Tile Trade 
of iS''orth Staffordshire." He said that at present 
trade was not so brisk as they would like to see 
it, but in his opinion there was a reasonable 
prospect of it improving before long. Mr. 
Lees (Tunstall) responded. The vice-chairman 
said, as the members were no doubt aw.are, it 
was intended to consididate the Factory Acts, 
and he was told that the Government purposed 
putting this trade under the Brickfields Act, 
as had been attempted once before. As it was 
important to the trade that this should not be 
done, being in London at the time, he waited 
upon Mr. Heath on behalf of the association, 
and explained the matter to him. Mr. Heath 
received him very kindly, and accomp.anied him 
to the proper authority, by whom he was 
assured that it was not the intention of the 
Government to interfere with the trade in any 
way. He thought that the association should 
recognise the kindness of Mr. Heath, and there- 
fore he moved that the secretary convey to that 
gentleman the thanks of the meeting f.jr the 
assistance he had rendered to a representative 
of the association in a matter connected with 
the Factory Acts. 

The following are the Eoyal Academy ad- 
missions to the Architectural School :— 
Students of Upper School : F. Baggallay, R. W. 
Collier, H. B. CuUerne, A. Frampton. E. W. 
Gibson, J. H. Ince, A. Filtman, O C. Wylson. 
Students of Lower School : J. B. Bare, J. H. 
Buckeridge, A. D. Gregg. T. G. Howell, C. 
Howse, J. M. Jones, F. Miller, G. Petrie, G. 
Wheelhouse. Probationers : E. J. M. Allen, 0. 
J. Bradley, F. Dickson, T. Gordon, T. E. Hatch, 
C. E. Holmes, J. J. Jones, M. J. Lansdell, T. C. 
Lees, A. J. Murray, J. B. Phillips, C. A. Smith, 
T. B. Whinney. 

With a view to the solution of the artisans' 
dwellings question, Mr. Thomas J. Perry, 
architect, Colmore-row, Birmingham, has just 
completed a set of designs and plans for a block 
of artisans' dwellings, arranged on the flat 
system, and suitable for erection in the more 
populous parts of large towns. Mr. Perry will 
be happy to show them to any feeling interested 
in the Birmingham improvement scheme or the 
general subject of artisans' dwellings. The 
elevation represents a block of buildings, lS7ft. 

in length and 52ft. in height, in four stories. 
The exterior material is principally red brick ; 
the windows having stone lintels and sills. 
Each dwelling is complete in itself, and contains 
a large living room, two chambers, scullery, 
pantry, and coal-house. A separate supply of 
water and gas is provided for, and .all sanitary 
requirements are so met as to promote the 
greatest cleanliness with a minimum of trouble. 
■The floors are constructed of iron and brick, 
and covered with quarries, timber only being 
used for chamber floors, doors, window frames, 
cupboards, and shelves. The roof being flat may 
be used as a drying place or playground. The 
rentals are calculated at from 73. to 5s. per 
week, according to the size of the rooms and 
the story they are upon. 

The new National Opera-house, according to 
reports in different journals, is to be proceeded 
with at once, but we can hardly give credence 
to the statement. Indeed, we have only re- 
cently seen a design for converting the portion 
already built, and for finishing the building, as 
a block of first-class mansions, in flats, for a 
limited liability company, Mr. John Wbichcord, 
F.S..i., being the architect engaged. The name 
proposed for the building is St. Stephen's 
Mansions, and the architecture employed, al- 
though following, of course, the present lines 
of the substructure, is shown more after the 
style of St. Stephen's Club adjoining, a build- 
ing by the same architect. 

B'lriton parish church was reopened after restora- 
tion a fortnight since l)y the Bishop of Winchester. 
The whole of the building has been renovated, with 
the exception of the west tower, and stained glass 
has been introduced into the east window, and one 
in the south aisle, as memorials. The work was 
carried out by Messrs. Lewis and Son, builders, of 
East Meon, under the direction of Mr. A. Blom- 
fcld, MA. 

The Pre-^ton Town Council, on Wednesday week, 
appointed Mr. Hud-oa Reah as borough surveyor 
in the place of Mr. Hunter, at a salary of d£GOO a 
year. Mr. Reah was assistant-surveyor of Sunder- 
land from 1862 to ISGG, since which period he has 
heen borough surveyor and waterworks engineer for 
Darlington. The other selected candidate was Mr. 
E- Buckbam, borough surveyor of Ipswich. 

The Local Board of Bridlington exhibited, at their 
town hall on Tuesday and Wednesday, the schemes, 
with plans and specifications, &c-, thereto appended, 
sent in in competition for a premium of c£lOi>, for 
t^ie best mode of draining the district. The selected 
plans have not yet been announced, but we under- 
s'and the local board made up their minds before the 
exhibition was opened. 

The burial board of the city of Ely accepted, on 
Tuesday, Mr. W, Jefferson's tender for works of 
painting, and Mr. W. T. Holmes's tfnder for the 
erection of new entrance gates at the cemetery. 

A new assembly room at Wainfleet. near Boston, 
wa-* opened on Wednesday week. Mr. R. H. Dunkley 
was the builder, for Mr. Cash, the proprietor. 

Toe foundation stone of a new Wesleyan chapel 
was laid at Falsgrave, Scarborough, on Friday. It 
will be Gothic in character, aurl will measure .52ft. 
by 35ft., and 26ft. high from floor to ceiling, 45ft 
high externally. Pitch-pine seats, stained and 
varnished, will accommodate 200 persons, and at the 
rear will be a school-room 50ft. by 25ft., which can 
be thrown into chapel by removal of p.irtition, so in- 
creasing accommodation to 500 sittings. Mr. D. 
Petch is the architect ; Mr. F. Horner is contractor 
for brick and stonework, and Mr. Wade for joinery. 
The total cost will be about i;2 20il. 

The Tunbridge Wells improvement commissioners 
decided on Wednesday week to carry out drainage 
and sewerage works in the Bishop's Down and 
Neville-park district in acco-dnnce with plans pre- 
pared by their surveyors. The estimated cost is 

The River Witham Commissioners, at their meet- 
ing at Boston, on Tuesday last, resolved to ask Mr. 
Williams, C.E., to report on the steps necessary to 
be taken for the improvement of the river Withaci 
and outfall, with the view of preventing the flooding 
of the adjacent districts. 

Memorial stones of a new Primitive Methodist 
chapel, to seat 220 people, were laid at Wickersley, 
near Rotherham, on Monday week. Messrs. J. 
Kerridge and Sons, of Wisbech, are the architects, 
and all the contracts have been taken by Mr. H- 
Fiowitt, of Doncaster. 

On Friday week the joint committee of sanitary 
authorities, appointed for the purpose of carrying 
out the Crummock water scheme, met at Work- 
ington, and accepted tenders for the works, amount- 
ing in all to .£23,700. The cost of land- purchase 
has been ^£900 more, and the total outlay will 
probably be within the estimates. 

July 5. 187S. 

(Patcnud In Ki.Kliind, France aiU Oermanj), 

Egoeta GrtotSannj in Ch^v^inii and Ditcharging, and 
50 ptJi' cent. 01 Fuel, 
Apply to ROBERT LANCASTER, LMda BrioknMMM; Oompimy 
Limited), Armley, Leeds. 

Ri:CBm:D.-K. ami P G.-T. S. Co.-H. W.-J. M. A.-O. 
and P-J. iM.-n. H. nnd Co.-B. L. Co.-P. 
Bros.-W H. B.-T. and W.-II. C B.-W D -W. II. 
W — F do J. C— B. of B.— A. E. B,— E. and J. M.— A. 
F.1_T.'h. M.— J. A. ivndCo., W. T. A, and Co.— U.L.— 

DaiwiNos Receivfi).— B. and R.— A and K.— H. Q.— H. 
B.-O. P. E.-A. .><. K.-T. M. ^ ,. ^ 

C J Bell. (Dir.ot from tbopiibliahorsonly.weboheTO.) 

'— noNKST Is s.vrion. (It is not " quite oTident tliat 

the referee's rii.urt lias been disrouarded." If yon like 
to write a lotter. simply challencing the conduct ot 
those who invited the competition, wewUl insert it wild 
DOur real trnme, but wc see no reason for impugning the 
conduct of tlie referee, and this your letters do. although 
only indirectly. The weak point in the competition was 
nnaoubtedly that to which we have directed attention, 
but the competitors accepted the necessary consequences, 
and should have iurvst-en tiiem.) 



Patent Ventilator or Air-PropeUer, for 

the mtroduction of Cold or Warm Air into Dwell- 
ings, &c. 

The Machine may be seen in action at their Show- 
rooms, 127, IJepcnt-street, London, W. 

The apparatus consists of a dmm with a double 
set of fans, which are worked by a fly-wheel placcil 
in the centre, nud on the same axle as tans. The 
motive for this fly-wheel is arrived at by a small jet 
of water being- directed on to it, cansin? both the 
wheel and fans to revolve with great velocity, the 
air passing through the machine at a rate equal to 
2,500 feet per minute, if desired, according to size of 

N.B.— The above Machine may be used either as 
an exhauster or injector, as may be preferred, or 
both objects combined. 

Also Patentees ot the Fireclay Burners for Gas 
Fires and Cooking Purposes, and Patentees ot the 
Tubular Gas Boiler for Baths and Conservatories, &c. 

Designers and Jlanutacturers of Lamps and 

Office and Works, 155, Qaeen's-road, Bays- 
water, W. [Advt.] 


HoUoway's Pilla are the sheet anchor of the 

confirmed dyspeptic : a few tiials will prove their potency in 

removing indine-tioi 


sedatives, and gentle aperients. 

Seven Hundred and Fifty Illustrations of 

Builders' Eequirements, representing Stoves, 
Ranges, Locks, Hinges, Screws, &c- bv F. W. 
REYNOLDS & CO., 73, Southwark-street, L'Jndon, 
S.E. — Price Or. iree by post, and allowed off on 
purchase of first parcel. — [Advt.] 

Helliwell's Patent System 

OUT PUTTY, and without exposing any outside 
woodwork to paint, and NEW SYSTEM of COVER- 

The fasteners are brass or copper. The peculiar 
arrangement of the glass covers the whole of the 
woodwork, and only the small fastener is visible ; 
therefore the roof is indestructible, and outside 
painting naneccssary. The squares ot glass can be 
easily removed, and the whole taken out and cleaned 
by any inexperienced person. Breakage is impossi- 
ble except through carelcsauess or accident. 

The glazing is more air-tight than the old putty 
system, yet any amount ot ventilation can be given. 

Old roofs may bo re-glazed on this principle, and 
roofs are covered with slates or zinc on this system. 

Extract from Building Nkw-s :" Mr. T.W. UcUi- 
woU, of Brighouse, has recently patented and intro- 
duced a new system of glazing and covering roofs, 
which is certainly superior to anything ot the kind 
we have seen before .... and it will, in our 
opinion, supersede any other system before the 

Important references and all particulars from the 
patentee, T. W. HELLIWELL, Brighouse, York- 
shire ; and 13, Parliament-street, London.— [Advt.] 


The Hambleton-byGarstang School Board at 
their last meeting appointed Mr. J. A. Soward as 
their architect, and afterwards accepted Mr. Thomas 
Hall's tender tor the erection, from plans recently 
prepared by Mr. Seward, of a school for 06 children. 

The Surrey county magistrates have instructed a 
committee, assisted by the county surveyor, to 
consider and draw up rules for the prevention of, 
and as precautions against, the outbreak of fires in 
the music halls in the county. 

The Court of Common Council of the City have 
referred to a committee a project for removing 
Newgate gaol and utilising the site for building 

New board schools to accommodate 250 scholars 
are about to be built by the Swinton School Board 
at Kilnhurst. Messrs. Wilson and Mastars, of 
Sheffield, are the architects. 

The Qiieenstown Town Commissioners have 
accepted the tender of Mr. J. T. Rooney for the 
completion ot the boundary sewers, within two 
months, to the satisfaction of the town surveyor. 

New brewery premises have been erected at 
Whittle Springs, Chorley-lane, for Messrs. Gardiner, 
Thompson, and Cardwell, by Messrs. Bromley, 
Heald, and Co., contractors. 

The Blackburn Town Council have accepted the 
tender of Mr. James Whittaker for the erection of 
new municipal offices ; that ot Messrs. Fotherl.y (or 
sewerage works in Hole House district ; and that of 
Mr. Sam Counsell for sewerage in Preston Niw- 

At a recent meeting of the burial board tor Lang- 
port, Somersetshire, it was decided to instruct Mr. 
Hall, ot London, the architect for the board schools 
in that town, to prepare alternative plans for the 
cemetery— with one and two chapels respectively. 

The tender of Mr. Coles, at ^£5,200, has been 
accepted for the erection of the new church of St. 
Mildred, Burnt Ash. L^e, Kent (exclusive ot tower), 
from tie plans ot Mr. Henry Elliot, architect. 


BlKR —For additions and alterations to St. Brendan's 
Church Birr Mr. Thomas Drew, ll.U.A., arcUitoctj 
quantitioabyMr. J.McD, Birminglmm:— 

Beckett, J. and W. (accepted) ...£1,104 17 8 
BijicKucRN.— For the erection of now municipal olBoes 
for the town council of Bhickburn :— 

Whittaker, James (accepted) 
Bow.— For the erection of five shops in tho Bow-road. 
Messrs. W. Waymouth and Son, architoota :— 

Shurmur £I,C47 

Wvoth J.SJS 

Niblett 1.520 

Sawyer J.*" 

Sheffield and Prebblo (aooeptod) 1.^73 

BcRNLEV.— For tho supply of iron water pipes required 
for the new water main uxtenaiou by tho town council of 
Buruley, Lancashire; — 

Staveley Iron Company (accepted) ... £5,000 

Canteriutrt. — For the repair of tho towers of West- 
gate, in High-stroet, Cantcrbm-y, for the town council :— 

Colons, J.J:' iiiS 

Wiltshior M 10 

Hills, H. (accepted) 51 15 

City of Lo>*i>on.— For robuildinsr Anderton's Hotel, 
Fleet-street. Messrs. Ford and Hesketh, architects ; 
quantities by Messrs. Gardner, Sou, and Theobald :— 
General Proposed 



Kirk and Eandall ... 

... £-27,479 

..£1,018 . 


Adamson and Sons 

... 27,24S 

7(6 . 

... 27,016 

.. 9.57 . 

. 27,978 

Ashby and Horner... 

... 26,945 

935 . 

. 27,880 

... 27,153 

702 . 

... 2i:.M0 

... 891 . 

. 27,701 

Ashby Bros 

... 28,699 

818 . 

. 27,547 


... 26,619 

... 26,648 


... 26,520 

... 645 . 

.. 27,365 

... 26,455 

•• 27.302 

Brown and Robinson 

... 26,300 

... 837 . 

. 27,037 

McLachlan and Son 

... 26,210 

... 796 . 

City of London. — For rebuilding two warehouses, 
AWermanbnry. Messrs. Ford and Hesketh, architects ; 
no quantities : — (accepted) £2,911 

Croydok.— For alterations and a^lditions to house, 
Chichester-road, Park-hill, Croydon, for C. A. Brassert, 
Esq. Mr. Horace T. Bonner, architect, Lewisham: — 

Hooker £683 

Hobhs (accepted) 593 10 

Darenth, Kfnt. — For various works at the .'ichoolfor 
Imbecile Children for the managers of the Metropolitan 
Asylum District. Messrs. A. and C. Harston, architects, 
15, Leadenhall-street, E.C. : — 

Accepted tenders ; 

Perry and Co. (joinery fittings) £639 

Kii'k and Randall (entrance gate^, &c.) ... 360 

Hammer (school furniture and fittings) ... 150 

DrsLlN.— For alterations and additions to St. Mark's 

Ophthalmic Hospital, Lincoln - place, Dublin. Mr. 

Thomas Drew. R. H. A, architect ; quantities by Messrs. 

Patterson and Kempster: — 

Pemberton, T. (accepted) £1,800 

Dublin. — For additions to Alexandra College, Earls- 
fort-terrace, Dublin. Mr. Thomas Drew, R.H.A., archi- 
teat ; quantities by Mr. J. McD. Bermingham : — 

Section 1. Section 2. Section 3. 
£1,997 17 6 
1,405 4 
1,264 8 

DoBLls.— For additions to the Church of St. Philip, 
Miltown, Dublin. Mr. Thomas Drew, R.H. A., architect; 
quantities by Mr. J. McD. Bermingham: — 

Tighe, T £1,611 

Beckett, J. and W 1,570 

Moon, L 1,520 

O'Leary, J. (accepted) 1,179 10 

DrLwicH. — For road making and sewers for the British 
Land Company, Limited, on their estate at Dulwich. Mr. 
Henry B. Mitchell, surveyor :— 

Harris (accepted) £942 

RoTHERHAii. — For building a retaining wall and other 
works for the town council of Rotherham : — 

Dabb and Gummer (accepted) ... £1,923 11 3 

Hall and Son 
J. & M. Beckett.. 
Pemberton, T. .. 
Pile, J. P. 
Collen, Bros, (a 

£491 15 £1,295 U 

416 1,004 

342 1 3 957 17 3 

360 820 

359 18 8 &44 17 7 





Works : Ditchling and Keymer Junction, near Burgess Hill, Sussex. 

J. & Co. have obtained MEDALS at the London and Philadelphia Exhibitions for GOOD DESIGNS and EXCELLENCE of 
MATERIAL and WORKMANSHIP, and wiU, on request, send samples of work. 

RIDGE TILES, FINIALS, BRICKS, TILES, &c., which are hard in texture, smooth, and of a deep red coloiu-, and will resist 

the action of the weaLher. 

Estimates on application. 

Office on the Works, Keymer Junction. 



July 12, 1878. 

FiNNiNGHAM.— For the erection of a granary, &c., near 
the railway station at Finnlngham. Mr. Hubert, Ipawich, 


647 16 6 

608 5 9.i 

587 10 



Gibbons, Ipswich 

Cunnold, Ipswich 

Crowe, Stowmarket 

Coe, Ipswich 

Smith and Welham, Ipswich ... 

Snell, Woolpit 

Rednall. Stowmarket 

Bird and G-ostling, Stowmarket 

Andrews, F., Hautrhley (accepted) 

Forest-row. — For the erection of a cemetery chapel at 

Forest-row, Susses, from designs by Herbert J. Green, 

Esq., architect, 24, Lincoln's-iun-fields, London, W.C. ;— 

Gonie, E £367 18 

Martin and Quickendeu 299 

Charlwood Bros 256 14 9 

Morris, J. (accepted.) 254 

Hans Place, S.W.— For new north aisle to St. Saviour's 
Church, Hans-place, for the Rev. G. "W. Weldon and the 
churchwardens J Mr. E. P. Loftua Brock, E.S.A., archi- 
tect :— 

Brass, J. H £2,895 

Pink and Son 2,857 

Dove, Brothers 2,675 

Mattock Brothers 2.473 

Haynes 2,250 

Stimpson 2.248 

Bowman and Scowen 2,100 

Hastings.— For new ornamental parade seat at West 
Marine for the Hastings Town Council : — 

Lambert, R. M., Hastings £96 

Foster. S., St. Leonards 87 10 

Hughes, C, St. Leonards (accepted) ... 83 10 
HtTNTiNGDONSHiRE.— For alterations to the hospital of 
the Hunts Militia Barracks for the county magistrates of 
Huntingdonshii-e :— 

Lord,G £250 

Thackrav, G 250 

Richardson, G 219 

Howard, J 228 

Balmer, J. (accepted) 224 

Kensington. — For works of painting and repair to the 
workhouse and infirmary for the Kensington Board of 
Guardians. Messrs. A. and C. Harston, Bur\'eyors: — 

Lemon, Frank H. 

Lucas and Son 


Lathey, Brothers 
Harrison aud Wood ... 



Turrell, J 

Whitford, R 

Galton and Co 

Cross, Chas 

Derby, A. W. (accepted) 

1,908 5 9 



1,486 19 2 

1,402 17 






[Surveyor's estimate, £1,350.] 
Lambeth. — For the erection of new infant school, class- 
rooms, and outbuildings to All Saints Schools, York- 
street, Lambeth. Mr. S. C. McMurdie, architect ; quan- 
tities supplied : — 

Tarrant and Sons £836 

Canning and Mullina 827 

Phelps and Rice 816 

Marsland 808 

Gibhonand Mitchell 795 

CuUum 745 

Mile End. — For alterations to shop. No. 536, Mile End- 
road. Messrs. W. Waymouth and Son, architects : — 

Grepar £S5 

Niblett 73 

Shurmur 72 

Tyne River. — For the supply of the whole of the 
granite ashlar required for the Coble Dene Dock for the 
Commissioners of the river Tyne: — 

Freeman, William and J. R., of London 

and Penryn (accepted) £16,500 

Wandsworth.— For new house at the Brown Auimal 
Sanatory Institution, Wandsworth-road, for the Senate of 
the University of London. Mr, J. Slater, B.A., archi- 
tect :— 

House and Fence 
offices. walh. &c. 

Snelling, F £944 ... £80 

Gill, F 839 ... 64 

Ashwell aud Stevenson 830 ... 75 

Sheffield and Prebble (accepted) 773 ... 64 

Hambleton.— For the erection of a school for 66 chil- 
dren, for the School Board for Hambleton. Mr. J. A. 
Seward, architect to the board : — 

Hull, Thomas (accepted) 
MuLLiNOAE.— For re-roofing and re-pewing MulUngar 
Church, Co. Westmeath. Mr. Thomas Drew, R.H.A., 
architect; quantities by Mr. J. MoD. Bermingham : — 

Hague, H. (accepted) £1,300 

Salisbury. — For additions to the national schools at 
Fisherton-Anger. Air. Fred Bath, architect ; quantities 
supplied : — 

Hopkins and Son £598 10 

Plowman 540 

Sawkina 531 

Tryhom 4ii0 

Williams 465 

Harris (accepted) 448 

Seaford. East Scssex. —For the erection ot new schools 
for girls for the Seaford School Board ;— 

Burgess, Seaford £1,068 10 

Langley, Turner's-hill 819 

MorUng, Seaford (accepted) 755 17 10 

TuNBRiDGE Wells.— For works of paving, &c., in 
Cromwell-road, for the improvement commissioners : — 

Potter, Henry (accepted) £545 15 1 

[Lowest tender received,] 



Quarryxaen and Stone Merchants. 

Prloea, delivered at any part of the United Kuigdom, funUahed 

Lamplough's Pyretic Saline is refreshing. 

othor spring and s 

Uaker 113, Holborn Hill. Uk 

'urld, and the 

To Destroy Blackbeetles, Fleas. Bugs, and 

ING POWDER, whioh ia sold in Tin Boxes 6d. and Is. eaoh, or 
14 stAmpB from the sole proprietf)rs, 0, and T. 


parties belonging to E. W. T. HAMILTON, Esq., t 

from the Sunnlngdale Station. It comprises about 13 t 

1 aspect sloping gent y t 

ntly erected, and 

district, which is now well known to be one of the healthiest 

l/fESSRS. DRIVER and CO. are 

XtX instructed to SELL by AUCTIOS. at the Mart. Token- 
house-yaid. London, on TUESDAY, 23rd July, inslx lots, the above 
VMluible FREEHOLD ESTATK.— Particulars of Messrs. Hayes. 
TWISDEN. Parker. & Co., Solicitors, «0. Rusiell-square ; and of 
Messrs. Drivers Co., Suryeyors, Land Agents, ajid Auctioneers, 
4. Whitehall, London. 

Very desirable Pl-^a-^u.^ Farm. South Mimms. near Bjmet, 
Middlesex, with possession. 

have received inatructionp to SELL by AUCTIOX. at tho 
Marl. TokenhouBe-yard, London, E.C, on WbdnbsdaY. July 17th, 

'clock precisely, the 

and compact PRO PERTT. 
the parish of South 
_.t, within two miles of 
1 of Bamet, 8 from the city of St, Albans, 13 by road from 
le metropolis, and about 2 miles from the Po" " "^ ' " 
1 the Great Northern Railway, whence there 

nprising acottage'wlth fnrm 

more residences, the wholi 
Dr less). Possession may be had 
Parttoulars with plans may be 
aurhood ; at the 
nd M. RooPER, 

tainlngTOa. 3r. 32p. (lltUe 

Mart, London; of Messrs. _. _ 

Mucoln's Inc-fields, London, W.C. ; and of 

i. E&tate Agi 

Hertfordshire.— By order of the Mortgagee.— Adjoining the town 
of Sawbrldpeworth. — A valuable Freehold Estate of (io acres of 
hitrhly productive, fertile land, part of which could at once be 
utili.sed for building, a further portion admirably adapted for 
horticulture or market garden purposes, and the remalndei- 
elit'ible for accommoda tion land for the town, 


JJX. field will SELL, at the George Hotel. Bishops Stor- 
forfl on ThDHSDAV. July 18th, at 3 for 4 o'clock. In three lots, a 
valuable FREEHOLD PROPKBTT. Pltuate at Saw bridge worlh, 
nej'ir the flrst-clasa station on the Great Eastern Railway, end four 
miles from the capital market town of Bishops Stortford. It 
comprises 58a. 2r. 19p., and lies exceedingly compact behind the 

Part adjoins Mess 

beln? well adapted for 1 

mainder is let t 

nancies. Particulars of Mensrs. RusSELL. 

r-chambers. E.C. ; of J, 

, Solicitors. 11, Queen Vic 

Pattison, Wl( 

I Mart; and of Messrs. EdwiS Fox & 

BoDSFiKLD, 99. Gr esha m-street. Bank, I'Ondon._E^C. 
Kingston.— Capital sound Building Mateiial^, in the erection of 
Norbiton House and premises adjolninp. 


by public Tender the whole of the very capital and expen- 
sive BUILDING MATERIALS comprised in the above premises. 
Including excellent brickwork, rafters, joists, (rirder--<, and other 
useful timber, floorboards, doors, sashes and frames, shutters 
and boxings, panelling, ttalrcasea and balusters, marble and other 
chimney pieces. Btove-- and kitchen range, and useful f 
fittings, pan and plain tiles, stone pa\'in5. coping and s"" 


tity of good lead 1 

_._^ „. ^ . gatters. pipes, «c.. and r 

materials; and also ihe residence and bulHing'i adjoi 
property will be open to view from Tuesday, July T 
day. July 16. from;t * ~ • ■■ 

WBDNESDAY. 17th i 

) five daily. Tenders \ 

. bind tbemselvea to accept the 

Bound Building Materials.— The Old Grammar School, Norbiton 


tl by AUCTION, on the PREMISES, by order of the Qovemore. 
on Thursday, July 18. at eleven for twelve o'clock precisely, in 
one tot. the sound and useful BUILDING MATERIALS, con- 
tained in the Old Grammar School. London-road. Norbiton 
(except thechapel andother reserved portions), comprising sound 

and lead flat<), guttering and 
roof and floors, marble mant-ls, 
» doora, windows, and frames, 
and other internal flttlngs, aU as marVel. 
viewed day prior 

stoves, &c., also i 

■ " ' -"ler internal nLtuiK-, ^-„ _- 

^ _ _ sal'*, and particulars with 

conditions of srile, obtained of G. Ra^^TRICK. Esq.. Solicitor, 
Bng<«ton-on- Thames ; and of the AUCTIONBKas. 6, Norfolk-stre«t. 

Strand, and Kingston. 

Ea'*t Barnet.— Surplus Property of the Great Nortl 

and Co will SEIiL by AUCTION, at the Mart. Token- 
houpe-ysrd City, on TUESDAY, July 16. at 2 o'clock precisely, in 
lot. by direction of the Great Northern Cemetery Ct>mpany, 
- - ■ ih - - - - - 

with "extensivi 

„ value for building, while t-i parties dei 

erectfnit mmufacturlng or busineea premises, or otherwise 
building on a la'-ge ecule, the poclUon Is undeniable, a^ probably 

ital and timber-like treea on the property, which \ 
Included in the sale. Possession can also be obtained upor 
pletlon of the purchase May be viewed, and particulars obtained 

SImportant Sale of a valuable BulldingPatent.— To Co 
Builders, Modellers, Architects, and others. 

MR. F. S. REYNOLDS is instructed 
to offer for SALK by AUCTION, on the premises. No, 12. 
Stourcliffe-street. Edgvsrare-road. W., on TUESDAY, the 16th day 
of July, 1-78, at 2 o'clock precisely (unl ss an acceptable offer be 
previously made), the VALUABLF, PATENT for constructing 

and flnishing 

buUdings, known as JORDAN'S 
with the rema'ning stock and appliances, and a. few office fixtures. 
Full partlcuLars and catalogues of Mr. F, S. REYNOLDS, bl, 
Edgware- road, W. 


By J. DONKIN. Architectural Artist and Certified Art Master. 
See BUILDI*NG NEW3," Oct. lUth, lh73 ; ArchiUct. Jan. .15th, 1876. 








Made from this Material. 


Through the widespread reputation which these foods have gained, many makers have been induced to send into the London and other markets siiorious 
imitations, which are only COLOIJEED by a chemical process, and will not bear any comparison for strength, durability, &c., with the genuine article. 
Gold and Silver Medals Awarded at Paris and Brussels Exhibitions, 




Now largely used. 



Made in same Material to any Patterns ur Designs. 

The Cheapest wnd Most Durable Paving 
now in use. 

JrLT 19, 1878. 






BYZANTINE ART has its sanctuaries, 
so to speak, in those monasteries and 
convents of Mount Athos, which have been 
especially protected by the Treaty of Berlin. 
The mountain, enjoying a reputation so 
unique, is situated in the south of 
Macedonia; but its main peculiarity con- 
sists in the fact that the population is 
entirely composed of monks, and whose for- 
tune it has been to be, at once, the birthplace 
and the last refuge of purely Byzantine 
Art. Many of the structures and com- 
munities, in reference to modem dates, are 
of a high antiquity, while some are new, 
but all distinguished for their curious col- 
lections of paintings. Many of these, no 
doubt, have their parallels in Italy; but the 
prototypes of all belonging to this singular 
school — if school it can be termed — are to 
be found on the Holy Mountain, as it is 
styled by the religious fraternities them- 
selves. There, at any rate, its purest tra- 
ditions survive, even if the existing race 
of painters be no more than one of copyists 
or imitators, whose commissions are 
jfenerally for the decoration of gew-gaw 
Greek churckes in the Em-opean East. 
Regarded from an architectural point of 
■view, the monastic buildings wherein these 
treasures are contained can claim no 
admiration, or, at all events, very little. 
At a distance they appear like so many 
white fortresses scattered up and down the 
slopes of a lofty hill, while, on a close in- 
spection, they present only a congeries of 
entering and retm-ning angles exhibiting 
no plan whatever. It is in the interiors 
that the wealth of art is visible, though, in 
the churches, it is manifest on the exterior 
also. Thus, that of Aghia-Labra, founded 
in the fourth centui-y, possesses a superb 
pair of doors, in hammered copper, eight 
hundred years old probably, and forming a 
singular resemblance to those of Ravello, 
near Amalfi. Within all is gilded ; the 
altar itself is gilt — gilding covers the walls 
up to the roof, intermingled, however, with 
sombre paintings in encaustic ; and gild- 
ing, again, makes gorgeous the pulpit, 
lecterns, and every other variety of ecclesi- 
astical furniture upon which gold, in leaf or 
plate, can be laid. It is here that we begin 
to trace the transition from ancient art, 
which had Beauty for its ideal, to Christian 
art, which employed Form only as the ex- 
pression of an idea. The Byzantine artists, 
viewing this, in a sense, as their mission, 
possessed many advantages for can-ying it 
out ; but, with the exception of a few 
mosaics in Italy, their genuine work is not 
to be found in its perfection anywhere 
except in the monasteries of Mount Athos. 
Two centuries before Coustantine they had 
advanced their labours so far as to create 
a theory, and the principles of this theory 
are stiU extant in a manuscript, of which 
every convent possesses a copy, compiled 
by Foui-na d'Agrapha, and which explains 
the secret of that monotony and immu- 
tability so characteristic in every age of 
Byzantine art, and, in fact, so traditional 
that the production of one painter fre- 
quently can scai'cely be distinguished from 
that of his predecessor, who may have 
flourished three or four hundred years 
previously. But this stereotyping process 
was not confined to the monkish artists of 
Mount Athos : it pervaded the art of the 
Greek Church from the Lower Empire, in 
Russia, in Asia Minor, and even in the 
monasteries of Mount Sinai. Pei'haps 
nowhere in the world is there a more pure 

example than in the edifice now spoken of 
— a colossal Christ occupying, with attri- 
liutes, the entire dome. It is a study in 
itself. The flesh is sti'aw-coloured. One 
hand holds the Gospels — the other is 
pressed over the heart. The hair is flaxen, 
while the beard is black, as are the rye- 
brows, the other figures in the group being 
lessened in stature in proportion as their 
historical importance diminishes. The 
Archangels are represented as wearing 
dalmatics of gold embroidery, and bearing 
sceptres surmounted by the sacred efligy. 
All is brilliantly coloured, except the 
ground, which is dark and dead as charcoal. 
But the sky, whence bodiless cherubim 
are descending, is of lustreless gold, and 
showers of golden stars burst around the 
head of the Lord, whose eye, from whatever 
point the monkish worshipper may look, is 
fixed upon him. Near at hand are the 
Four Erangelists writing at the dictation 
of an Apostle ; a cross, painted with bright 
figures on a black ground — a strange pecu- 
liarity in itself — and a picture illustrating 
an episode of the Crusades. This is a 
French King with a Merovingian crown, 
a dalmatic ornamented with the royal 
lilies, and a little church in his hand, which 
he is presenting, no doubt, to the good 
believers of Mount Athos. All around are 
carvings of anchorites in attitudes of 
prayer, such as to this day inhabit the 
grottoes of the mountain ; old men reduced 
nearly to skeletons, wearing enormous 
beards, and only leaf cinctures as clothing, 
with the inscription daubed above them in 
thick gold leaf — " This was the life of the 
Lone Hermit." The majority of the paint- 
ings are in frescoe, and attributed to a 
single artist, the date of whose labours is 
unfixed, but who executed his work bit by 
bit, and joined it together so delicately that 
the lines of juncture, at a little distance, 
are invisible. Neither in his selection of 
tints, nor in his composition of groups, did 
he make the faintest attempt at reality. 
He drew outlines and threw on colour at 
the suggestion of the moment ; but pre- 
ferred frescoe, as then distinguished from 
encaustic, painting — two processes which, 
it is needless to say, have since undergone 
many changes and some confusions in the 
sight of artistic history. However, as all 
these works are absolutely dateless, they 
can only be approximately assigned a place 
in the " Calendar of Art " by comparing 
them with the chronology of some cele- 
brated Italian examples. Thus, the mosaics 
of Santa Pudentiana at Rome belong, be- 
yond all doubt, to the second century — and 
their Christ is a reflection of that in the 
parent church, as is supposed, of Mount 
Athos. Those of St. Paul's outside the 
City and sf St. John Lateran, two cen- 
turies younger, are also ascribable to the 
epoch in which Byzantine art reached its 
apogee; while those of St. Como and St. 
Damiano on Mount Athos, and in the 
monasteries affiliated to it, exhibit the same 
deterioration; and in the ninth centuiy the 
degradation is complete: there are only 
angles and straight lines in both mosaics 
and pictures. The parallel may be followed 
two hundred years later in Santa Vitale, at 
Ravenna, in Santa Maria, in Trastevere, 
and even in St. Sophia itself at Constanti- 
nople. The monks of Mount Athos were 
multij^lying their unprogressive pupils 
throughout the civilised world, and the 
touch of their hand is perceptible even in 
the gold painting of St. Mark's at Venice. 
They still persevere with their self- 
appointed task, which is to convert the 
entire mountain into a series of picture 
galleries, all severely and uniformly in the 
original Byzantine style. Their method is, 
first, to clear the wall and obtain a smooth 
surface, then to lay on with a trowel a 
certain thickness of plaster; next to assign 
a place, and a height to the central figure. 

whose head, upon which a beam of light 
must be concentrated, is, as a matter of 
course, out of all proportion with the rest 
of the figure, as the rest of the figure is 
with the figures around. This done, the 
first artist gives over the task to a second, 
who lays down a foundation of red-brown 
paint, and to whom succeeds a third, who 
adds, exactly as his predecessors did hun- 
dreds of years ago, large contributions of 
red and blue preparatory to the crowning 
of the gigantic Clirist with the nimbus, 
the outlines of which are traced by means 
of an apparatus resembling a pair of com- 
passes, but of very pi-imitive construction. 
The colours are laid thickly on, take a long 
time to dry, and have no sort of harmony 
one with another. The interest of the 
process, indeed, consists simply in its being 
e^-idently a reproduction, so utterly un- 
touched by modern art-knowledge, of the 
pi'ocesses by which were similarly decorated 
those cloisters, for centuries fallen into 
ruin, that were inhabited by the long-buried 
predecessors of these mechanical artists. 
And yet, amid all this monotony, a few 
glimpses of genius enlighten the general 
vacuity, as in the chief church of Iviron, 
where the encaustic paintings in the choir 
are of rare beauty, though it is impossible 
to attribute them to any particular, or even 
to the same, epoch, and where the doors 
are of exquisite wood-work, encrusted with 
mother-of-pearl, with twisted columns of 
the true Byzantine order, and exterior walls 
of reddish brown. But, however crude the 
condition of art, as illustrated in the 
monasteries of Mount Athos, may be, it is, 
on that account, all the more historically 
interesting as indicating a time when, the 
antique arts being destroyed, a new system 
of ideas endeavoured, by the humblest 
efforts, to replace it, and ceased to grow 
almost from the moment when it was born. 
The Byzantine school, in fact, was some- 
thing saved from the wreck Lif the ancient 
arts, and clumsily, though characteristically, 
adapted to new purposes some new ele- 
ments and materials mingling with the old. 
Though, as we have seen, not marked by 
much development, it had, nevertheless, its 
seasons of growth and decay. Perhaps the 
close of the third century may be 
said to have witnessed its perfection, 
and that of the seventh century its down- 
fall. By the Emperors of C'Dnstantinople 
it was, in the first year of their gloi-y, 
greatly encouraged ; but their patronage 
fell off when it was found that the Monks 
of Athos, instead of caring to gild heroic 
apotheoses for the lords ot the Lower 
Empire, preferred to build their own 
churches, and paint altar-pieces for them, 
with saints, and martyi's, and bishops in 
aureoles and mitres, hardly less heavy with 
the precious metal — which their friends and 
families sent to them from Wallachia and 
Moldavia — than if they had been of solid 
gold, encrusted upon the painting. Their 
isolation and obscurity were of advantage 
to them in one respect. There were no 
Dark Ages on Mount Athos : it never 
emerged much into the light ; but, on the 
other hand, it never sank entirely in the 
gloom ; and thus, raw and rude though 
their art may have been, it is the single 
incontestable link between the two epochs. 
It was Christian Art, if not the Christian 
Art of which Italy, in after times, though 
still owing a debt to these mountain 
painters, witnessed so marvellous a growth, 
and, perhaps, for the sake of its characte- 
ristic qualities, we may not greatly regret 
the inflexible conservatism of its professors. 
They saw Cimabue corrected by Giotto, 
and took no notice of either. They cared, 
indeed, little for art in itself, except in the 
senice of religion. And their art, like a 
cast taken in metal, stands immutably 
before us, as it did in the second, the fourth, 
the ninth, and the eleventh centuries. It 



July 19, 1878. 

may, as a result, be no more than a relic to 
excite the admii'ation of the antiquaiian 
artist, or the curiosity of the learned ; yet 
it has its history, and its history has had a 
meaning. In the famous Bologuese Trea- 
tise we find revealed many of the arts 
which these inventive and adaptive Monks 
of the Mountains practised ; and, notwith- 
standing the general crudity of their work, 
it is astonishing to note the number and 
vai-iety of their tricks, as they may really 
be described, in producing effects which, be 
it remembered, they at first produced only 
for themselves, and not for pilgrims, whose 
donations might swell the total of the 
monastic mouey-bos. It is ciu-ious to read, 
in the records of these time-worn establish- 
ments, keeping out of the general world as 
they did, how the Byzantine brethren 
sought to preseiwe their secrets intact, and 
especially theii- use of gold in pictm-es. The 
early Italian frescoes, as they are called, 
were, it is well known, adorned with gold 
leaf; the same decoration, indeed, was ex- 
tended to miniatures, and, sul.isequently, 
even to paintings in oil ; and, indeed, this 
use of the precious metal, invented on 
Mount Athos, became universal until 
Domenico Ghirlandaio discovereil a method 
of imitating gold in colours. The monks, 
however, went on their way; they could 
discriminate between the damp and the dry 
waUs on which their pictures were to be 
hung; they tried a thousand experiments, 
all preserved among themselves as " mys- 
teries," and a nimbus has been found, in a 
chapel decorated by a gift from the 
brethren of the Macedonian hill, in which 
a thick inci-ustation of gold-dust was depo- 
sited upon a layer of Italian wax. Seven 
thousand leaves were used, on the Byzantine 
principle, in " painting" the chapel of St. 
Jacopo of Pistoia, and the Eastern method 
becanie to costly, us applied to pictures, 
that, in later days, an adulteration of quick- 
silver, tin, and sulphur was detected in the 
nimbi of the Virgin at Bologna. The 
Athos artists, too, had their secrets in other 
directions, which they varied, while, as we 
have said, never diverging from, so to call 
it, the original pattern and inspiration of 
theii- art. They made use, in painting, of 
wax and caustic potash, always, however, 
calling in the aid of gold to crown the 
Madonna or the Christ, or to make a halo 
shine around the head of the Saint; and 
one of their exploded methods is still prac- 
tised, to a modified extent, in the studios of 
Pai-ma. With them, again, originated some 
other inventions, which have made their- 
way and their renown in the world. Niello, 
the damascening of Jlilanese armour ; the 
rose and purple dyes applied to wool ; 
painting in oil on wood ; the mineral blue 
used by Titian ; the " Hebrew white" em- 
ployed by his predecessors and rivals ; and, 
following the tradition, Corregio's mantle 
of St. Jerome, in which " the blue drapery 
was the thickness of a five franc piece above 
the rest of the picture" — all these lessons 
have come down to us from the really pve- 
Raffelle Monks of the Macedonian hill, 
whom the Treaty of Berlin has permitted 
to continue at peace, in their charities and 
their labours — the latter being chiefly re- 
markable, as we have already suggested, 
because by them was originated Byzantine 
art, whatever its worth, while, by them. 
Byzantine art has been so far preserved 
that we know precisely what it was at the 


lU'R. W. H. LASCELLES, of Bunhill-row, 
Fiusbury, as our readers may know, is 
the patentee of a species of concrete slab 

• sketches for Cottai;e3 .ind Other Buildings to bf> con- 
sti-ucted ou the patent cement sl!ib system of W H 
I.ASCELLES. from sketches by R. Koemak Shaw, R A. • 
drawn by Maheice B. Adams, A.R.I.E.A. 

before referred to in these pages. He has 
erected several blocks of cottages with the 
material at Croydon, and we believe the 
earliest of them, built in 1875, has stood well, 
and has always been let to respectable ten- 
ants. But the enterprise of Mr. Lascelles has 
not stopped here. He has wisely endeavoured 
to show that the slab system of building 
can be employed in an artistic manner, and 
that it admits of as much picturesqueness 
and effect as the older materials at our com- 
mand. Under the title of " Sketches for 
Cottages and other Buildings," Mr. 
Lascelles has published a series of designs 
by Mr. R. Norman Shaw, R.A., showing the 
application of the patent cement slab sys- 
tem. These have been well drawn by Mr. 
Maurice B. Adams, A.R.I.B.A., and com- 
prise about thirty plates of subjects, each 
being illustrated by a perspective sketch, 
a ground and chamber plans. They foi-m 
an architectural work of illustrations from 
sketches by one of our most popular archi- 
tects — an acknowledged master of the later 
domestic English styles — though in some 
of them we can scarcely trace the author- 
ship. The subjects comprise chiefly work 
men's and middle-class cottages, single and 
in groups, game-keepers' and entrance 
lodges, bungalows, small villa residences, 
besides a workmen's hall, and sketches for 
a cottage hospital, almshouses, chapel school, 
and a small mission chiu-ch. The cottages 
r;inge from the one-story " But and Ben 
of the north to the two- story single or 
double cottage, and are well suited for erec- 
tion in rural localities, suburban and agri 
cultural districts, or where the services of 
the skilled bricklayer and plasterer are not 
readily obtained. For the growing require- 
ments of manufacturing towns, for 
agricultural districts, and especially for 
exportation to our colonies, we can scarc&ly 
conceive a more appropriate kind of luiild- 
ing — so light, so easily transported, and so 
thoroughly impervious to the weather. 
Walls are erected upon a similar plan to 
those tile-hung. Uprights of 3 to 4in. 
square, about 3ft. apart, tenoned to a 
sUl-piece resting on a bed of concrete, form 
the framework. Upon these studs or up- 
rights the concrete slabs are screwed. These 
are about 3ft. by 2ft., IJin. thick, and the 
face side, placed outwards, can be " rough 
cast," or cast to resemble waU tiles, 
and the inside papered or painted. One 
of the advantages of the system is the 
facility of execution afforded; the brick- 
layer and plasterer are not required ; a car- 
penter has only to be instructed in framing 
the studwork, and the patentee guarantees 
to instruct beginnei-s by sending a foreman 
and charging merely his time at Is. per hour, 
besides expenses. Opening the book before 
us, we pick out at random a few instances 
in which the artist has indicated how the 
material may be applied. The first is a 
" But and Ben," or a workman's cottage 
— which we illustrate — after the Scotch 
model, consisting of a " but " or living 
room about 1-ift. by lift., with a box or bed 
recess screened by a curtain, a larder, a 
" ben," or back room, with bed recess, and a 
porch ; scullery, coal, ashes, &c., under a 
leauto roof. The whole is very simply 
treated under one span, the lean-to and gable 
end being relieved by framed timber. The 
design has been ei-ected for the Paris 
Exhibition. A similar treatment is given 
of a double cottage, in which recesses at 
the side of rooms are provided for a chest, 
and two recesses for beds. For these 
single-story dwellings the material seems 
admirably adapted, and the plans given 
are generally compact and economical. De- 
signs for cottages of two stories are shown 
— these generally partake of the ordinary 
features of half-timbered houses with 
oversailiug tile-hung upper stories ; indeed, 
there is little that is special to the material 
about them, though they all' bear evidence 

of artistic grouping of parts. We notice 
particularly a double " But and Ben Cot- 
tage," with lean-to for scullery and out- 
offices, and bed recesses ; a pair of work- 
men's cottages ; a group of three cottages, 
with two bedi'ooms each, in which the lower 
story is of timber fiUing-in with slal5-hung 
upiper story ; a group of four cottages having 
three bedrooms each ; a block of five cottages 
of two bedrooms ; and a row of four-roomed 
cottages suitable for a village. We think 
the group of five cottages and the row are 
more successful examples of the concrete 
slab system than those in which much half- 
timbering has been shown. The arrange- 
ments of some of these are clever as regards 
the entrances. " A Pair of Workmen's Cot- 
tages," semi-detached, is very picturesque 
and suitable ; and the pair of cottages for a 
rural site, with the wide-panelled spaces of 
the lower story, lends itself well to the con- 
crete construction. On another plate we 
have an entrance lodge, simple in plan and 
appropriate, but, we presume, the lower 
story is of l.irickwork — at least, it is shown 
so. This design is on view at the Paris 
Exhibition. Coming to the designs for 
larger residences, we are inclined to think 
the author's treatment is less success- 
ful. Thus the design for a small detached 
villa residence, though admirable for brick, 
is scarcely characteristic of cement-slab 
construction; the " middle-class cottages" 
are better, and the treatment is suited (see 
our illustration). The fact, is we lose the 
motive for this kind of constniction in large 
buildings, or in which more solid materials 
are necessary. There is no reason, however, 
why brick should not be combined with 
this cement slabwork, and a good example 
of this is shown in the " Workman's Vil- 
lage Hall." The designer and draughtsman 
have, in their effort to produce picturesque 
grouping and contrast of parts, ignored the 
material, and we look upon many of the 
designs as quite as suitalile for brick and 
timber as for the patent slab. We note the 
" Shooting-box," the " Sea-side Bungalow " 
and designs for smoking-room and boat- 
house as some of the best in the collection 
viewed in their relation to the material. 
Thus the sea-side bungalow could be framed 
and filled in with slab, or the studwork 
could be formed as cement panelling. The 
plan of the latter has been arranged with 
particular regard to the prospect or Wew of 
the sea, the windows being so placed as 
to command views thereof. In the Boat 
House tlie whole superstructure is light, and 
rests upon posts, and its construction in a 
light material is well adapted to the slab 
system. Among other designs of merit we 
may mention a block of almshouses, a small 
stable and coachman's cottage, a cottage 
hospital, aud a small mission church for 80 
worshippers — the latter will be found among 
our illustrations, and may serve to indicate 
the capabilities of concrete and timber for 
structm-es of an unpretending class. We 
may say, indeed, that Mr. Lascelles' 
pleasing sketches are equally applicable to 
concrete construction of all kinds as well 
as to brick and timber. There is nothing 
about them to suggest what they really 
pretend to be — walls of slab ; the window- 
frames are flush with the outside of the 
studwork — in fact, the studs actually answer 
the purpose of frames ; and, in looking at 
some of the sketches, we may imagine we 
had before us some of the charming com- 
binations of half-timbered work to be found 
in the counties of Shropshire and Sussex. 
We might consider this lack of individu- 
ality in the designs before us as a defect, 
but there is much in the common attributes 
of brickwork and timber that is appropriate 
to concrete building. We will not assert 
that the executed example will quite come 
up to the sketch ; much is due to the 
artist, and we hope that the erection of 
designs of this class will be entrusted to 

July 19, 1878. 



au architect. In the grouping, roofs, and 
chimneys, a great deal may be done to econo- 
mise, and the biingalow and one- span forms 
of roof shown in the earlier designs are well 
adapted for the piii-pose, and might become 
suggestive of new combinations. We are 
sorry that no descriptive text is given, and 
that nothing as regards cost has been 
hinted at ; this is an omission that might 
be supplied. We should judge that some 
of the simpler designs shown might be 
executed, imder favourable circumstances, 
for at least from 1-5 to 2tt percent, less than 
brickwork, as there are several points where 
expense could be saved. Thus, as regards 
the carpenter's work, just one-half the 
usual number of studs is saved, no bracing 
is required, intelligent laboiu'ers might be 
tiiught to screw up the slabs on the walls 
and floors ; the windows and doors can be 
fixed to the quartering, and, where a num- 
ber of cottages are built together, the saving 
in carriage would be consideraljle as 
the slabs occupy less space than bricks, and 
six of Mr. Lascelles' walls arc only equal to 
one brick wall. The " But and Ben " we 
illustrate could probably be built for £100 
in this material, though, of course, circum- 
stances and locality must be considei-ed. 
Under the system of Mr. Lascelles the 
timber framework in the gables and sides 
can be cast in the slab form and placed hi 
siiu. We do not approve as thoroughly 
honest this imitation of woodwork — we 
should pi-efer the real timbering; but 
it is fail" to observe that the system may be 
employed in a legitimate and artistic man- 
ner by relieving the wall faces and throwing 
them into panels or any kind of surface 
relief or decoration ; and we should like to 
have seen a few designs showing such a 
mode of treatment. The slabs, as we 
have said, can be used in floors and I'oofs — 
in fact, everywhere ; and the great piecu- 
liarity of the principle is that it simplifies 
construction and reduces the demand for 
skQled labour. We have, therefore, satis- 
faction in recommending it to the con- 
sideration of all landowners, speculators, 
and the profession generally, where economy 
is an object. In the book under review we 
have a series of artistic designs suitable for 
any material than specially applicable for 
the particular system intended, and we 
believe the book will do good service as the 
pioneer of a new and more artistic era of 
concrete building. We must add a word in 
praise of the excellent photo-lithographic 
reproductions printed by Mr. J. Akerman. 
The work is in quarto form, the perspective 
views and plans being drawn on a large and 
hitelligible scale. The examples we illus- 
trate are more or less reduced. 



T^HE term ivood may be said to include aU 
-*- substances containing woody fibre 
which are used in anyway by the builder — 
as timbers, ropes, and cords made of flax or 
hemp, felt, ifcc. ; but we shall at present 
confine our attention to the first-named 
material as employed by the carpenter or 
joiner. Timbers for building purposes are 
derived from two great classes of trees, one 
of which has the stem solid throughout, and 
supplies the carpenter with planks and 
balks of timber, and the joiner with 
thinner boards or battens. Trees belonging 
to this class are termed Exogens or outward- 
growers, the newest layers of wood being 
those furthest from the centre. The other 
class includes trees which have hollow 
stems, such as the bamboo, date palm, and 
other tropical plants, wliieh are termed 
Endogens or inwcrd-gi-ojvers, and from their 
character can only be used in their entu-ety, 
and cannot be cut up into thin phinks. It 

is chiefly to the Exogens that we must look 
for our supply of wood for building pur- 
poses, especially in cold or temperate 
i-cgious, although in some tropical countries, 
where these trees do not grow, the Endo- 
gens supply a very sei-viceable matei'ial for 
building purposes. 

If we cut across the stem of an exogenous 
tree we find that its softest part is on the 
outside, immediately under the bark, while 
the centre is generally very hard if the tree 
is in sound condition. The centre, or heart 
wood, is the oldest portion of the tree, and 
it is through this that the sap rises from 
the roots to the branches and leaves. The 
sap consists of fluids and gases absorbed 
from the soil by the roots, and drawn up 
through the cells which form the material of 
the tree. It is a compound of oxygen, 
hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, sulphur, soda, 
lime, magnesia, iron, phosphorus, and 
water, with other elements often in minute 
proportions. The water is the chief ingre- 
dient, forming, as it does, about 90 per cent, 
of the whole. The nitrogen found in wood 
is obtained from the soil, and is essential to 
the gTowth of the tree, while the carbon is 
chiefly absorbed by the leaves from the 

The sap having passed through the inner 
wood of the tree, from the root to the 
leaves, becomes completely changed in 
character and composition by giving off 
oxygen from the leaves and absorbing 
carbon from the air through the same 
means. With the carbon thus obtained the 
sap descends by the outer portion of the 
branches and stem which immediately 
underlies the bark, depositing a new layer 
of woody fibre on the outside of that of the 
p^■e^^ous year, so that the tree is increased 
in diameter while the inner wood is pi'essed 
more tightly together, and becomes harder 
and harder every season. By cutting across 
the stem of a tree the wood can be seen in 
distinct layers, each of which indicates a 
single year's growth ; the inner part being 
generally darker in colour, as well as hai-der 
and more compact, than the outer. The 
bark serves as a protection to the newly- 
formed wood, the outer portion of the bark 
splitting up and dropping off each yeai% to 
allow of the enlargement of the circum- 
ference, while the inner bark takes its 
place. The amount of sapwood, or new 
deposit, which is foimd in full-grown trees, 
differs very materially, according to their 
characters, the fir having more than the 
oak, and the oak more than the chesnut ; 
the proportions being neai-ly as the numbers 
4, 3, and 1. 

If we examine with the microscope a very 
thin slice cut from a piece of wood, we find 
that it consists of a number of fibres united 
together, and that these are made up of 
minute cells or cellular tissue, encrusted with 
layers of woody matter, which fills them up, 
and renders the material hard and solid. 
The tissue of the cells consists of a material 
known to chemists by the name of Celhdin, 
while the incrusting substance with which 
they are more or less filled is termed Lignin. 
Cellulin forms the basis of the tissue of all 
plants, and when pure, as in cotton, linen, 
elder pith, &c., contains only the three ele- 
ments carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, in 
certain fixed proportions ; is tasteless and 
insoluble in water, alcohol, ether, or oils. 
It has a higlier specific gravity than water, 
and can be dissolved by strong sulphuric 
acid, weak acids having very little eft'ect 
upon it, although more upon newly-formed 
wood than on the o'der. Dilute alkalies do 
not act upon cellulin, but when concen- 
trated they gradually destroy its texture. 

Lignin or woody fibre, which is always 
found incrusting the cells of trees, and 
gives hardness to the wood, has a different 
composition to cellulin, and varies con- 
siderably in different kinds of wood. It is 
found to exist in greatest abundance in the 

heart-wood of trees, and tlic harder the 
wood the greater the quantity of lignum ; 
it is insoluble in water, but easily dissolved 
by alkalis ; water saturated with chlorine 
gas will also readily dissolve it, while sul- 
phuric acid chars it. Lignin is generally 
found mixed with some resinous matters 
which give colour and inflammability to the 
wood. Saline matters are also found in the 
woody fibre, as well as small quantities of 

Albumen is a substance found in greater 
or less quantities in nearly all plants, but 
especially in the soft sapwood which has 
been recently formed on the outer portion 
of growing trees. This material closely 
resembles in its chemical composition and 
other properties the animal albumen ob- 
tained in a nearly pure state from white of 
egg. It is a compound of carbon, hydro- 
gen, nitrogen, and oxygen, with small pro- 
portions of sulphur and phosphorus, being 
from the nature of its composition more 
liable to decomposition than any other part 
of the tree. If heated to 150^ Fah. it be- 
comes coagulated, and is then quite insolu- 
ble in water, but is readily dissolved by 
alkalis. It forms an insoluble compound 
with the poisonous substance known as 
corrosive sublimate (chloride of mercury), 
which, when combined with albumen, pre- 
vents its decomposition. 

Water forms an important constituent in 
all kinds of wood, in which it exists partly 
in chemical union with the other elements 
— carbon and nitrogen — and partly in what 
is termed the hygroscopic form, or capable 
of being removed by the simple process of 
evaporation or drying. More water is 
generally found in soft than in hard wood, 
beech containing about 19 per cent. ; oak, 
35 per cent. ; white fir, 37 per cent. ; and 
red fir, 4.5 per cent, of water. When wood is 
heated to 130" Fah.. the hygroscopic water 
is driven off, and the wood is then said to 
be dried. 

Carbon is the chief constituent of wood, 
from which it can be obtained in a nearly 
pure state by heating to redness in a closed 
vessel, so as to drive off the other elements. 
The proportion in different wood varies con- 
siderably, oak containing 50 per cent., and 
beech about 40 per cent, of this element. 

Turpentine is a kind of gum which exudes 
from many of the pines and firs when in a 
growing state, especially if incisions are 
made in the stem ; and when subjected to 
the process of distillation the hydrocarbon 
called oil of turpentine is obtained, which is 
much used in the mixing of painters" colours, 
and, being composed of carbon and hydrogen 
only, it is a highly inflammable material. 
The solid residue after distUlatiou of crude 
turpentine is the gum termed resin, which 
is much used by plumbers in soldering. 
The exudation of turpentine will continue 
in some pine wood long after it has been cut 
down, especially when exposed to heat. 
Such woods are also difficult to work with 
the tool on account of the toughness and 
resistance which the resin imparts, and con- 
sequently are not well adapted to the finer 
work of the joiner, although highly valuable 
for the rougher purposes of the cai-penter, 
since those woods which contain much tur- 
pentine are generally strong and dm-able, 
this substance being but slightly soluble in 
water, and as it contains no nitrogen is not 
decomposed by the action of air or water. 
Oil of tm-pentine is a great solvent of gums 
and resins, with which it combines to make 
varnishes ; and as it also unites freely with 
fixed oils it is a valuable ingredient in the 
mixing of oil paints. 

Tannin or tannic acid is an astringent 
principle found in several trees, but more 
especially in the oak. It has the property 
of forming an insoluble compound with 
albumen, which enables it to prevent putre- 
faction taking place in the wood. The 
durability of oak when employed as a 



July 19, 1878. 

building material may bo considered to 
depend in a considerable degree on the pro- 
portion of tannic acid whicli it contains ; 
but, as it is very soluble in water, oak wood 
should not be seasoned by soaking for any 
considerable time in water, which might 
dissolve out a portion of this substance, and 
render it more liable to decay. 

If a solution of a salt of iron, as the sul- 
phate, is poured on wood containing tannic 
acid it will turn to a bluish-black. Rusty 
iron nails when inserted in oak will also 
have the effect of blackening the wood. 

Decay is a process which commences in 
timber with the decomposition of the 
albuminous substances, in which a fermen- 
tation is set up, owing to the presence of 
nitrogen, of which element albumen contains 
16 per cent. The decay of the wood takes 
place by its absorbing oxygen frcjm the air 
and exhaling carbonic acid and water, so 
that the solid part crumbles down into a 
soft brown vegetable mould or /liu/nts, which 
contains a larger proportion of carbon than 
is found in the undecayed wood. Since the 
sapwood of a tree contains more albumen 
than any other part, it is in this that the 
decay usually begins, as, by being more 
spongy and less dense than the older wood, 
it admits air more freely, and so facilitates 
the progress of the fennentation. The 
albumen by its decomposition also aifords a 
fertile soil for the growth of fungi, the 
spores of which are always floating about 
imseen in the air, and when deposited in a 
favourable soil will grow with wonderful 
rapidity, living upon the juices of the wood, 
and by absorbing all its moisture leaving it 
in a dry and powdery condition. In order, 
therefore, to prevent decay it is necessary 
that as much of the sap and water should 
be got rid of as possible, which may be done 
by soaking for a few days in water, and then 
allowing it to dry thoroughly in the air, or 
by applying a moderate degree of artificial 
heat. Coating wood with an impervious 
substance, such as tar or paint, prevents to 
some ex cent the action of the air in pro- 
ducing decomposition ; but the most effec- 
tual method of preserving wood is to steep 
it in a material called kreasoie obtained from 
coal or wood tar. It is to this material that 
wood-smoke owes its pungent odour and 
antiseptic properties, and when mixed with 
albumen it causes its immediate coagula- 
tion, so that it is the most powerful of 
antiseptics. The pi-ocess teriaeiliyanizinij 
is satui ating the wood with a dilute solution 
of corrosive suhlimate (chloride of mercury'), 
which, by forming an insoluble compound 
with the albumen, prevents to a great 
extent its decomposition. 



CAERAEA MAEBLE, so named from a town 
in Northern Italy, where it is quarried, is 
a fine white saccharine limestone. It is an 
oolite much altered by plutonic .action, and its 
purity and te.xture have made it a valuable 
material to the sculptor. There are upwaras 
of thirty quarries in Carrara, but only a few 
furnish the statuary marble under this name. 
This marble is not suited for external uses. We 
may mention the decay of the group of Queen 
Anne in front of St. Paul's, erected at the com- 
mencement of the last century, and the statue of 
King George III., which also had to be removed 
owing to its decomposed surface. Several other 
instances of the perishable nature of Carrara 
marble may be cited. The " Sicilian " or the 
Eavaocione marble has supplanted it for out-of- 
door uses. 

A term derived from Caryatis, literally a 
woman of Carys, and applied to female 
figures used as columns. Many hypotheses of 
the origin of the name has been given, the 
principal one being that the Greek artists em- 
ployed the female Caryata; in their national 
costume to commemorate the disgrace of the 

defeat of the Persians, the inhabitants of 
Caryoe having ioined the latter after the battle 
of Thermopylae. The male prisoners were slain, 
and representations of them had been made by 
the Greek sculptors under the name " Persians," 
and were employed as columns ; and figures 
representing the women in captivity were after- 
wards used for a like purpose. Another and 
more probable explanation of the term is that 
at Caryaj there was a temple to the goddess, 
Diana Caryatis, and that at her temple and 
statue the Lacedemonian virgins celebrated an 
anniversary festival. It may be concluded, 
therefore, that the statues called " Caryatides " 
were used about the temples of this goddess, 
and that they were really representations of 
the virgins engaged in her worship. In the 
Pandroscum representations of virgins are seen ; 
these were probably Canephorig, who assisted 
in the Panathenaic procession. The best 
examples are those used at the temple of 
Erechtheus at Athens, and copied in the church 
of St. Pancras in the Euston-road. In this 
instance it will be noticed the figures in the 
return sides face in the same direction as 
those under the front entablature, and not 

" C. L. B." writes : — " Gwilt leaving the 
question open from whence the Greeks gained 
the idea of placing figures to support an en- 
tablature, gives us another and perhaps more 
probable story in support of the origin of the 
name. He considers the female figures to repre- 
sent virgins engaged in the worship of Artemis. 
There are various accounts explaining why the 
name of the goddess is linked with that of the 
town. One is simply that Artemis was wor- 
shipped there, and the town possessed a temple 
of that goddess. Another claims an origin 
quite distinct from the Laconian city ; it is 
this : — Some virgins threatened with danger 
while celebrating the rites of the goddess, took 
refuge beneath a nut-tree (^apva), and in 
memory of their deliverance raised a temple to 
Artemis Caryatis. His theory seems more 
probable than that of Vitruvius, and is sup- 
portedby variousauthors('Gwilt,' p. 70). When 
or how the statues themselves first came to be 
used in this way by the Greeks we cannot 
determine. We know they were used in Egypt 
and India long before any reliable history of 
Greece begins. The idea may have been brought 
from Egypt by the Persians, and so have been 
taken by the Ionic and other colonies then under 
the Persian sway, and thus the new fashion 
would spread through the Athenian empire and 
the whole of Greece ; this view would also 
account for, in some degree, the name of Persians 
given to the male figures. Atlantes and Tela- 
mones are but other names signifying anything 
that supports a weight or burden. The best 
known examples in Greece are those in the 
Erectheum at Athens. The temple of Zeus, at 
Acragos, also shows them. They were copied 
also in many Eomau buildings." 

" J. A." sends the following : — " Caryatides 
are female figures employed in architecture in 
place of columns. Vitruvius attributes the 
origin of Caryatid figures to the circumstance 
of the inhabitants of Caryoe, a city of Pelop- 
onnesus, taking part with the Persians during 
the invasion of Xerxes, and their consequent 
punishment. The men were slain, the 
women carried into captivity, and their igno- 
miny was perpetuated by the employment of 
figures, similar to the women of Caryee, in 
place of columns. The use of these figures 
appears to be more ancient than the date of 
the above story. Like many other forms of 
art, they were most probably drawn from 
Egypt. Six beautiful Caryatid figures were 
employed in the Pandrosion — one of the build- 
ings on the Acropolis of Athens. These were 
on the southern portico — four in front and one 
on each flank. (The northern portico had six 
Ionic columns placed as the Caryatid figures — 
viz., four in front and one on each flank.) The 
Caryatid figures were placed on a basement 
and supported an enriched entablature. One 
of the figures is now in the British Museum 
among the Elgin collection. The execution of 
this figure is very fine, its height is 7ft. 9in." 


The process of imparting a steel surface to 
iron goods. See Dr. Ure's "Dictionary," Clarke's 
" Manual," &c. 


A hinged frame, generally glazed, fitted to 
window openings. The point of most im- 
portance in the construction of a casement 
window is the close-fitting and weather-tight 
qualities of the bottom rail and meeting stiles. 
Unless great care is taken to insure accuracy of 
fitting in the rebates no ordinary casement is 
safe against driving rain. Casements are gene- 
rally hung to solid wrought frames with oak- 
sunk weathered and throated sills, and vary 
from liin. to 2Jin. in thickness. The casements 
may be of deal, wainscot Honduras or Spanish 
mahogany, and in the specifications it is usual 
to describe their thickness, whether moulded, 
ovolo, or astragal and hoUow ; if with margin 
lights, transoms ; their hanging, which is 
usually with 4in. iron or brass butts ; the mode 
of fastening, whether by any patent, or with 
espagnolette bolts ; if with weather bars, &c. 
Joints : For ordinary casements the sUl should 
be well throated, the hanging stiles should be 
oTooved, and corresponding beads should be 
let into the casement frame. Besides these pre- 
cautions the meeting stiles should interlock 
into each other — that is, the rebate should be 
formed with a hook joint, so that the rain should 
be checked in its direct progress through the 
joint. Outward-opening casements are the best 
to insure imperviousness to the wet. Sometimes 
a fillet is fixed to one of the stiles to prevent the 
ingress of wet, and a weather-board is fixed to 
the bottom rail to throw off the wet. One or 
two modes of forming the meeting stiles and 


sill we give in the margin, A and B being a 
section of the frame and stiles, and Fig. C the 
bottom rail, fitting into a rebate with grooved 
nosing over the sill. Sometimes the meeting 
stiles are made to fit as a hinged joint, and the 
leaves are then closed together. Fastenings: 
An espagnolette bolt is necessary for large in- 
ward-opening casements, or a shifting plate 
running from top to bottom of casements, and 
made to fit into a groove in each stile by the 
handle in closing. A water bar for the bottom 
rail is also necessary. The French are ingenious 
in their casements, and by adopting the round 
and hollow or hinge joint, the two leaves, when 
closed, press against each other and into the 
frames, thus tightening the joints. For 
examples of casements we refer our readers to 
various details that have appeared from time to 
time in the Building New.s, and to our " Inter- 
communication " columns, where numerous 
hints have been given. 


From the Latin Castellum. The principal 
parts of a castle comprise the fosse or ditch, 
with its bridges, which encompassed the build- 
ings ; the valla or embankments upon which 
the walls rise; the barbican, which was an out- 
work of the castle, and usually a strong wall or 
raised mound or tower; the gatehouse fiauked 
by towers and crowned by machicola- 
tions, through which heavy materials were 
dropped on the assailants ; the " outer 
ballium " or " baUey," an area within the castle 
separated from the " inner ballium," and where 
the stables and offices were placed, and the 
inner ballium used by the owner or governor. 
There was a "donjon" or keep tower placed 
within or at one corner of the inner ballium, 
which formed a conspicuous feature, and con- 
tained the hall and state apartments. The 
chief castles in England are the Tower of 
London, Windsor, Dover, and Norwich. Of 
the square or oblong class we may name the 
Tower, Canterbury, Porchester, Eochester, 
Colchester, Dover, Norwich, Ludlow, Oxford,' 

July 19, 1878. 



Kioliinonrl, ami Corfe Castles. Of the round or 
polygonal class are Arunilol, York, Conis- 
burjrh, Berkeley. Lincoln, Oxford, Windsor, 
and Durham, (jundulph, Uishop of Rochester, 
the builder of its castle, introduced many 
Norman features, though to the Romans we 
owe the plan, the battlements, machicolations, 
and open g.alleries. We refer the reader to 
the article " Architecture Militaire " in 
Viollet-le-Duc'.s " Dictionary," also to article 
" Bastide," in the same work for further par- 
ticulars. The charming novelette by the same 
author, entitUd, "The Uistory of a Fortress," 
contains a very clear exposition of the parts of 
.1 castle. See our review of this work in the 
Building News, lS7fi, also articles on Caer- 
arwile, p. 200: Chirk, p. 22:i ; Colchester, 451; 
Denbigh, 223 : Goodrich, 110 ; Hurstmonceaux, 
330 ; Kilpeck, 1 IS ; Ludlow, 139;, 2.-)l ; 
Nottingham, 104 ; Windsor, 245, in Vol. 


" J. A." refers to Burgh Castle and Rich- 
borough as Roman castles. The latter, " J. A." 
says, is, perhaps, the earliest Roman castle con- 
structed in this i.^land, and is supposed to have 
been formed in the reign of Claudius, and com- 
pleted by Severus. Layers of tile or 
brick are found among the rubble walling. 
Rochester is also referred to as a fine example 
of a castle. We may remark that 
much controversy has taken place respecting 
the Roman or Norman origin of Colchester 
Castle, and we refer our readers to Mr. Buck- 
ler's little work on the subiecfc reviewed in 
these pages. See BniiDiNG News, p. 454, Vol. 


" J. A." sends the following notes : — " Cata- 
combs are subterraneous excavations, used as 
vaults for the burial of the dead. They are 
found in most parts of the world, but chiefly in 
those countries like Italy, Sicily, and Egypt, 
where there are extensive beds of soft tufa, or 
of some other stone, which is easily cut, and 
which is adhesive enough not to fall in. The 
catacombs of Rome are very extensive, and 
have been used as burying places and places of 
worship. Christian altars, inscriptions, and 
paintings have been found, and still remain in 
these gloomy crypts ; but the long galleries of 
these catacombs, which twist and turn in a 
I'urious manner, are generally speaking aliout 
Sft. high and 5ft. wide ; there are mostly three 
tiers of graves or cells running lengthways, 
one above another along the galleries, and in 
some instances there are two, and even three, 
of these dark galleries bene.ath one another. 
According to the guides, the galleries run for 
20 miles under the ground. Recent explorers 
state their length to be 6 miles. The cata- 
combs of Naples are cut in tufo under the hill 
called Capo di Monte, and do not differ much 
from those of Rome." 


From Latin Catena, a chain. Tliis is the 
mechanical curve formed by a, heavy chain of 
uniform density hanging freely from its 
extremities. It has been considered the correct 
curve for an equilibrated arch, and there is no 
doubt that the form is admirably suited for an 
arch sustaining a great weight at the crown. 
Bernouilli, Galileo, Huygens, and Leibnitz 
have investigatsd its properties. A method of 
drawing it geometrically is described in 
" Gwilt's Encyclopaedia;" see also "Tarn's 
Geometry." A flexible series of rods or rafters, 
suspended by its extremities, and supporting 
weights at the angles, will form a polygon of 
forces in equilibrium, which, if inverted, will 
give the correct form of a polygonal roof 
in equilibrio. If tangents be drawn to the 
extremities of a catenarian curve meeting at a 
point, they will represent the directions of the 
forces sustaining the curve at those points, and 
they will intersect at a point in a vertical line 
passing through the centre of gravity of the 
curve. Upon this last line we may represent 
the weight of the curve, and complete the 
parallelogram ; then the respective sides will 
represent the direction, and force or tension, 
at the points of suspension. The Catenary 
curve has been found to be contained in the 
sections of Gothic vaulted buildings, and it in- 
sures pleasing proportion and stability. 


We cannot here be supposed — and it would 
be unnecessary — to write an article on cathe- 

drals, and wo refer the general reader to 
Britten's " Cathedrals of England," the 
works of Professor Willis, Billings, Mackenzie 
Walcott, and the excellent handbooks on the 
English cathedrals publislied by Murray. The 
Building News and the archa>ological journals 
must be referred to for particular articles upon 
them — their archceology, architectural details, 
ic. Gwilt gives a complete list of the English 
cathedrals, with their founders and dimensions. 
The following list may be of use : — 






a a'd a 






*fSj £j"'~'^^-25 





S b-. ts^"^ >-% 


[>,>.>. ^ >>&.. >> 






.Q .a — -2 .s .a .a 


— ^ 





•J. .-rwOM-J. 












n Can 









5^ 1 » 1 


r: 3 






o:m » 



















.a :::':: : 




Durham ... 



Hereford ... 




Salisbury .., 


York , 

Collegiate churches are distinguished by having 
a college or chapter, consisting of a dean and 
canons, attached ; though the service is the 
same as in cathedrals. Westminster, Windsor, 
and Southwell are collegiate. For an exhaus- 
tive sketch of French cathedrals we refer 
the reader to Viollet-le-Duc's Dictionary, 
article " Cathedrale," where plans and sec- 
tions of Notre Dame de Paris, Bourges, 
Noyon, Laon, Rheims, Chartres, Soi.ssons, 
Amiens, Beauvais, Tours, Sens, Poitiers, Nar- 
bonne, and other cathedrals will be found ; and 
this is probably the most thorough treatise on 
the subject that has been written. We refer 
the reader also to Mr. Mackenzie AValcott's 
excellent articles in the Bdildinq News upon 
conventual arrangements — also to the Ency- 
clopcBilia Britannica. 

"3. A." contributes the following : — " Cathe- 
dral (from a Greek word, signifying ' a seat,' 
from the throne or seat of the bishop being 
placed therein). Almost every cathedral is 
varied in plan, although the leading features — 
the nave and choir — are found in almost all. 
The plan usually consists of a galilee or chapel, 
at the principal entrance ; the nave, or main 
body of the church ; the side aisles, which do 
not rise so high as the nave, somtimes with 
chapels, the choir, and the transepts. Some 
cathedrals have a double transept, and the 
transepts have often aisles. At the end of the 
choir is the high altar, behind which is occa- 
sionally a Lady chapel. Along the sides of the 
choir are ranged richly-carved seats ; the 
bishop's seat richer than the others, and raised 
above them, is on one side, at the south- 
eastern end. Cloisters and a chapter-house 
are usually attached to English cathedrals. The 
Largest cathedrals in Europe will contain about 
the following number of persons : — St. Peter's, 
Rome, 54,000; Cathedral at Milan, 37,000; 
St. Paul's, London, 25,000; St. Sophia, Con- 
stantinople, 23,000 ; Notre Dame de Paris, 
21,000; Cathednal of Pisa, 13,000; and St. 
Mark's, Venice, 7,000." 


THE united Principalities occupy a space of 
rather more than 12,000,000 hectares 
(about 30,000,000 acres), Wallachia taking up 
about three-fifths of the area, of which area it 
is estimated that 2,000,0(X) hectares consist of 
forest lands, valued at 190,000,000f. It is to 

le regretted that these fine forests, which 
spread over about one-sixth of the Principali- 
ties, and contain a great variety of building 
timber, cannot be utilised to any appreciable 
extent, owing to the difficulties of transport in 
regions yet untapped by roads. They lie chiefly 
in the districts forming the spurs of the Car- 
pathians, and abound in fine timber of every 
sort — pine, larch, fir, oak, beech, ash, elm, lime, 
birch, maple, and wild cherry tree. The quality 
of the wood, well seasoned by the changes of 
temperature, is said to be excellent. But in 
these regions Nature is the only woodsman, and 
the mountain forests are, in a great measure, 
left to take care of themselves, while the dis- 
tricts bordering upon the plains have been 
ruthlessly and ignorantly disforested, regard- 
less of the age or size of the timber, and this 
wholesale spoliation continues. Recently a 
tentative law was passed by which the forests 
of the State were subjected to control, and 
their cutting restricted and regulated according 
to the age and size of the timber, but the 
Chamber has not yet ventured to apply the law 
to private estates. Severe droughts and bad 
harvests, the natural results of such waste, are, 
however, attracting attention to the subject, 
and it is to be hoped that the evil may be 
arrested in time to prevent irreparable injury. 
The Principalities are said to contain a hidden 
hoard of mineral wealth in their soil, which 
is expected some day to become a principal 
source of their riches, but at present no efforts 
seem likely to be made to develop these re- 
sources. On the spurs of the Carpathians 
stonescrop up — marl, sandstone, chalk, gypsum, 
&c., and near the tops of the mountains are 
found hard chalk, marbles, lignite, anthracite, 
schist and gneiss, fuller's earth, and lime,asweU 
as paving and millstones, and an excellent slate 
stone for lithographic purposes exists in several 
districts ; indications have also been found of 
copper, iron, lead, quicksilver, &c., besides gold 
and silver. Yet with all these temptations salt 
is the only mineral which has yet been seriously 
worked in the Principalities — viz., three 
mines in Moldavia and one in WaUachia. Petro- 
leum abounds on the sides of the CarpathLans, 
where the upper strata of the soil is so satu- 
rated with it in many places as to emit a strong 
odour of tar, and it is found almost at the sur- 
face-level, but as yet the inhabitants cannot 
prepare or refine it to compete successfully 
with the American petroleum. As might be 
expected of a people who are either too idle or 
incompetent to deal with such resources as are 
described above, the industries of the Princi- 
palities are almost too insignificant to be worth 
noticing. They consist of a candle manufac- 
tory at Galatz, where most indifferent candles 
are made ; petroleum and colza oil manufac- 
tories, equally primitive ; of some native cloth 
mjinufactories, for the most part closed; and, 
finally, some distilleries. Many years ago part 
of the tribute to the Porte had to be paid in 
timber, so that any difficulties which may exist 
in procuring it were overcome then, and might 
be now, if the will existed, but the manage- 
ment of the forests should not be entrusted to 
the natives, unless those undertaking it have 
first gone through a course of study in forestry 
in the schools of either Germany or France. 
There is building wood in abundance, both in 
Turkey proper, and the States which hitherto 
have been tributary to her : all that is wanted 
is knowledge to make the forests yield an 
annual supply, and energy to bring it to a 
market when felled, and these two qualifications 
seem wholly wanting. 

TTTE recently alluded to Mr. Geo. Buckler's 
' V pamphlet answering objections made by 
Mr. J. H. Parker, C.B., and others respecting 
the theory the first-named gentleman has main- 
tained for years, namely, the Roman origin of 
Colchester Castle. The question, like many 
others, will always remain a disputed point 
among archceoiogists — a crux antiquonim upon 
which a vast deal of learning and ingenuity will 
be spent. It will be remembered that at the 
meeting of the Royal Archajological Institute, 
held at Colchester in lS7t;, a full report of 
which appeared in the Building News, Mr. 
Parker maintained that Colchester Castle was 
Norman, and was built at the end of the 11th 



July 19, 1878. 

century and further characterised as nonsense 
the idea of its being a Roman erection. Mr. 
Parter is thus at issue with Mr. Buckler upon a 
question few will undertake to express a decided 
opinion about from external evidence. " Where 
doctors differ who shall decide ?" may well be 
said in reference to this point. Both the above 
gentlemen are competent to form an opinion. 
Mr. Parker has a world-wide reputation as an 
archaeologist, and Mr. Buckler has devoted 
years to the Colchester remains. As we have, 
on two previous occasions (see Building News 
for 1870, and page 454, Vol. XXSIIL), noticed 
Mr. Buckler's work, it will be unnecessary to 
repeat the arguments, but we refer now to the 
subject again, having received a photograph of 
the north-east angle of the Castle, taken from 
a coloured drawing. In this drawing the 
masonry — one of the crucial points on which Mr. 
Buckler bases his theory — is clearly shown, 
besides many of the details, such as the in- 
scription panels, the small window, and vent of 
the camera privata in the east wall, the frag- 
ments of Portland stone, a portion of a buttress 
on the north wall, believed to be of Norman 
construction by some, and the sloped basement, 
now stripped of its wrought-stone facing. The 
photograph before us gives an angular view of 
the castle or "keep," and shows the corner 
tower, also the room and brick turrets of recent 
erection ; but the main feature of interest, and 
one which undoubtedly, in our opinion, lends 
countenance to Mr. Buckler's theory, is the 
regularity of the septaria and tile masonry and 
the Portland stone quoins of the lower part of 
the buttress, which Mr. Parker has contended 
is of Norman build. As to the mooted point, 
whether or not the masonry has been executed 
■with the cUhris of older buildings of the 
Komans, we do not care to venture an opinion ; 
but there is certainly evidence of greater regu- 
larity in the courses than we observe in the 
old walls of the town. There are other features, 
such as the window jambs and arches, that look 
more like original Roman than Norman work, 
but in face of the admitted resemblances 
between the two kinds of workmanship, we are 
not warranted in passing a decided opinion. We 
have seen Norman work composed of septaria 
and tUes ; we have observed similar openings 
and jambs in other buildings of the same class, 
but the weight of conflicting evidence in the 
case of Colchester is certainly exceptional. 


MOST of the productions of an ordinary 
shop-filter are by no means models of art 
—indeed, shop fronts and their fittings have 
weU-uigh become hopeless, as far as beauty is 
concerned, so that when an example occurs, evi- 
dencing plain suitabQity without vulgarity, it 
becomes the subject of thankfulness. Show- 
cases, too, are, as a rule, excessively ugly 
things, especially when they assume architec- 
tural airs, and are intended foi the public 
exhibitions, such as that of Paris, where, at the 
present time, a really good show-case is an ex- 
ception. Improvements in this, as in other 
furnishing matters, have certainly been made 
within these last few years, and many good 
suggestions have been adopted. We have 
another to offer, and we are indebted to an 

might cheaply and easily be adopted. If this 
sort of thing, too, were employed in private 
houses for small ferneries, it would be an advan- 
tage. Of shop fronts themselves, we have now 
in London a few well suited to be more gene- 
rally used if only shopkeepers would forego the 
vast sheets of plate-glass they now reckon 
of so much advantage. Mr. Norman Shaw 
has shown what can be done in a quiet 
way by the shop-front not long ago inserted for 
Mr. Marks in Oxford-street, and this has been 
copied in Piccadilly, near the end of St. James's- 
street. Mr. E. AV. Edis has another example 
just finished, at the corner of Gracechurch- 
street, in Cornhill. The plan of the frontage 
presented an awkward problem, and this was 
in no way aided by the architecture of the 
superstructure, which is worse than common- 
place. The architect has, however, managed 
to give a character to the shop, which we like, 
though the green paint used rather spoils the 
effect- White would have been much better, 
and no doubt the architect would, if he could, 
have had it so, judging from the shops he built 
last year at the corner of Brooke-street, W., as 
well as that now finishing higher up in New 
Bond-street. Mr. CoUcutt has shown how plate- 
glass may be satisfactorily used by his building 
in St. Bride-street tor Collinson and Lock, 
which, by the bye, has been singularly parodied 
not faroff, iuFarringdon-street, and this shows 
how easily a good thing may be spoiled. The 
front in Fleet-street, for the same firm as last- 
named, is, of course, also well known, if not so 
well hked. A rather early attempt at a better 
sort of shop-front is that by Mr. Horace Gun- 
dry, for a printer in Fetter-lane, E.C., one of 
the first examples of so-called Queen Anne in 
London. It is now having a top story added. 
Messrs. George and Vaughan did a rather good 
frontage, a few years since, in Piccadilly, but 
the shop-front there is by no means good. Mr. 
George, in conjunction with Mr. Peto, has been 
far more successful in South Audley-street. 
The block of shops in Oxford-street, by Mr. 
Wimperis has good points, if they are not 
equally original, and the last-named seems to 
have been thought of when the design was 
uiade. Fleet-street has just had some big 
shops added by Mr. Alex. Peebles, architect, in 
what is supposed to be Queen Anne. The 
design is spoilt chiefly by the stilted appear- 
ance obtained by carrying up the granite piers 
through the first floor or mezzanine. The 
manner in which the gates or open-ironwork 
shutters are hung deserves notice, and is a novel 
expedient. The circular-ended and projecting 
shop-fronts yet to be added to Clifford-chambers 
in Old Bond-street, by Mr. Thos. H.Watson,wiU 
be novel examples for London, and as a good 
specimen of shop-front that lower down the 
street, by Messrs. Salomons and AVornum, ought 
to be mentioned. The " glass shop " in the 
same street, by Mr. Thos. Harris, is curious. 

Waterloo-bridge, and the hieroglyphics on the 
upper part can be more closely inspected than 
wUl be possible at any future period. In order 
to secure greater stability for the obelisk a 
portion of the very rough and irregular base 
was removed during Tbiu:sday and Friday last. 
This operation has reduced the absolute height 
by about 5in., to a length of almost exactly 68ft. 
from the base to the slightly truncated pyra- 
midion. The actual surface on which the weight 
will rest measures, on an average, 5ft. by 
slightly more than 4ft. lOin. = a superficies of 
2425 square feet. The materi;il thus flaked off 
is seen to be a large-grained rather friable 
granite, having the quartz disposed in large 
crystals. The prevailing rich rose tint will 
effectively contrast with the low grey of the 
Embankment wall. It is a question whether, 
in view of the immense outlay incurred in 
transportation and erection, and the fact that 
so few obelisks remain perfect, it would not 
have been more judicious to have kept the 
monolith intact, supplying the necessary sup- 
port by bronze cr.ibs at the angles— a mode of 
treatment for which there are precedents in 
Rome. Returning to the process of erection, 
we may add that in a few days, when the 
obelisk has been lifted sufficiently high to 
clear the angle blocks of the stairs, it will be 
brought still more to the east and turned at 
right angles across the pedestal, which is 
built a few feet above the level of the stairs- 
platform. The centre of gravity will coincide 
with the middle of the platform. A strap of 
wrought iron will be b.ased upon the centre of 
the stone, the " jacket " extending about 20ft., 
and from the strap will project strong trun- 
nions, each about 4ft. long. These will each 
rest on a wrouglit-iron girder, which, in turns,, 
will be supported by specially-designed timber 
scaffolding, disposed at the four main angles of 
a rectangular space, and in close proximity to 
the centre of gravity. As the girders are 
simultaneously lifted at each end by the 
hydraulic jacks, the stone will be raised and 
the pedestal, consisting of three steps and a 
plinth, will be built up in brickwork, set in 
Portland cement, and faced with granite 
masonry, and when the requisite height has 
been attained the obelisk will be swung round. 
upon the trunnions and lowered into position 
as previously described. The work is being 
carried out by Mr. John Dixon, C.E., Mr. 
Double acting as manager. We trust no 
attempt will be made to repolish the stone ; the 
rumoured re-cutting of the hieroglyphics " to 
make them more distinct," would be ridi- 
culous, and it is to be hoped such a procedure 
has not been seriously contemplated. 



THEraisingof Cleopatra's Needle into its final 
position on the Victoria Embankment is 
being carried on with energy by Mr. Dixon, 
and we may expect before long to see its erec- 
tion an accomplished fact. Already it has been 
unknown shopkeeper in a small back street in i raised so high above high-water level as to be 

Soho for the idea which, in skilful hand 
might with ease be developed, in a simple way, 
to the material improvement of many a bare 
and ugly street front, without infringing, pro- 
bably, the BuOding Act. In the instance re- 
ferred to an ordinary ebonised shallow show- 
case, with rounded glass corners, is iixed outside 
each of the window openings on the first-floor, 
after the manner somewhat of projecting oriels 
or bays, but with so slight a projection as to 
come within that of the shop cornice below. 
The tradesman has thus secured additional 
space for showing his goods, while the frontage 
to his house compares favourably, on account 
of this simple expedient, with many a more pre- 
tentions example. Of course, the idea, hke 
most good ones, wUl at once be capable of the 
most vulgar renderings, and again the goods of 
some trades, such as those of a tailor, are, in 
themselves, so ii-redeemably ugly, that the less 
show there is made of them the better. A 
simple treatment of wood framing painted 
white, with panes of glass not too large in size. 

distinctly visible from Westminster-bridge, as 
well as from those of Waterloo and Charing- 
..ross. The iron cylinder-ship in which the 
obelisk was brought from Alexandria was re- 
moved from its moorings near Lambeth Pier to 
a position immediately to the west of the 
Adelphi Steps at the close of May last, and at 
a suitable tide was tilted in such a position that 
the side of the monument most weathered will 
face the Thames. Before this was done the site 
on which it will stand was prepared by the 
Metropolitan Board of Works at Mr. Dixon's 
cost. A foundation was carried a depth of 40ft. 
in concrete, and the flanking blocks of granite 
at the angles of the stairs lowered. The iron 
casing having been removed, the gigantic 
monolith was gradually moved forward and up- 
wards by means of seven 50 ton hydraulic 
jacks, and supported upon wooden wedges. It 
has now traversed half the platform, and rests 
in a nearly horizontal position on planking 10ft. 
or 12ft. above the stairs, and on the Westminster 
side of the pedestal. The apex points towards 


THE report of the sub-committee on the 
decoration of the dome of St. Paul's has 
been published and adopted by the executive 
committee. The Dean and Chapter, on the 6th 
inst., sanctioned the preparation of cartoons for 
the experimental designs, but have reserved the 
power of rejecting them. 

The scheme s.anctioned by the report is prac- 
tically that advocated by Mr. Oldfleld in his 
pamphlet, "St. Peter'sand St. Paul's," reviewed 
in the Building News, Dec. 22, 1876. 

We regret that the committee have deter- 
mined on the course adopted, believing, as we 
have before stated, that however advisable in 
itself the decoration of the cupola may be, it is 
not the first thing to be done. ATe hardly 
think that the Dean and Chapter will ulti- 
mately sanction the scheme, and it is not to 
be wished, in the interest of the completion of 
the cathedral, that any more projects should be 
put forward only to be abandoned. 

The following extracts from the report, which 
is a lengthy one, will give a complete idea of 
the intentions of the sub-committee : — 

The snb-comniittee appointed in June last by the 
resolution of the executive committee for tbe comple- 
tion of St. Paul's, with instractions to make preli- 
minary arrangements for the decoration of the dome 
in mosaic, now beg leave to report as follows : — 

One of their first acts after appointment was to re- 
commend to the dean and chapter the purchase from 
the executor of the late Alfred Stevens, for dfilOO, of 
a model of one-half of the dome on the scale of about 
three-quarters of an inch to one toot, on the decora- 

July 19, 1878. 



tion of which he was at work at tho time of his 
decease. Thoaf^h aufiaisheti in conseqneace of his 
death, it appears to them to display a power aad 
resource in architectural decoration which are 
perhaps withont precedent in this conntrv, and to 
contain more elements for the snccessf ul treatment 
of Wren's great dome than any other dcsiirn that has 
yet been prepared ; while they feol no doubt that the 
artists they propose to employ will be able to supply 
what is wautingr in tho modi>l, and to (five it that 
completeness and finish it might have attained had 
Mr. Stevens lived to complete bis desiffu. 

Having secured this model as a basis for their 
operations, the sub-committee put themselves into 
communication with some of ourleadincr artists, and 
finally selected Messrs. Leiprhton and Poynter, who, 
from their talents and the style of .art they generally 
adopt, seemed to them those best qualified to com- 
plete and carry out the design they had adopted. Both 
these artists proved, fortunately, to bo warm 
admirers of Mr. Stevens's design, and readily 
assented to assist in carrying out this scheme. 

The sub-committee are, in consequence, happy to 
be able to report that they have made a provisional 
arrangement with Mr. Lci?ton to furnish cartoons 
for such subjects as may be determined upon to fill 
the eight great circles which are the most important 
features in 'Mr. Stevens's design. This hehasagreeil 
to do for the sum of £600 for each circle, or Xt.800 
altogether ; which, considering the importance of the 
pictures and his position as an artist, the sub- 
committee regard as an extremely liberal offer on 
his part. Jlr. Poynter has, with equal liberality, 
agreed to furnish cartoons for all the other figure 
subjects indicated on 'Mv. Stevens's designs at 
an aggregate cost of .£11, 180. From this, how- 
ever, may be deducted the sum of ^£800 for a 
circle of cherubs sketched in the centre of Mr. 
Stevens's model, but which is omitted from the pre- 
sent estimate as belonging, not to the dome itself, 
but to the portion above, seen through the central 
opening, but not included in the present plans. Of 
the remainder, about one-half, or JS.5,300. are for the 
smaller circles in Mr. Stevens's design, together 
with the colossal figures on thrones, and other sub- 
jects on the plain spaces between tho ribs, all of 
which must be varied in each compartment, and are 
charged at prices so moderate as hardly to admit of 
abatement. The other half, however, which is for 
the figure-subjects on the ribs, may be found capa- 
ble of some reduction ; as, for instance, by the 
omission of the three figures of men, or so-called 
Telamones, which support the base of each of the 
ribs. These, though much admired by some, are 
considered objectionable and inappropriate by others, 
and it may consequently be found expedient to sub- 
stitute some more conventional architectural design 
— perhaps in combination with the Apocalyptic 
animals emblematic of the four Evangelists — at a 
■considerably less cost than the ^62,4,00 which is esti- 
mated for the cartoons of the Telamones. If they 
are^ omitted, it may possibly be found expedient to 
amit also the 16 smaller figures which in Mr. 
Stevens's design stand on each side of the base of 
the ribs. Some economy may also probably be exer- 
cised in repeating some of the minor objects with 
only such variation in colour or arrangement as may 
be intrusted to the mosaicists without the necessity 
for the preparation of new cartoons. As the expense 
of the cartoons for the 16 small figures is estimated 
at ^£1,200, it is anticipated that by these omissions 
and other small economies a saving of between 
^£3,000 and .£-1,000 may be made on Mr. Poynter's 
estimate for the ribs. In the following calculations 
this possible economy is put down at ,£3,500, leaving 
his estimate practically a little in excess of ^67,000, 
though this is of course subject to subsequent adjust- 
ment by agreement with the artist himself. 

In addition to the arrangements with these two 
eminent artists, the sub-committee have entered 
into a provisional agreement for the execution of 
the more mechanical part of the design with Mr. 
Hugh Stannus, who long was a favourite pupil of 
the late Mr. .Stevens, and is intimately familiar 
with his ideas and modes of execution. He was, in 
consequence, employed by her JIajesty's Board of 
Works to complete the Wellington monument in St. 
Paul's Cathedral, which was left in a very unfinished 
state by his late master, but which has just been 
completed by Mr. Stannus with entire success. 

The arrangement with Mr. Stannus is that he 
shall prepare, in conjunction with Mr. Poynter, and 
subject to the approval of the committee, a full- 
sized cartoon of two of the ribs of the dome and of 
all the architectural features between them. This 
cartoon, comprising one-sixth of the whole circum- 
ference of the dome, is to be coloured and gilt in 
imitation of real mos.aic, and so mounted on canvas 
that it can be fixed up in the dome and its effect 
gudged of almost as well as if it were really executed 
in tessera;. Spaces will be left for the designs of 
Messrs. Leighton and Poynter, which, when trans- 
lated into forms imitating mosaic, will be affixed in 
like manner to the dome, in order that their effect 
may be seen. The two ribs which it is proposed 
shall be executed by Mr. Stannus are intended to be 
different in design ; one following literally that of 
Mr. Stevens's model, or with modifications suggested 
by the sub-committee, and for which Mr. Poynter is 
now occupied in preparing the necessary designs ; 
the other, as suggested above, of a more conven- 
tional or architectural form. By this experiment 
not only will the executive committee and the public 
be able to judge of the effect, but a means will be 

afforded of modifying the design before anything 
of a permanent character is attempod. 

The estimate for the portion of the work assigned 
to Mr. Stannus is jfil.OOO, and this will not 
require to bo repeated in carrying tho work round 
the remaining five-sixths of the dome, as the archi- 
tectural parts will be tho same throughout, and will 
not require to be varied. 

The sub-committee observe that tho extreme dark- 
ness of the dome itself will render it dillicnlt to 
distinguish clearly any decorations with which it 
may bo adorned. 

The introduction of gold grounds and bright 
colours to the extent contemplated in Mr. Stevens's 
design will, no doubt, go far to remedy this defect, 
though they will hardly suffice to remove it alto- 
gether. The sub-committee have, in consequence, 
had estimates prepared for the introduction of 
metallic reflectors to is placed within the external 
peristyle of the dome, in positions where they can- 
not be seen either externally or internally, but in a 
manner calculated by Mr. Penrose to double the 
amount of light at present introduced through the 
windows. Tho expense of these reflectors opposite 
the 21 windows of the dome, they are informed, will 
amount to about ^100. 

Tho expense of scaffolding is estimated at from 
i;i,000to .£1,200. This estimate is based on the 
experience gained in the erection of that employed 
when Mr. Paris repainted Sir James Thornhill's 
pictures on the dome. 

The great expense of the whole scheme is practi- 
cally the actual execution of the design in mosaic. 
For this the sub-committee have obtained two esti- 
mates, from firms whose competence to undertake 
the work they see no reason for doubting : one from 
the Murano Glass Company, late Salviati and Co., 
at 40s. per foot superficial — the work to be completed 
in eight years ; the other from the Messrs. Powell, 
of Whitefriars, who state their willingness to com- 
plete it in four or five years at from 30s. to S.js. per 
foot, according to the greater or less amount of 
detail that may be found in the cartoons, when 
finally determined upon. In addition to the reduc- 
tion in price and saving of time, it need hardly 
be pointed out how great an advantage it would 
be if the works were undert.iken by an English 
firm located in the immediate vicinity of the 
Cathedral. The ready communication between 
all the parties concerned, and their constant super- 
vision,! would facilitate the work in many respects, 
and probably insure its execution more satisfac- 
torily than could be expected from any Continental 
firm whose works were distant from England. 
Another great advantage that maybe expected from 
the employment of an English firm is that the ex- 
perience gained in producing the coarser and less 
prominent work in the dome might create a national 
school of mosaicists capable of executing in a s.atis- 
factory manner the better seen, and, therefore, more 
delicately worked pictures with which it is hoped the 
nave and choir of the cathedral may eventually be 
adorned. These could hardly, at present, be 
attempted with much prospect of success by any firm 
we are acquainted with, but four or five years' ex- 
perience on the decoration of the dome may reason- 
ably be expected to produce a school of artists quite 
competent to undertake hereafter any work they 
may be called upon to execute. As the area of the 
dome is calculated by Mr. Penrose at a little in excess 
of 16,000 square feet, the price of the mosaic at from 
303. to 353. would range from ^£21,000 to d£2S,000. 

Collecting these figures together, the total estimate 
will stand as follows :— Mr. Leighton, .-£1.800 ; Mr. 
Poynter— lowest, £7,000; highest, £10,600. Mr. 
Stannus, j£1,000. Mr. Penrose (four or five years 
for supervision and assistance) — lowest, ^£1,200 ; 
highest, .£1,500. Translation into mosaic — lowest, 
d£600 ; highest £1,000. Scaffolding— lowest, d£l,000 ; 
highest, d£l,200. Reflectors, d£400. Ifi.OOOft. of 
mosaic— lowest ,£24,000 ; highest, ,£28,000. Add 10 
per cent, for contingencies — lowest, ,£1,000; highest, 
d£4,850. Total— lowest, de44,000 ; highest, £.53,330. 

These figures must of course be considered only as 
approximate in the present state of the case, but, 
taken altogether, the sub-committee see no reason 
for doubting that the dome of St. P-aul's may be 
effectively decorated in mosaic for a sum of about 
i£50,000, and, unless some unforeseen difficulties 
arise, that it is as likely that something ma.y be 
saved on this estimate as that it should be exceeded. 
To meet this expenditure there are investments at 
the disposal of the executive committee for the com- 
pletion of St. Paul's, subject, of course, to the assent 
of the dean and chapter, which cost ^£12,492 lOs., 
and which, if now sold, would probably realise at 
least a like amount. The interest accruing on this 
sum amounts at present to ,£1,570 23. 61. per 
annum, and as the work will extend over four or 
five years, and only from X3.000 to .£4,000 be 
required in the first year, .£1.000 mny be reckoned 
upon to be added from this source. The committee 
will be in a position to judge whether the public will 
subscribe the amount that may still be required for 
completing the entire design in mosaic when they 
see the full-sized cartoon representing in facsimile 
one-sixth of the whole work fixed up in the dome- 
That cartoon must be prepared before any contract 
which will prove a binding liability on either party 
can be formed with the mosaicists. 

All, therefore, that the sub-committee ask the 
executive committee at present to sanction is that 
they be allowed— first, to enter into a contract with 
Mr. Leighton for the preparation of a cartoon for 

one of the large circles at an expense of £000, with 
the understanding that if the work is proceeded with 
he is to bo employed, if he wishes it, for the other 
seven great circles on similar terms. Second, in 
like manner to contract with Mr. Poynter for all tha 
figure subjects on two of tho ribs, and all the others 
iu tho intermediate space, at a price not to exceed 
£1,5.'50, with a like understanding as to the ro- 
mainder. Third, to employ Mr. Stannus to preparo 
the full-sized cartoon as above described ; and, 
fourth, to eugago the serviees of Mr. Penrose till 
at least this cartoon is fixed in silu on the dome, by 
which several proceedings, with their incidental 
minor expenses, a total liability will be incurred oE 
from j£3,50Q to £1,000. It is calculated it will 
require at least one year from tho time of giving 
the orders to complete those preliminary works, 
before which time it will not be necessary to ask a 
sanction for any further expenditure that may bo 
determined upon. 

With reference to the subjects it is intended ehonld 
be represented in the circles and other parts of tho 
dome, the sub-committee beg leave to annex to this 
report three memorandums, suggesting schemes pre- 
pared by Mr. Oldfield for their assistance in this 
respect. For tho reasons adduced by Mr. Oldfield, 
as well as those which occurred in subsequent discus- 
sions, the sub-committee have unanimously come to 
the conclusion that subjects taken from the Book of 
Revelation are those most appropriate for tho 
adornment of the dome. This seems the proper placo 
for Apocalyptic subjects, and artistically it may be 
feasible to treat such subjects iu a broader and 
bolder style than would be possible with more dra- 
matic and pictorial scenes drawn from the Old and 
New Testaments. These would demand a more ela- 
borate and delicate treatment, appropriate to soma 
position better lighted and nearer to the eye, which 
it is thought might hereafter be assigned to them in 
the nave and choir of the cathedral. 

With regard to the special visions to be selected 
from the Apocalypse for illustratiou iu the dome, tho 
sub-committee have, in the course of their delibera- 
tions, taken advice from high theological authorities, 
and, without wishing to insist on each detail, they 
are of opinion that the scheme suggested in Mr. 
Oldfield's third memorandum is well adapted both on 
theological and artistic grounds for the pnrposea 

It is presumed that the eight spandrels or penden- 
tives under the Whispering Gallery will all be de- 
corated with colossal figures in mosaic, either i a 
completion of the scheme already begun from th 
design of Messrs. Watts and Stevens, or in pursa 
ance of some new or modified scheme which ma 
hereafter be preferred. When this is decided upon, 
it will be the next duty of the executive committee 
to authorise the preparation of a scheme for the 
decoration of the drum of the dome, above the 
Whispering Gallery, which shall harmonise with the 
subjects above and below it, and without which, in 
the opinion of the sub. committee, the decorations o£ 
the dome will never produce the intended effect or 
be justly appreciated. If this is done, the rest of 
the decoration, from the dome down to the ground, 
must then be taken in hand conjointly with tho 
scheme for tho decoration of the nave and choir. 
For all this, however, there is more than sufficient 
time. Assuming that the decoration of the dome 
is taken in hand immediately, four or five years 
must elapse before its mosaics could be completed, 
and during that time there will be abundance of 
leisure for experiments on a full-sized scale in other 
parts of the building, which will enable the com- 
mittee and public to determine which mode of treat- 
ment is likely to be most successful. 

The following is the " Chapter Minute " 
referred to at the commeuoement : — 

Extract from Minutes of Chapter, held 6th of 
July, 1878 : — " Cathedral Decoration. — The report 
of the sub-committee for the completion of the cathe- 
dral was submitted by the dean- Resolved — ' That 
the dean and chapter assent to the experiment pro- 
posed in the last paragraph on page 7 of the report 
of the sub-committee, without, at the moment, 
pledging themselves to go further. That the E sec- 
tion (Nos. 7, vii,) of the dome be selected for the 
proposed cartoon. That the Doanand Chapter reserve 
to themselves full powers of discussing all the other 
subjects proposed by tho sub-committee, as also of 
rejecting the cartoons if they should prove unsatis- 
factory.' "John B.Lee, Chapter Clerk." 

The parish church of Heswall, Cheshire, having 
been for some time in a very dilapidated condition, 
it has been determined to restore the tower and to 
rebuild and extend the church to tho north-east. 
The additions have been designed by Mr. J. F. Doyle, 
architect, Liverpool, under whose superintendenoa 
the restoration is being carried out. 

The Bournemouth Improvement Commissioners 
discussed at their last meeting a letter received from 
Messrs. Shaw and Son, whose tender, the lowest 
sent in, for the constmction of a uew pier in ac- 
cordance with Mr. E. Birch's designs, was recently 
accepted at £19,273, saying they had made an error 
of £723, and asking to be allowed to alter it to 
£10,900. A protest was also received from Messrs. 
Bergheim, the next lowest tenderers, complaining 
that Messrs. Shaw had not sent in a bill of quan- 
tities as required by the printed conditions. It WftS 
resolved to advertise for fresh tenders. 



July 19, 1878. 


Mount Athos and its Monasteries *5 

Concrete Slab Cottages and (Jther BuildmRS 46 

Tbe Chemistry of Building Materials.— VIII *7 

Our Commonplace Oolumn,. ..••.■• -^ ,-;',j"" • ■" In 
The BuiWins Materials of Wallaohia and Moldavia 49 

Colchester Castle ^ 

Show Cases and Shops ^JJ 

The Erection of Cleopatra's Needle... 6U 

The Decoration of St. Paul's Cathedral SIJ 

Our Lithographic Illustrations o'- 

Chapter Houses 60 

Competitions .... ■■■—.■ ?? 

Architectural and Archaeological Societies 03 

Building Intelligence "b 

Correspondence , ••■ ™ 

Intercommunication ^^ 

Stained Glass "^ 

Water Supply and Sanitary Matters 

Legal Intelligence 

Parliamentary Notes ... 

Our Office Table 


Trade News 








Our Lithographic Illustrations. 


The first church at Tynemouth was built during 
the reign of Edwin, King of Northumbria, soon 
after his conversion by St. Paulinus. This 
church was of wood, but was reconstructed of 
stone by St. Oswald, in the 7th century. The 
body of St. Oswin was enshrined here, and 
through it the church obtained a wide reputa- 
tion. The monastery suffered much from attacks 
by the Danes, and was several times largely 
rebuilt. Earl Tosti refounded the monastery 
in the 11th century, and the monks of St. 
Alban's, to whom the monastery had been given 
by Kobert de Mowbray, the Norman Earl of 
Northumberland, carried on the works. At the 
end of the 12th century the whole of the 
eastern portion of the church was rebuilt on a 
larger plan, with features and details of the 
more developed style of that period. The 
character of this work is scarcely to be sur- 
passed by any other building of the same age. 
The groining of the eastern bay is curious, and 
■worthy of notice. A stone screen was erected 
across the eastern arch of the nave, and the 
nave was set apart, as at St. Alban's, Bridling- 
ton, Croyland, and other places, for use as tbe 
parish church. The church has been brought 
to its present state of ruin more by wilful 
destruction than by decay and exposure to the 
severe storms which sweep this coast. Two or 
three years since the late Sir Gilbert Scott was 
requested to make a survey of the remains of 
this most interesting building, with a view to 
the restoration of the eastern part. A careful 
study of the remaining portions, with the aid 
of old drawings showing the church as it stood 
in the last century, enabled him to trace out 
the ancient design with great certainty, there 
being but few details for which evidence could 
not be found. The drawing of the interior, 
showing the proposed restoration, from which 
our illustration is taken, was made by Mr. John 
Norton for Sir Gilbert Scott. No portion of his 
work has yet been carried into execution. We 
are indebted for the opportunity of reproducing 
the drawing to the Eev. T. Featherstone, the 
Ticar of the church. 


The name of Thornton is derived from Thor, 
the ancient Northern deity, and its magnificent 
abbey was founded by William, Earl of Albe- 
marle. The entrance gateway to the abbey is 
by far the most perfect of any of the buildings 
of the monastery, is an imposing structure, and 
one of the finest existing in any part of Eng- 
land. It is of the Perpendicular style, and was 
built about 1382. The western or exterior front 
is defended on both sides by massive brick 
walls, with an arcade of pointed arches on tlie 
inside supporting a wall behind, and termi- 
nating in two dwarf towers. A small portion 
of the massive oak door, well studded with 

nails, is still hanging on its hinges, but has 
now advanced a far way to destruction ; and a 
portcullis, the groove of which still exists in 
the outer jamb of the doorway, completed the 
defence. Owing to the disturbed state of the 
country or the dread of invasion, it being 
situated near to the mouth of the Humher, 
the additional outworks necessary were added 
at a', subsequent period. The gate-house 
itself is built chiefly of brick, cased with 
stone. The outer face, or western front, is 
built partly of brick, with stone dressings, the 
design being very boldly treated ; its pointed 
arch is richly moulded with flowers and sculp- 
tured heads in one of the hollow mouldings. 
Next to this is another slightly-pointed arch, 
with hanging foliations, with the flower orna. 
ment inserted in a hollow in this as in all 
other cases where it is introduced, and most of 
the gargoyles are now either destroyed or very 
much decayed. This front is divided by four 
octagonal turrets into three compartments ; in 
the centre one, and immediately over the arch- 
way below, are three elegant nichesintwostages, 
and good canopies ; the panelled and moulded 
pedestals to the lower stage has a shield and a 
cross in the front panels. In each side com- 
partment is a simUar niche, one of which 
also retains a figure — the others have disap- 
peared. The three largest, however, remain, 
and are in a very good state of preservation. 
The centre of the three is the Blessed Virgin, 
to whom the abbey was dedicated, and over her 
head may be descried a very rare and remark- 
able representation of the Holy Trinity. The 
archway is groined, and has sculptured bosses 
and moulded r'bs springing from good corbels 
panelled in the lower part ; the upper part is 
ornamented with foliage, like the capital of a 
pillar. The manner in which the mouldings of 
the ribs are made to intersect each other at 
their springing is very clever and interesting. 
The inner face, or eastern front, has also four 
octagonal turrets, and contains several fine and 
pleasing details. Over the large east arch is a 
very elegant oriel window, boldly projected, 
and has annular heads carved in one of the 
hollow mouldings. It is flanked at each angle 
with panelled buttresses, surmounted by 
crocketted finials ; each bay is divided into two 
lights, with an embattled and moulded tran- 
som across. The roof is of stone, supported 
on the interior by moulded arched ribs. Over 
this is another window of four lights ; two of 
the mullions of the lower stage, with a portion 
of the sill, has been taken away : the label 
mould terminates with f\-.'0 well-sculptured 
heads. Between the walls are numerous 
long and narrow passages, leading to rooms 
which, from all appearances, have been used 
as guard-chambers. Ascending the winding 
stair in one of the eastern turrets we soon enter 
a spacious and noble apartment, the refectory ; 
it is lighted on the south side by a pointed 
window of four lights, with plain chamfered 
jambs and mullions, and on the east side by the 
oriel window ; the recess is very boldly and 
characteristically treated, and it appears to 
have been used as a chapel. On each side of 
this recess is another pointed window of two 
lights, with moulded jambs and mullions, and 
a'quatrefoil in the head ; on the north end is a 
large open fireplace with moulded jambs and 
arch. There was originally another room of 
the same size over it, probably the scriptorium ; 
several corbels whicli supported the floor of 
this chamber still remain— it is lighted by a 
pointed and cusped window of three lights 
divided by transoms. Again, ascending the 
turret stair we find the top has a very good 
croined vault, with foliated ribs of singular but 
elegant design. The turrets and parapets have 
alllost their terminations, but they would have 
been most probably finished in an embattled 
style. The original roof has long since disap- 
peared, and the late Earl of Yarborough caused 
a new roof to be erected over the gatehouse. 
While it in no way disfigures' the building it 
has the twofold effect of preserving it from wet 
and decav, and of affording safety to the visitor, 
who from the top may obtain an extensive 
view of the surrounding country, comprizing 
the Humber, the town of Hull, the Yorkshire 
hills, and the Brocklesby woods. This building 
is among those to be visited by the Architec- 
tural Association during their ensuing excur- 
sion. — B. Priestley Shtres. 


This building, which we illustrate, was opened 
last week. The architect is Mr. T. Mitchell, 
F.R.I. B. A., of Manchester and Oldham. The 
winter gardens, pavilion, and skatingrinks were 
commenced about two years ago. The style 
adopted is Italian. The entrance in Church, 
street is surmounted by a glass dome 120ft. 
in height, and 12Gft. in circumference. In the 
vestibule foruied beneath is a fountain, sur- 
rounded by ferns, tropical shrubs, and statuary. 
From this vestibule access is gained to the 
floral hall, an apartment 176ft. in length, 44ft. 
wide, and 25ft. high. The grand promenade is 
a continuation of the floral hall, and is carried 
round the pavilion, which is the main feature of 
the buildings. The promenade is of equal 
width with the floral hall, and its length is 
423ft., with a height of 25ft. Flowers and 
shrubs are its chief adornments, but there is a 
large array of sculpture, including some finely- 
executed allegorical representations of the Four 
Seasons, and copies from Canova, Gibson, 
Duret, Donatello, and other artists. There are 
also some busts of members of the Eoyal 
family, and of eminent musicians. The grand 
pavilion length is 155ft., the width being 75ft., 
and the height OOft. The floor is somewhat 
lower than that of the grand promenade, which 
surrounds and overlooks it, and, by an arrange- 
ment of revolving shutters, it can be entirely 
shut off, with a view to musical and theatrical 
performances, for which purpose a spacious 
proscenium has been constructed. The pavilion 
is surrounded by a gallery, and at night is 
lighted by three gasaliers of 150 lights each. 
The mural decorations and the painting of the 
ceiling have not yet been commenced. The gene- 
ral dimensions of the structuresare as follows : — 
Church-street entrance, 32ft. long, 22ft. wide, 
25ft. 6in. high; statuary hall or dome, 42ft. 
diameter, 120ft. high; lavatories and cloak- 
rooms ; promenade (including dome, floral hall, 
&c.), 780ft. or 2fiO yards ; pavilion and concert 
hall, 133ft. 6in. long, 72ffe.3in. wide, 54ft. high, 
six dressing - rooms attached thereto ; grand 
vestibule to Victoria-street, 107ft. long, 3Gft. 
wide, and upper room ; ferneries, lOOtt., average 
width, 24tt. ; indoor skating rink, 135ft. long, 
SSft. wide, 40ft. high, 11,880 sup. feet ; outdoor 
skating-rink, IGOft. long, IGOtt. wide, 23,200 
sup. feet, total 35,0S0 sup. feet ; rink refresh- 
ment room, 42ft. by 30ft. ; dining-room. 73£t. 
by 30ft., with the necessary kitchens ; two re- 
freshment-rooms, each 50ft. by 30tt. The 
whole of the space under the pavilion is 
cellared, and to be used as storage, or for 
bowling allies, shooting galleries, and other 
amusements. A house for the propagation of 
plants has also been provided, 160ft. long by 
22ft. wide. Messrs. Cardwell and Sutcliffe. 
Fielding and Son. and Curwen and Swain, were 
respectively the contractors for the brickwork, 
masonry, and joinery work ; Messrs. Braby 
and Co. for the zinc work, and Messrs. Minton, 
HoUins, and Co. supplied the tiles. The floor 
area of the building exceeds two acres. More 
than three million bricks have been used in 
the building, and the total weight of material 
handled in construction was nearly 18,000 tons. 
The glazing of the whole of the Winter 
Gardens has been done on Rendle's patent sys- 
tem. The dome is about 120ft. in height, and can 
be seen 15 or 30 miles at sea. It has a very 
light appearance, and has stood well against 
some of the fiercest gales that have ever swept 
over the Atlantic. The mode of fixing the 
glass is very simple— light cross-bearers, or 
purlins are fixed horizontally to the main prin- 
cipals of the roof, and to these are fixed zinc 
or copper grooved bars, in which the glass 
slides, and is lapped vertically, or a small bar 
is inserted between the glass. 


For description of these illustrations see article 
on page 46. 

The memorial stone of a new Wesleyan chapel 
was laid at Shrewsbury on the 8th inst. The build- 
ing will be chiefly of brick, and the style, accordin? 
to a local paper, is "Old English and Italian.^ 
The chapel will Beat 630 persons. The architect is 
Mr. G. B. Ford, ISurslem, and the builders Messrs- 
W. and J. Gethin, of Shrewsbury. 






- ;-ja - 


i-ii\iS^ ■? 






U (1 ■ ^ 

i i;^ 



July 19, 187S. 




THE Chapter Houses of Chichester and St. 
David's have no bench tables. They form 
upper chambers. 

It is must important to correct good John 
Britten's misapprehension that the forms of 
Chapter Houses varied with their date. It was 
determined and discriminated by the want of 
each community. I have not the time, nor have 
you space to give in detail, the ritual reasons, 
but classification is indispensable. (1) Benedic- 
tine, oblong — Canterbury, Gloucester, Chester, 
Durham [once apsidal] [Winchester]. Excep- 
tions : Worcester round; Westminster poly- 
gonal [Evesham, Belvoir] (Norwich was 

(2) eistercian, square, with three alleys — 
Kirkstall, Fountains, Buildwas, Furness, 
Netley [Tintern, Beaulieu]. Exceptions — 
Margam, polygonal. Cleeve, oblong. 

(3) Clugniacs, oblong — Wenlock. 

(■1) Austin Canons', oblong — Bristol, Ox- 
ford [St. Andrew's]. Exceptions — [Bolton, 
Thornton] polygonal, and (5) Praemonstraten. 
sian, Caverham. 

(fi) Senilar Canons, polygonal — York, 
Sarum, Lichfield, Lincoln, Wells [St. Paul's,] 
Hereford, Southwell, Howden, Elgin. Excep- 
tions (oblong) — Exeter, Chichester, St. David's, 
Eipon, Glasgow. See also my "Sacred Archa30- 
logy." Priory chapter houses were oblong. 
Several so-called chapter houses were really 
sacristies. Mackenzie E. C. Walcott. 


Bodmin. — A meeting of the Bodmin Town 
Council was he'd on Thursday week, to receive 
the report of a committee of the whole council, 
appointed for the purpose of inspecting the 
seven plans sent in for the new Guildhall and 
municipal buildings, and selecting the most 
suitable. The committee recommended that 
the plan with the motto " One and All " should 
be adopted, provided that it could be carried 
out at a cost not exceeding i3,0i:»0. Colonel 
Alms conplained that an architect, who was 
-jnderstood to be a competitor, was met on the 
site selected for the buildings by a majority of 
the building committee, and shown over the 
place by them. This same gentleman had also 
been in the room where the plans were hang- 
inc with a member of the committee, and his 
conduct, he considered, was calculated to 
create great dissatisfaction in the minds of the 
other competitors. With reference to the first 
statement made by Colonel Alms, the Mayor 
said that no further favour was shown to Mr. 
Trevail than it had been decided by the council 
should be shown to any architect who desired 
to visit the site. Mr. John Oliver admitted 
that he had taken Mr. Trevail, at his own re- 
quest, to see the various plans, but he did so in 
perfect good faith, and not a word of comment 
■was spoken by either. If he erred it was in 
ignorance, and he was sorry for it. Mr. W. H. 
Higgs said the plans were open for public in- 
spection, but at the same time he considered 
Mr. Trevail showed very bad taste in asking to 
see the plans. Mr. Phillipps proposed that if 
Mr. Trevail had sent in a plan it should not be 
entertained. Mr. Phillipps, however, could 
find no seconder, and the proposal consequently 
fell through. Mr. Jos. Stephens proposed the 
rejection of the report on account of the site 
chosen, and on the ground that the building of 
a new hall was inopportune. Besides, almost 
without exception, those who had seen the 
various plans and spoken with him on the sub- 
ject considered, he said, five of the other six 
plans superior to the one selected. Colonel Ales 
seconded the amendment. Mr. Collins said, 
although he should not have himself selected 
the plan chosen, yet, as he had not attended 
the committee meetings, he would vote for its 
adoption. After an animated and somewhat 
heated discussion, five voted for the rejection 
of the report, Messrs. Alms, Grose, PhOlipps, 
Sandoe, and Stephens ; and eight for its adop. 
tion, Messrs. Baron, Crang, Collins, Higgs, 
Marshall, Oliver, Ireland, and Williams. The 
report of the committee was therefore declared 
adopted. The plan selected is generally sup- 
posed by those who are acquainted with the 
characteristics of his style, &c., to be that of 
Mr. S. TrevaU. 

Great Yarmouth. — We understand that the 
plans for the erection of the new town hall are 
open to the inspection of the public at the 
town hall between the hours of 12 and 1 in the 
afternoon, and R and 8 in the evening. Mr. 
Boardman, architect, of Norwich, has been 
deputed by the town council to draw up a pro- 
fessional report on the merits of the different 
designs sent in for competition for the prizes 
offered, and commenced his duties on Thursday 
week, July 11th. 

Kensington. — Although tenders have lately 
been received for the execution of Mr. Robert 
Walker's design for the new Vestry Hall at 
Kensington, selected, it will be remembered, in 
competition, the matter has yet to receive 
further consideration, it having been deter, 
mined to include the site of the two adjoining 
houses, and so considerably enlarge that on 
which the new building is to be erected. Mr. 
Walker has received instructions to prepare a 
fresh design for this purpose. 

Nottingham. — The competition of designs 
for the new schools which are about to be built 
in Queen's-walk by the Nottingham School 
Board was settled on Thursday evening last. 
There were eleven sets of designs submitted for 
these schools, and of these the best and most 
suitable, in the opinion of the Board, were 
those by Mr. A. N. Bromley, architect. Week- 
day-cross, Nottingham. The second place was 
awarded to the plans by Mr. A. H. Goodall, 
architect. Market-street, Nottingham. The 
second competition was for schools to be built 
in Coventry-road, Bulwell, for the same School 
Board. For these 12 sets of designs were sent 
in, and when the envelopes were broken it was 
found that Mr. A. N. IJromley was again the 
successful competitor, while Mr. J. W. Keating, 
architect, of the Pavement, Nottingham, was 
placed second. The Board report that on the 
whole the designs were certainly above those of 
former competitions in merit. Another compe- 
tition, which is expected to be for larger schools 
than those just competed for, will take place at 
the end of August. These will be for Hunger- 
street Schools for 1,020 children. These will be 
arranged on the " class-room " system. Another 
school is also to be built in Baldwell Quarry- 
road for 400 on the usual mode of planning. 



monthly meeting of the institute took place on 
Friday ; the President, Lord Talbot de Mala- 
hide, in the chair. Mr. John Henry Parker, 
C.B., gave particulars of the progress of the 
excavations in Rome, one of the principal of 
these being the removal of accumulations of 
earth from the so-called Stadium, a space which 
he thought ought more properly to be desig- 
nated a gymnasium. For this work a contract 
had been entered into by the Government, 
which will take two years to execute, 20ft. of 
earth requiring to be removed. Another great 
work approaching completion is the excavation 
of the Via Sacra, which may settle the question 
as to how far that name was borne by the 
temple-lined thoroughfare passing through 
Rome. He believed it extended past the Forum 
to the Temple of Saturn, and perhaps to the 
Gate of Severus. The excavations in this 
Sacred Way would be, he expected, amongst 
the most interesting ever made in Rome. At 
present the discoveries of ancient remains or 
inscriptions had not been very important. Pro- 
fessor Bunnell Lewis read a paper on " The 
Architectural Antiquities of South-West 
France," illustrated by a series of water-colour 
drawings by the late Rev. J. L. Petit. This 
isolated and mountainous corner of France con- 
tains few Roman remains, and scarcely any 
mediieval works. The people are Basque, and 
speak a patois Spanish rather than French, 
and more nearly approximating to Latin than 
to either of those modern tongues. The Roman 
remains are almost confined to an excellent 
network of roads and inscriptions relating to 
their repair. Of later remains the most 
curious are the scanty mosaics, which exhibit a 
wonderful variety in pattern and the introduc- 
tion into the decoration of the flora of Southern 
Europe. Those at Beam and Bielle are 
especially noteworthy. The sarcophagi in 

churches are occasionally decorated with sculp- 
tured panels representing New Testament 
scenes, but with .an essentially Roman treat- 
ment and grouping — a combination of Chris- 
tian symbols with Pagan workmanship. The 
churches are mostly of the typo known by the 
French as Romano-Byzantine, and in many 
cases were fortified during the middle ages. 
Generally they are planned as a Latin cross, 
with very simple outline, but an instance exists 
of one forming a Greek cross. At Leschar 
Cathedral a vacant space is left in the centre of 
apse for the bishop's chair — apparently a tradi- 
tional reproduction of the praetor's chair in the 
Roman justice-halls. In later buildings the 
portion of the chair more or loss agrees with the 
English use. In reply to Mr. Clarke, Prof. 
Lewis said he noticed no marked difference 
between church architecture of pure Basque 
and tlie Latin-descended races which inhabit 
the district. The books of the local savants 
were very inaccur.ate, and should be read with 
much caution. The President exhibited a 
series of antiquities he had just brought from 
Athens, including a large celt of nearly pure 
copper, and numerous tiint flakes from Mara- 
thon and other districts of Greece. The latter 
had been averred to be relics of the Persian 
army, but their occurrence elsewhere, together 
with that of celts, showed that they must be 
attributed to a far earlier, and indeed prehis. 
toric race. A series of gold and silver rings 
were described by Mr. R. Ready, including a 
Roman intaglio of Antinous as Hercules, in a 
Chalcedony-S.ird, set in a massive gold 
enamelled thumb ring, a rudely engraved dark 
sard, set in a gold ring of heavy close filagree 
work, a media'val gold ring, with a merchant's 
mark and initials "S. I.," and an intricately 
twisted gold ring, forming a knot, probably 
Italian work, and some singularly twisted silver 
wire thumb rings, of large size and rude work- 
manship, from Scandinavia. A letter was read 
from Mr. Watkin, stating that at Holt, Nor- 
folk, a labourer had found an amphora filled 
with nearly a hundred-weight of Roman coins, 
many thousands in numljer, chiefly of brass, 
and of the date of Faustinas. 

The Excavations on Mohnt CAsnEN. — 
At a recent meeting of the Society of Anti- 
quaries, General Lane Fox communicated a 
paper detailing his excavations and researches 
in the pits and camps at Mount Caburn, near 
Lewes, and at the same time exhibited the 
objects found, including pottery and wattling- 
sticks. The author suggested that the first 
construction of Mount Caburn was during the 
late bronze or the early iron period, and that 
its occupation continued into Roman times, 
though it does not seem to have been occupied 
by the Romans themselves. One large and 
thirteen small pit-dwellings were opened, cor- 
responding with others found at Cadbury, 
Ewell, Newstead, Stone, Springfield, Tilbury, 
Richborough, Chesterford, and other parts of 
England. The ramparts of the camp and the 
various lines of defence were mapped out and 
explained by the lecturer, who endeavoured to 
show, from an examination of fragments of 
wattling and the stakeholes, the precise size and 
shape of the stockade and the distance apart of 
the stakes. With these remains were compared 
the accounts in Csesar of ancient fortifications 
and the extant examples of Gaulish ramparts 
in France. 

Plans have been approved by the Metropolitan 
Board of Works for a new church to be erected 
from the designs of Mr. J. E. K. Catts, of Landon, 
in Panmure-road, Sydenham-bill. 

On Saturday the memorial stones of a United 
Methodist Free Church, to be erected in Ronndhay- 
road, Leeds, were laid. The new church is designed 
in a bold treatment of Romanesque. The plan 
embraces a schoolroom with infants' room, band- 
room, class-rooms, kitchen, and heatins-apparatos 
room under the chapel. The whole of the outside 
ashlar work will be of Meanwood stone, with Mean- 
wood and Potternewton stone wallstoues ; the insidea 
of the walls will be plastered, and the inside wood- 
work win be of pitch pino varnished. The whole of 
the works have been designed by Mr. D. Dodgson, 
architect, of 18, Park-row, Leeds, and are being 
carried out, under his superintendence, by Messrs. 
Craven and Umpleby and Mr. Charles Myers, 
builders, of Leeds. The church will accommodate 
GOO, and the schoolroom 2.-.0 children. Exclusive of 
the site, the building is estimated to cost ,£1,000. 



June 19, 1878. 

Builiiiinfl Jnttllismce. 

Bedale. — The new Eoman Catholic Church 
of St. Mary and St. Joseph, Aiskew, was 
opened last week. The total cost of the church 
will be about ^£2,000. The character of the 
buildincf is that of a small country church of 
the 13th century, in the Gothic style. There 
is a nave, chancel, and baptistery, with sacristy, 
&c., connecting the new church with the 
presbytery. The walls are of stone, with 
comer dressings, and also dressings round the 
windows. The design is by Mr. G. Goldie, of 
the firm of Messrs. Goldie and Child, of London. 
Mr. Wood, of Leeds, has been the builder. 

Hastings. — The memorial stone of a new 
Congregational church was laid at Mount 
Pleasant, Hastings, on Thursday, the 4th. The 
church will be Early English in style, with 
rose windows above the side lancets, and win- 
dow openings in the roof. At the south-east 
angle will be a tower and spire 110ft. high, and 
on the west side will be a short transept. The 
external materials will be red brick, with buff 
terra-cotta dressings. The internal dimensions 
wiU be 72ft. x 41ft. 6in., and 26ft. height of 
walls. The roof will be carried on arched beams 
in one span ; above the collar beam will com- 
mence an arched ceiling. Seats of varnished 
pine will be provided for 530 hearers, and pro- 
vision made for the future addition of galleries. 
A platform, approached from minister's vestry, 
will be provided in lieu of pulpit. The heating 
and ventilation are to be secured by an under- 
ground hot-air stove. In close proximity a 
lecture-hall is already built, and a schoolroom 
wUl hereafter be added on north side of 
church. Mr. T. Elworthy is architect of, and 
Mr. Harmer the contractor for, the building, 
the cost of which, as at present being erected, 
will be ^£5,000. 

"' HuDDEBSFiELD. — On Wednesday week the 
double ceremony of opening the new borough 
building and laying the foundation stone 
of the new town hall, at Huddersfield, was 
performed. The borough building is 93ft. 
long and 70ft. wide. The Town Council room 
is 44ft. long, 2Gft. 6in. wide, with two entrances. 
The building has been erected at a cost of 
under ^£9,000, from designs prepared by Mr. 
J. H. Abbey, the borough surveyor. The new 
town hall will front Princess-street. The 
court-room will be 58ft. long, 37ft. wide, and 
20ft. high. There will also be a large public 
hall. The outside dimensions are 154ft. from 
Princess-street to the new borough offices, and 
72ft. from Peel-street to Corporation. 

HuGGLEScoTE. — The foundation stone has 
been laid of a new church at Hugglescote. 
The new church is to be in the Early Gothic 
style, the interior measurement being 78ft. 
long, 46ft. wide, and 50ft. to the apex of 
the nave root. There will be sittings in it for 
450 adults and 108 children. The church will 
consist of north and south aisles and baptistery. 
The exterior of the building will be constructed 
of Bardon stone, with Doulting dressings, and 
the interior of Ihstock pressed bricks and Cor. 
aham Down dressings, with a portion in 
Ancaster stone. The floors will be of encaustic 
tiles, with borders of an approved pattern, and 
flushed in with Portland cement. The church 
is designed to accommodate about 600 persons, 
but the portion to be erected now will seat 
about 100 short of that number. The cont'^ict 
amounts to ^£4,198, exclusive of the site. The 
architect is Mr. J. B. Everard, of Leicester ; 

the sale by Queen's College, Oxford, and the 
purchase by the board of the estate and interest 
of the college in these open spaces. It was 
decided to open a further portion of the Oxford- 
street to Old-street improvement on Saturday, 
the 3rd August. A letter from the City Com- 
missioners of Sewers, stating that the cost of 
completing the improvements at No. 139, St. 
Mary-at-Hill, and No. 1, Little Tower-street, is 
estimated at je7,219, was referred to the finance 
committee ; another from the Eoyal Institute 
of British Architects, stating that they are 
ready to assist the Board with practical sug- 
i*estions, when they are preparing their bye- 
laws, under Clause 15 of the Metropolis Man- 
agement and Building Acts Amendment Bill, 
was sent to the Building Act committee ; and 
one from Mr. J. W. Booker, stating that as 
the consideration of the tenders for hoarding 
and shoring has been re-opened, he is not 
desirous of adhering to his original tender, and 
asking to be relieved of further work in con- 
nection with dangerous structures, on account 
of his state of health, was referred to the 
works committee. The board's contractor was 
instructed to carry out the work ordered by the 
magistrates to be done at the following pre- 
mises, being dangerous structures : — 3, Searle- 
street, Lincoln's-inn-fields, St. Giles-in-tlie- 
Fields ; party-wall, between No. 24, New 
Bond-street, and 31, Conduit-street, St. George, 
Hanover-square ; party-wall, between No. 180 
and 181, Drury-lane, St. Giles-in-the-Fields ; 
No. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6a, Angel and Porter- 
court, St. Luke ; 126, Gray's-inn.road, St. 
Andrew, Holborn. — Tlie following applica- 
tions for loans were granted at the previous 
meeting of the Metropolitan Board of Works 
— Plumstead District, Board, ^1,000, for 
raising and strengthening the south bank 
of the Thames in Charlton parish ; Mile- 
end Old Town Vestry, ^£2,000, for improve- 
ments in Oxford and Jamaica streets ; and 
the managers of Brentwood School District, 
jei5,000, for purchasing land adjoining their 
premises at Brentwood, and erection of infirmary 
and other works. In reference to communica- 
tions from various local authorities, asking that 
street-widening works in Walworth-road, Cow- 
cross-street, Holborn, Bermondsey-street, and 
between Strand and Holborn (Mr. Teulon's 
plan), and that the Thames be embanked be- 
tween Battersea-bridge and Cremorne, answers 
were sent stating it is not the intention of the 
board to apply next session for an Act autho- 
rising the carrying out of street improvements. 

Teignmouth. — A new Eoman Catholic 
church, dedicated to Our Lady and St. Patrick, 
has been opened at Teignmouth. The work 
executed so far has involved a cost of .£3,400, 
and it is proposed to complete the edifice as 
soon as possible. The church stands north and 
south, and consists of a nave, chancel, south 
gallery, and eastern aisle, and at the head of 
the latter is a Lady chapel. When the western 
aisle is built there wUl be another chapel, a 
calvary, and a permanent confessional. As soon 
as means permit it is also proposed to build a 
presbytery. On one side of the front there is a 
liell turret, and on the other a pinnacle. Over 
the entrance there is a statue of St. Joseph. 
The architects are Messrs. J. Hansom and Son, 
of Westminster; Mr. Slocombe, of Teignmouth, 
was the builder. The church is built of Devon- 
shire limestone, with Ham-hill stone for the 
exterior dressings, and Bath stone for the dress- 
ings of the interior. 


Sclentiflcand Technical Auth. 

ori^nal articles and GcientiQc papers. 

»ppeai-ea durlne 


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itloes receipts and 

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and amateurs. Price Twopence.' of all booksellers and i 

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allotted to correspondence.] 
All letters should be addressed to the EDITOR, 31, 

To Our Readers. — We shall feel obliered to any of our 

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Cases for binding the haU-yearly volumes, 23. each. 

University College. — Lord Granville, on 

the builder^Mr. King Vann,^of ^Leicester j and j Tuesday week, laid the first atone of some new 
'"''"' buildings at UniversitjCollege. Theseadditions 

will bring the wings of the front up to the line 
of Gower-street. The architect of the new 
buildings is Professor Hayter Lewis, and they 
will cost £50,000 or more. The central portion 
of the existing building, including its portico 
and entrance-hall, was erected from the designs 
of WilUam Wakins, R.A. In 1S32 a boys' 
school was established, under the control of the 
Council. In 1833 the University College or 
North London Hospital was founded, in a close 
connection with the college. In 1S41 the Birk- 
beck Chemical Laboratory was erected. Since 
that time the principal additions to the college 
have been the portions devoted to the Slade 
School of Fine Art, and the portions of the 
south wing assigned to the boys* schooL 

the clerk of the works Mr. Taylor, 

Metropolitan Board of Wokks. — At the 
weekly meeting of this board on Friday, Mr. 
E. Dresser Rogers was elected vice-chairman 
of the works committee for the ensuing 
year. A letter from Mr. H. A. Hunt, jun., 
on behalf of Earl Cadogan, suggesting an 
arrangement for an exchange of land so 
as to widen Queen's-road, West, as an 
approach to the Chelsea Embankment having 
been sonsidered, a reply was directed to be 
sent, declining to co-operate in the suggested 
arrangement. The bill for the acquisition of 
Plumstead-common and Shoulder-of-Mutton- 
green having received the Royal assent, it was 
referred to the works committee to settle the 
terms of the agreement under the new Act for 

Received.— J. A.— F. V.— MoN. R.andCo.— W, L. G.— 
M. and Co.— F. L.— J. A. and Sons.— W. and Co.— A, 
and H.— R. W. and G.— A. and Co.— S. and G. 

H. Bell. (Photography has been successfully applied to 
window decoration; an interesting article on thesubjcct 
appeared in the English Mechanic of July 5, p. -114.)— 
Inquirer. (No.)— S. M. (Mahogany was used in re- 
pairins some of Sir Walter Raleigh's ships at Trinidad 
in 1597 ; but it was not introduced into England till 
1724.)— Sob-Contractoe. (The only method used is to 
measure the rectangle enclosing the stone winder, the 
dimensions being taken to give a fair allowance for 
waste. Your sketch gives no dimensions.)— Samuel 
Fry. (The charge for quantities for old building is, 
according to the surveyor's scale, 2^ per cent, for works 
of small or difficult kind. When there is no risk in- 
curred, however, 1^ to 2 per cent, seems to us a fair 
charge.)— W. Thorburn. (Prony's formula for retain- 
ing walls is given in several handbooks of construction ; 
you wiU find the formula and the subject of retaining 
walls discussed in the '* Engineer and Ai-chitect'a 
Pocket-Book " (Lockwood and Co.), and the theory of 
retaining walls has been frequently explained in the 
Building News. The subject has been treated of by 
Tredgold, Belidor, Rondelet, Pasley, and many recent 
experimenters, including several American engineers, the 
leading points of which we have laid before our readers 
from time to time. See aho the *' Transactions of the 
American Society" for February, quoted in our article. 



To the Editor of the BniLDiNO News. 

Sib, — In the competition for the travelling 
studentship, recently offered to architectural 
students by the Manchester Society of Archi- 
tects, I think it is much to be deplored that they 
have not acted with greater justice and courtesy 
towards the competitors, and I shall feel 
obliged by your inserting the following in your 
next issue . — 

Certain conditions were issued, in which the 
11th of May was fixed as the day for the 
delivery of competitive drawings. Being my- 
self a competitor, and finding the time rather 
short for the amount of work entailed, I was 
reluctantly compelled to hurry through my 
drawings in order to have them ready for the •■ 
day appointed. On delivery, however, I was i 
kindly informed that the time was extended a 
fortnight. Ttiis extension was simply useless 
to me, as my drawings were already complete ; 


July 19, 1878. 



whereas, had I known sooner, it would have 
been most invaluable. But this is not all. On 

immunicatins with my fellow-competitcrs I 

icertaincd that one of them actually received 
no extension whatever, whilst another (the 

iccessful competitor) was granted some ten or 
twelve days' extension after my own drawings 
rere finally delivered. 

I should mention that I only heard the result 
if the competition when I chanced to call to 
ascertain if any decision hnd been made, and to 
my great astonishment I then learned that the 
Bncoessful competitor had already proceeded on 
his tour. 

I thint it would be impossible to conceive 
anything more unjust or discourteous than such 
treatment, and should the Manchester Society 
Bf Architects ever enter upon any discussion 
respecting the grievances of " architectural 
BOmpetitions" I shall certainly be very curious 
'o see what they have to say in the matter. — I 
m, &e., Frank L. Elton 

Manchester, 17th July, 1378. 



SiE, — The award of the council for the above 
competition has been that Jlr. Sylvanus Tre- 
vail's plans be accepted. Will yon kindly insert 
this letter as a protest against the resolution, 
Mr. Trevail having, contrary to all laws of 
decency and fair play, inspected the drawings 
sent in for competition whilst they were still 
ander the consideration of the council, with one 
of the councillors, this coimcillor being, more- 
over, a builder doing work for Mr. Trevail ? I 
enclose my card and am, &c., 



Sir, — In addition to what has already been said, it 
may bo interestiDg: to note, as it is not (fenerally 
known, that Charles Mathews' father died at PIv- 
month, and was buried at the parish chnrch of St. 
Andrew's there. A white marble tablet tells the 
following tale : — 

' Near this spot are deposited the honoured re- 
mains of Charles Mathews, comedian. Born 28th 
June, 1776 ; died, June 2sth, 183.5. Not to com- 
memorate that penias whi-^h bis country acknow- 

„ d and rewarded, and men of every n.ation con- 
fessed, nor to record tb>; worth which secured the 
respect and attachment of his admirers and friends, 
bat as an humble tribute to his devoted unvarying- 
affection and indukence as a husband and father, 
this tablet is erected in sorrowinsf love and grateful 
remembrance by his bereaved wife and son. 
'* All England mourned when her comedian died, 
A public loss that ne'er mi^ht bo supplied, 
For who could hope such varied gifts to find. 
All rare and exquisite, in one combined ? 
The private virtue that adorn'd his breast 
Crowds of admiring friends with tears confessed. 
Only to Thee, O God ! the grief is known 
Of those who rear this monumental stone : 
The son and widow, who, with bosoms torn. 
The best of fathers and of husbands mourn. 
Of all this public, social, private woo, 
Here lies the cause— Charles Mathews sleeps below." 

It may be noticed that whilst most of the recent 
notices upon the late talented actor spell his name 
with two " t.'s " that upon the father's grave has 
only one ; and further, that Charles Mathews, sen., 
by a carious coincidence, died upon the anni- 
versary of his birthday. St. Andrew's Chnrch 
contains, besides the monument just quoted, very 
many memorials of a most interesting character, and 
is well worthy of a visit. It is, perhaps, one of the 
very finest of the Drronshire churches, as it is also 
the largest. The grand old western tower is of 
granite, and it was the bells in that belfry which 
rang out the joy peal when the huge Spanish Armada 
got so deservedly well " licked " by our dapper little 
fleet outside the harbour. The interior of the church 
was thoroughly and most successfully restored by 
the late Sir G. G. Scott, K.A., shortly before his 
death.— I am. Ac, Haekt Hems. 

I Exeter, July 8, 1878. 

The chancel of St. Edward's Church, Evenlode, is 
about to be restored by Messrs. Newman and Sons, 
builders, at the sole cost of the rector, and at a cost 
of about ^£300. The architect is Mr. Cutts, of 

The church of St. Lawrence, Wyck Eissington. is 
to be restored this autumn from the designs of jjr. 
J. E. K. Cutts. The chancel is an unusually 
interesting specimen of late Lancet work. The 
work is to cost about ^£1,100. 

The Cockermouth Local Board have decided to 
allow in future no new houses to be inhabited until 
a certificate has been granted by their surveyor, 
stating that the building and sewerage have been 
completed according to deposited plans. 


[5414.]— Creases in Engravings. — Would any 
reader inform mo how to take the cresses out of en- 
gravings when framing them f— W. F. BuowNINO. 

[5135.] — Winchester Cathedral.— Perhaps one 
of your many correspondents will kindly inform me 
how I can get permission to make drawings of Win- 
chester Cathedral and St. Cross Hospital, or if any is 
required ?— An Architect's Pupil. 

[5130.]- B. C. Church at Arundel. — May I 
troulile some one to inform mo who was the archi- 
tect of the Roman Catholic cathedral at Arundel ? — 
J. H. M. 

[5137. j— Professional Charges.— About 4 years 
ago I was directed by a public board to dosiga and 
superintend some works at a town about six miles 
from my ofliee, 'I'ho works were completed three 
years ago, and I received the usual commission of .£5 
per cent, on the amount of the contract. I had pre- 
viously, and have again this year, rendered the board 
other personal services, for which I have yet to bo 
paid. Last year I was directed to prepare plan, 
estimate, and specification for a small addition to 
the previous works, but quite distinct from them. 
This addition was carried out by a contractor under 
my superintendence, at a cost of under o£_'0. and in- 
volved at least four journeys by me of half a day 
each, so that the ordinary commission on so small an 
amount will not bo rcmunerativo. Query. — Am I 
bound to take the work as a whole, and charge only 
£o per cent, on the total expenditure, or am I jasti- 
fied in making a higher charge on the second con- 
tract ? I shall be glad to receive any information as 
to the customary practice under such circumstances. 
— Beta. 

[5438.] — Lights. — Will any of your readers kindly 
inform me what is the legal distance that a building 
requires to be set back on its own land, so as to 
secure lights on a side adjoining another property f 
—A. T. T. 


[5422.]— Pulpit in Exetor Cathedral.-;- The 
material used in the Patteson memorial pulpit, in the 
nave of Exeter Cathedral, is INIansfield Woodhouse 
magnesia limestone, that in the centre panel being 
from the celebrated " Memorial " quarry. The whole 
of the sculpture and carvings were executed by 
Messrs. Farmer and Brindley, of London. — H. W. B. 

[5423.]— Oak Floors. — I should recommend "Pro- 
vincial " to let his oak floors remain as they are for 
another twelve months. — Harry Hems. 

[5124.]— Emigration. — My idea about a young 
architect going to Australia or the Colonies is 
this :— If he is of active habits, and can turn his 
hand to surveying in all branches ; if ho has no 
scruples about particular styles of architecture, and 
if he can turn builder as well as architect on an 
emergency, the Colonies aiford him an excellent 
opportunity of making a fair Uvelihood. If, on 
the other hand, a young man is a specialist, if he 
indulges certain whims about style, stands upon his 
professional dignity, and has no practical acquaint- 
ance with building and measuring, the notion of 
going abroad is utterly absurd. Every student can 
answer these questions for himself, and determine 
whether England or the Colonies give him the best 
prospects for success. — 6. H. G. 

[5427.] — Competition Drawings. — The condi- 
tion that the designs must not be coloured applies, 
as a rule, to the elev.ations and perspective draw- 
ings. To colour the woodwork in the sections can 
hardly be held to disqualify the design, unless the 
design thrown aside for being coloured was simply 
so tinted.— Architectus. 

[5430.]— Heat Through Walls.- The cavity 
between the oven and the new house is scarcely wide 
enough ; a 6in., or even a 12in. hollow, would have 
beea better. Is the space ventilated, or rather, is 
there a current of air through it r It would be a 
good plan to have this done, if possible. Another 
course would be to fill np the cavity with felt, 
pugging, or soaie non-conducting substance. I 
should prefer, however, a well-ventilated cavity, if 
possible. — G. 

[5431.]— Keeping Down a Spring of Water.— 
The only practicable course to keep the water down 
is to make the underground ch.amber water-tight. 
This may be done by puddling the bottom and sides. 
a good bed of clay, 9in. deep, and then a slightly in- 
verted arch of brick, set in cement, filled up level 
with concrete, would resist the upward pressure of 
water. I should turn the arched floor the Oft. way. 
It should be Sin. thick.— Architect. 

[5432.] — Broach Spire. — A broach, or " broche," 
is an old English term for a spire springing from the 
tower Willis. The origin of the term " broach " is 
rather obscure ; the term probably is a corruption of 
the Welsh procio, to thrust, or French brochet-, to 
spit. I refer "C. C. S." to the term in " Common- 
place Column." — A RejLder. 

[5433.1— Professional Charges.- Tracings made 
for local board are usually charged for in addition to 
the 2^ per cent. The 1^ per cent, for preparing 
quantities is small enough, and does not include 
supplying copies to contractors. The J per cent, is 
for procuring and examining tenders only. — 

Cork. — A series of nino windows in the sonth 
aisle of tho now cathedral of St. Finn Barre, at 
Cork, have been filled with stained glass as memo- 
rials to deceased citizens, armorial bearings of 
whom are exhibited above. The central compartment 
contains the figures, and is placed between two other 
lights, each decorated with interlaced gfomotrical 
patterns in delicate colour<. Tho subji:cts, com- 
mencing from opposite the bapti^'tory, are :— 1. 
" Adam and Eve working ;" 2. " Noah building the 
Ark;" 3. "Naah offering the sacrifice, and the 
giving of the Covenant of the Bow ;" 4. "Joseph 
sold to tho Israelites ;" 5. " Joseph presenting his 
Father to P'nanvoh ;" 6. " David with tho head of 
Goliath ;" 7. " David before the Ark of the 
Covenant;" 8. "Nehemiah petitioning Artaicrxos ;" 
and 9 " Nehemiah rebuilding the walls of 

Huntington, York.— Another stainsd glasB 
window has been inserted in the chancel of Hunt- 
ingdon Church. Tho window, w'jich is the east 
one, is of throe lights, with tracery above. The 
subjects portrayed are "The Nativity," "The 
Crucifixion," and the ''Resurrection," each of 
which occupies a light, the Crucifi.xion being the 
central. The window has been executed by Hurdman 
and Co., Birmingham, from the design of Mr. D. A. 
Walter, architect, Hornsea. 

Stained Glass in the Paris ExHiEiTroN. — 
Among the exhibitors in this department, Messrs. 
Camm Bros., artists in glass, Birmingham, maybe 
mentioned for some excellently-designed windows for 
domestic work. We notice a window embodying 
illustrations of the fairy part of Shakespeare's 
"Midsummer Night's Dream." The figures of 
Oheron, king of the fairies, giving Puck instructions, 
Titania, the queen, and Puck are well sustained. 
But some hall windows in three lights, 5ft. 9in. x 
1ft. 8in., are especially worthy of mention. The 
subjects of the design are taken from Tennyson's 
" Idylls of the Kmg." The centre light shows the 
sacred Mount of Camelot, where Arthur holds court 
with the Knights of the Round Table. The subject 
is suggested from the " Holy Gi-ail ": — 

O ! brother, had you known our Camelot, 

Built by old kin'..'3 aire after aire so old ; 

The king himself had fears that it woald fall. 

So strange, and rich, and dim. 

The lower part of the window is occupied with 
figures of knights and ladies, with the " mighty hall 
which Merlin built" in the background rising in 
pyramidal stages. It is a fine composition, and there 
is a semi-mystic meaning and quaintness in the 
design that commends itself. In the side lights are 
other subjects from the same poem. We have before 
us the design of another ck'verly conceived three- 
light ecclesiastical window, representing the Parable 
of the Wise and Foolish Virgins. The figure of the 
Saviour occupies tho centre light, and tho two 
groups of virgins are admirably introduced in the 
side lights. The artist has aimed rather at ideal ex- 
pression in the composition of his figures and acces- 
sories. Messrs. Camm, we note also, send some 
transom lights and curtain panels, with emblematic 
designs of the Four Seasons, ilusij. Archery, 
Falconry, and Spring, in the Classic and Queen Anne 

At the recent fire at Messrs. Smith and Co., of 
Compton-street, Goswell-road, the whole of the 
books, &c., of the firm, which were locked up in 
Messrs. Chubb's safes, came out uninjured. The 
conflagration was an unusually severe one, the 
building being stored with oiN, tallows, and other 
such inflammable articles. This is the second large 
fire within a very short time at which the books and 
valuables have been saved in M'sssrs. Chubb's safes. 

At a vestry meeting, held at St. Nicholas Church, 
Guildford, the design submitted by Messrs. Clayton 
and B.^11, of Regent-street, W., for the Dr. Mon- 
sell memorial reredos to be erected in the church, 
was approved, and a resolution was passed request- 
ing the ordinary to grant a faculty for the erection 
of the reredos. 

On Jlonday morning Mr. Jethro Robinson, the 
architect to the Lord Chamberlain, expired very 
suddenly at his residence, Bloomsbury-square. It 
is supposed that the death was from heart disease. 
Deceased was the architect to Sanger's Royal 
Amphitheatre, Alexandra Theatre, Grecian, City- 
road, and theatres at Leeds, Hull, and other large 
provincial towns. 

A block of buildings for stores, workshops, read- 
ing-rooms, &c.t was opened on Saturday, July 6th, 
in connection with the Home for Little Boys, 
Farningham-road, Kent, by the Countess of Zetland, 
and the foundation stone of an additional house was 
laid by Mrs. Horniraan on behalf of the donor. 
Messrs. Spalding and Evans were the architects, 
and the contractors W. Downs and Co., of Soutb- 

The rural sanitary authority of tho parish of 
Frimley have taken steps towards the sewering of 
their district by consulting Mr. James Lemon, of 
Southampton, thereon. 



July 19, 1878. 


Drainage Schemes fob the Lower Thajies 
Valley.— The Lower Thames Valley Main Sewer- 
age Board recently considered a tabulated state- 
ment as to the various sewerage schemes sub- 
mitted in competition by engineers. Five of the 
schemes propose precipitation, nine irrigation, one 
joint irrigation and precipitation, and one is alterna- 
tive. The highest estimate is that of Messrs- 
Donaldson and Davenhall, who propose to take the 
se.vage to Chobham and Bisley (for irrigation) at a 
coat of .£592,600. The lowest is that for No. 2 
scheme, propounded by Messrs. Gotto and Besley, of 
■Westminster, in which it is proposed to deal with 
tVie sewage by precipitation at Ham-fields, for 
.£12(5,786. No decision will be come to at present. 

Faknham, Surrey.— The Local Board of Farn- 
ham have lately received a report from Mr. James 
Lemon, M.LC'.E., of Southampton, whom they have 
consulted upon the sewerage and utilisation of the 
sewage of their district, in which it is proposed to 
utilise the sewage by irrigating certain lands near 
the union, and to the north-east of the town. By 
the adoption of this i-eport, all possibility of pollut- 
ing the Elver Wey, which runs through the town, 
will be precluded. The land proposed to be irrigated 
being at a greater elevation than the town, pump- 
ing will have to be resorted to, it appearing that no 
laud suitable for the purpose is obtainable at a level 
which will admit of the town being sewered by 

Bi^NDFORD, Dorset. — A Local Government 
Board imiuiry was held a fortnight since at Bland- 
ford, before Mr. S. J. Smith, O.E., as to an applica- 
tion from the local board for sanction to borrow 
.£600 for permanent works— including widening et 
a street, re-paving foot-paths partly with Keinton 
stone and partly with asphalte, and kerbing. The 
inspector condemned tar pavement on account of 
its non-durability and diificulty to repair, and it 
was decided to amend the application to one for bor- 
rowing .£700, and to have all the paving in stone. It 
transpired that there is no regular system either of 
sewerage or water supply in the town, and the in- 
spector expressed a strong opinion on the probable 
contamination of the present well-water supply 
from the " vaults " (dead wells) attached to every 
three or four cottages throughout the district. 

The newly-appointed Corporation of Accrington 
have reappointed Mr. Eli Knowles, surveyor to the 
late local board of health, as borough surveyor, 
and have raised the salary from .£150 to £173 per 


St. Andrew Church, Plymouth, has been enriched 
bv a fine peal of carillon bells at a cost of £100. 
Messrs. Gillett and Bland, of Croydon, are the 

The sinking of an experimental well at Egford, 
for a new water supply for Frome, has resulted in 
tapping a spring, which appears both copious and 
of good (juality. The works are being carried out 
under the superintendence of Mr. Tomlinson, C.E., 
engineer to the urban authority, by Mr. Charles 
Barnes, the contractor. 

The Local Government Board has decided, upon a 
case referred to them, that Mr. E. G. Smith, late 
borough surveyor of Kingston-on-HuU, is entitled 
to compensation at the rate of £60 per annum for 
loss of office arising from re-arrangement under the 
local amalgamation scheme. 

The members of the Bristol Cymmrodorion Society 
visited Worle-hill, near Weston-super-Mare, and 
inspected the British camp thereon- The outlines 
of the camp were pointed out by Mr. J. F. Nicholls, 
F.S.A., chief librarian of Bristol free libraries, who 
also read a paper on the subject. 

It has been decided, at a meeting of parishioners 
of Kensington, to complete the unfinished portion 
at the east end of St. Mary Abbotts Church, 
according to the plans of its architect, the late oir 
Gilbert Scott, as a memorial of the ministry of Dr. 
Maclagan, the new Bishop of Lichfield, while 
minister of the parish ; and, further, that a slab of 
marble or brass be inserted near the chancel 
setting this forth in suitable words. Dr. Maclagan 
has promised to place a fresco on the north wall 
of the church as a thank-offering. 

The Dean and Chapter of Llandaff have accepted 
the tender of ^Messrs. Mears and Steinbank, of 
London, for providing seven bells for Llandaff 
Cathedral- With the large present bell, which will 
form the tenor of the set, a peal of eight bells will 
be hung in the tower, and together with a monu- 
mental brass in the cathedral, will form a memorial 
to the late Dean Williams. 

A group of buildings at Wrexham, formerly used 
as the militia deput, is being converted into a 
magistrates' court-house, prisoners' cells, &C-, in 
accordance with plans prepared by Mr- E- Lloyd 
Williams, county surveyor for Denbighshire. The 
contract has been taken by Mr. Griffiths, and is to 
be completed by October. 


Contracts v. Daywore. — Wynn r. Eoberts. — 
This case, tried at the North Wales Summer Assizes 
last week, at Carnarvon, before Lord Justice Bram- 
well, afforded a remarkable instance of the advisa- 
bility of employing an architect even in comparatively 
trifling contracts. The plaintiff, who is a contrac- 
tor, sought to recover from the defendant. Miss 
Eoberts, a lady, for whom he had done some work- 
His case was to the effect that the defendant em- 
ployed him to convert a photographic establishment 
at Twthill, Carnarvon, into a spirit vaults. The 
plaintiff said be would do the work for £70. It was 
suggested that Mr- Thomas, architect, of Carnarvon, 
should prepare the agreement between the parties - 
On the 10th March, 1877, the agreement was entered 
into, the plaintiff agreeing to make the cellaratures to 
the premises for Miss Eoberts according to a plan 
and specification which he hnd seen, and to complete 
the same oh or before the 2Sth May, 1877. Should 
he fail to complete the work by that time he agreed 
to owe Miss Roberts lOs. a day for each day on 
which the work should be incomplete afterwards. 
The amount of the contract was £70. The plaintiff 
further agreed to make an additional cellar free of 
charge, if the job paid him. That agreement was 
signed by the plaintiff. Afterwards a different and 
much more formal agreement was prepared by Mr. 
Thomas and sent over to Mr. Wynn for execution, 
the defendant bringing it herself- The agreement 
said the work had to be done for £70, and he, there- 
fore, refused to sign it. It was then agreed that the 
plaintiff should go on and do the work by daywork- 
He now sought to charge her what he had paid out 
of pocket. The amount was £159 63- iiA. £25, 
which had been paid, was deducted, and the amount 
sought was therefore £134 6s. 4Jd. for work 
actually done under the agreement to be paid by 
d.aywork. The defendant swore that she never 
agreed to pay £170, and that she never authorised 
the plaintiff to complete the job by daywork. The 
evidence of Mr. J'ohn Thomas, architect and county 
surveyor for Carnarvon, which practically tiecided 
the case, was to the effect that he saw the plaintiff 
„n a tender for the work. He distinctly read over 
the tender to the plaintiff before the latter signed it 
in witness's presence. Before that the plaintiff had 
seen the plan and specification. A day or two_ be- 
fore signing the agreement plaintiff had the original 
specification and plan in his possession. The ori- 
ginal plan and specification did not include a por- 
tico, cellar, water-closet, and other things. Plaintiff's 
original tender to do the work for £82 lOs. was not 
accepted. The specification was afterwards altered 
to contain portico, water-closet, cellar, <fec. £70 
was the sum distinctly mentioned by both parties 
after the specification had been altered. The plain- 
tiff signed the agreement after having it read over to 
him, and there could not be a doubt as to his under- 
standing that the amount was £70. Witness had 
occasion to find fault with several portions of the 
work. The plaintiff did not engage sufficient men, 
and as the work was proceeding slowly witness 
reminded him that he was liable under the contract 
to pay IO3. per day on the days on which the work 
remained incomplete after the specified date. Wit- 
ness had been over the work since the plaintiff left 
off. and he had estimated the value of the work at 
£61 133. lOd. Witness made a deduction of £20 
for valuable material taken away by the plaintiff, 
leaving a balance of £61 ISs. lOd. Witness calcu- 
lated that plaintiff had done about three-sevenths of 
the whole contract- The judge obserred that, if 
what was stated was true, then the plaintiff had no 
cause for action. He agreed to do the whole of this 
work for £70, and if he left so much of it undone, 
adding £20 to that, he had been paid more than 
£75. The question was whether the jury were ready 
to disbelieve Mr. Thomas— the question was whether 
he made a good bargain or an improvident bargain. 
If he made a bad bargain he must abide by it- 
There was an end of the case, providing the jury 
beUeved Mr. Thomas. The jury returned a verdict 
for the defendant. 

Alleged Incompleteness of an Arbitra- 
tor's Award.— In the Exchequer Division, High 
Court of Justice, at Dublin, on July 5, the case of 
James H. Webb and Co., Limited i'. Samuel H. 
Bolton, came before the Court on cause shown 
against a conditional order to set aside an award. 
Plaintiffs employed defendants to execute certain 
buildings for them in the Corn-market, Dublin. A 
dispute having arisen in connection with the way 
in which the contract was carried out, the parties 
appointed Mr- James Owen, architect to the Board 
of Works, to decide the matter between them, and 
on the 24th of May last Mr. Owen awarded the 
sum of £-118 123. to the defendant- The award 
was impeached, on the ground that the arbitra- 
tor had not allowed amounts in respect of several 
heads of expenditure, but had given a lump sum. 
After hearing arguments on ether side, the Court 
allowed the cause shown, and afiirmed the award to 
be absolute. 

Private Eae, the winner of the Queen's Prize at 
Wimbledon this year, is a builder, in partnership 
with his father at Kilsyth, near Glasgow. 


Water Supply in South London. — Sir U. 
Kay-Shuttleworth last week asked the President of 
the Local Government Board whether his attention 
had been called to recent complaints in the South 
London newspapers on the subject of the in^iufficient 
supply given by the Southwark and Vauxhall Water 
Company in Peckham, Bermondsey, and other 
parts of its district, and to the accounts of an 
extensive and destructive fire in Peckham on Jane 
22, when, owing to the short supply of water, the 
Fire Brigade could not get two steam fire-engines, 
which arrived shortly after the fire broke out, to 
work for some time ; whether he had caused any 
remonstrance on the subject to be addressed to the 
water company ; whether the Metropolitan Board of 
AV'orks had taken any action ; and whether, con- 
sidering the numerous and long-continued com- 
plaints from that densely populated district and the 
repeated cases of insufficiency of supply, the Local 
Government Board were prepared to encourage an 
application to them under section 11 of the 
Metropolis Water Act, 1871, to require the 
company to provide a constant supply. Mr. 
Sclater-Booth said his attention had been called 
generally to the complaints in respect of the water 
supply in these populous districts of London ; but 
he had only received within the past few months two 
formal complaints with which it was possible to 
deal. An inquiry had been made as to the cause of 
the complaints, and the reasons given were that the 
short supply of water was duo to defective fittings 
and inadequate accommodation in the houses. As 
to the fire, there was a delay of half an hour owing 
to the deficient supply of water, and in answer to 
the complaint the company stated that the turncock, 
who lives near where the fire was, was not called 
upon to give assistance, nor was any complaint 
made to the office of the company although only a 
short way off. The hon. member asked whether 
there could be a coust.-int supply, but this was a 
matter by no means easy to accomplish. He was, 
however, perfectly ready to deal with applicatioaa 
if made to him. 

Pollution of Eivers.— Tn answer to Sir U. 
Kay-Shuttleworth, Mr. Sclater-Booth said, on 
Friday last, he could not say exactly how niany 
summary orders requiring offenders to discontinue 
pollution had been made by County Courts under the 
Act of 1S76, nor in how many cases local authorities 
had taken proceedings to enforce the Act ; but pro- 
ceedings had been instituted in many districts. In 
three cases the inspectors had received applications 
for eertificates that all practical means had been 
adopted to prevent pollution, but these certificates 
they had refu3ed to give. In eight cases applica- 
tions had been received for extension of time to do 
the necessarv work, and in three extensions had been 
granted. He stated the other day that proceedings 
were being taken under the Act in several counties 
of such varying characteristics that it might be said 
the Act was in general operation. 

The Artisans' Dwellings Act.— Sir U. Kay- 
Shuttleworth on Friday week asked the Chief Secre- 
tary for Ireland whether he had observed that the 
committee appointed by the Treasury to inquire 
into the Board of Works (Ireland) account for the 
absence of results in Ireland from the Artisans' 
Dwellings Act, 1875, by saying (Eeport, p. 11) that 
it " has not as yet been long enough in opperation 
to admit of advantage being taken of its provisions 
to any appreciable extent ;" whether, considering 
that a recent Parliamentary Return (No. 206) 
showed that much advantage had already been taken 
of the same Act in England, he could suggest other 
reasons than that given by the committee for its 
want of effect in Ireland ; and whether he proposed 
to take any steps to encourage or facilitate a more 
energetic use of this and other statutes for the 
improvement of working people's dwellings in 
Ireland. Mr. J. Lowther : I am not aware what 
the committee intended to convey by the paragraph 
in their report to which reference is made, but I 
fancy the hon. baronet must have placed a construc- 
tion upon it which it was not calculated to bear, 
although I confess that I drew a similar inference 
myself until I ascertained how the case stoed. The 
real facts, however, are that there are in Ireland five 
towns having a population of upwards of 25,000, 
within which limit the Act is confined. In England 
there are 71 and in Scotland six towns to which the 
Act extends. Out of the five towns in Ireland, three 
have availed themselves of the Act— namely, Dublin, 
where upwards of £36,000 ; Belfast, where £11,000 
odd ; and Cork, where upwards of £51,000 has been 
appropriated under the provisions of the Act; 
whereas in England only nine towns out of the 71 
and in Scotland only one out of the six have taken 
advantage of it. The House will therefore see that 
Ireland has proportionately availed itself of the Act 
to a far larger extent than other portions of the 
United Kingdom. Mr. Cross desired to add that the 
time had now come when inquiry should be specially 
made in reference to the towns in England, where 
an official report had been made and no action 
taken upon it, why the matter had not been 
attended to. 

July 19, 1^78. 



J (Dur (Bmt €Ml 

The dissatisfaction expressed with regard to 
the decision announced in connection with the 
lirompton Oratory competition does not 
diminish. From what we can gather the 
Oratory Fatliers do not seem to appreciate the 
ijrounds of complaint put forward by the com- 
petitors and others. Their position, as under- 
stood by themselves, is that they announced all 
along that the competition would be decided by 
themselves, and that all they engaged to do 
was to consult a professional architect. They 
did this without in any way pledging them- 
selves to adopt his views, and we believe they 
consider themselves solely responsible for the 
award of the two prizes, and that they are in no 
way bound or even able to publish Mr. Water- 
house's report, which was marked " Con- 
fidential." As a matter of fact, the contents of 
Mr. Waterhouse's report are known to others 
besides the Fathers, and it is quite possible 
that it may yet see the light. The complaint 
of the competitors and those who endorse their 
views, is, that it was unfair and ill-advised on 
the part of the Fathers to invite a competition, 
to promise to seek professional assistance in 
deciding the result, and then to award the first 
prize to a design which, in almost identical 
though not so elaborate a form, had been sub- 
mitted to them, and published in our own pages 
more than two years before.* If the Fathers 
arranged the competition, already predisposed 
in favour cf Mr. Gribble's design, simply with 
the idea of seeing whether something more to 
their minds would turn up, they certainly did 
not deal fairly with the other competitors. If 
they had abided by the advice of their referee 
and published his report, as probably every 
competitor expected they would, the result 
would have been satisfactory; at present we 
cannot say that it is so. 

The committee appointed to carry out the 
proposed memorial to the late Mr. Edmund . 
Sharpe, M.A., have issued particulars of their 
scheme, which comprises the publication of a 
work illustrating the architecture of Charente, I 
from the drawings made from sketches ob- 
tained during the last excursion of the Archi- 1 
tectural Association, conducted by Mr. Sharpe. ' 
Upwards of 200 drawings, geometrical as well ; 
as perspective, have been prepared, ready for 
photo-lithography, and from these it is intended 
to select from 40 to 60 plates. The committee 
estimate the cost of preparing and pubhshing 
500 copies at X500, and propose to sell the 
work at the subscription price of a guinea and 
a half. This will, of course, cover the outlay, i 
but to secure themselves it is proposed to form ; 
a guarantee fund. We hope the work will be 
heartily taken in hand, but we think the esti- ; 
mate higher than need be, and it would have ' 
been better probably to have kept the price of 
the book at a guinea, publishing a larger num- 
ber. The work would then have been more 
within the reach of students, while the original 

• See BniLDisa News, March 3, 1876. ' 

outlay would not have been materially increased. 
It ought not to be difficult to obtain the names 
of nearly every member of the Architectural 
Association in support of such a memorial to 
the greatest benefactor that society ever had. 

The Council of the Somersetshire Archteo- 
logical and Natural History Society, who have 
their headquarters at the Castle, Taunton, 
have arranged an exhibition in aid of the Castle 
Purchase Fund of nearly 2,000 line engravings, 
j etchings, mezzo-tints, and aqiui-tints, lent by 
collectors iti the district. The exhibition is 
divided into periods, and the first period repre- 
j sents engravers born before the year 1550, such 
I as Albert Durer, Marc Antonio, and Lucas Van 
1 Leyden. In the second period, that extending 
j from 1550 to 1000, are exhibited, among the 
works of uiiiny other artists, e-xamples of the 
t Caracci of Bologna, Goltzius of Germ.iny, 
1 Vorsterman and the Bolswerts of the Nether- 
j lands. The period from 1600 to 17U0 includes 
the works of Callott, Nanteuil, Edelinck, and 
the Audrans, and for the first time in the his- 
' tory of the art to that date examples of an 
English artist, Farthorne, the portrait-engraver, 
occur. Between 1700 and 1775 the period was 
! exceedingly rich in engravers, .and many works 
I by Sharp, WooUett, Sir Robert Strange, and 
, Hogarth are shown, including works after Van- 
i dyck, Raphael, and Correggio, by Sir Robert 
I Strange, and a whole series of the mannered 
caricatures of Hogarth. The engravings by 
Bartolozzi are in great force. Of Raphael 
I Morghen's engravings, too, in the period suc- 
ceeding the year 1775, there is a good coUec- 
I tion, including " The Transfiguration," after 
Raphael, lent by the Ven. Archdeacon Browne ; 
" The Madonna," after Andrea del Sarto, by 
Mr.White ; " The Last Supper," after Leonardo 
I da Vinci, by Mr. C. Welman, and many others. 
There is a well-preserved engraving, too, of 
Miiller's "Madonna di San Sisto," after 
Raphael. The etchings are especially rich in 
Rembrandts, and there is, too, a large collec- 
tion by Delia Bella. VVaterlo, Salvator Rosa, 
Castiglione, and Sir Edwin Landseer. The 
chief attraction among the mezzo-tints are the 
examples of James M'Ardell, who engraved 
after Hogarth and Sir Joshua Reynolds, and 
there are more than 30 engr,avings by the emi- 
nent English portrait-engraver, Reynolds. Con. 
temporary engravers are not so largely repre- 
sented as might have been expected, but there 
are some meritorious works after Millais, Dore, 
and others. 

There is rather more activity in the timber 
trade at the various ports recently. The spring 
fleet has brought a plentiful supply, from which 
such sorts as are wanted can easily be selected, 
and this of itself helps to brighten the trade a 
little, though it cannot be said that there is any 
large demand or any important improvement on 
the general position of the trade. At Glasgow, 
Greenock, &c., there has been a moderate 
amount of activity. The trade at London and 
at the other leading English ports has also of 
late shown rather a better feeling. New im- 
ports come to hand, and these attract buyers, 
who take off special descriptions, for which a 

somewhat better price is given, bo that the sales 
of the past weeks have been better supported, 
both as to attendance and competition, than 

The twenty-seventh annual meeting of the 
Birkbeck Building Society was held yesterday, 
July ISth. The report which was presented to 
1 the meeting stated that the receipts for the 
! year were i;5,-HS,703, and the total from the 
I commencement of the society X38,835,307. 
j Notwithstanding the general depression of 
trade, and reduction of interest to 3i and 2i 
I per cent., the balances of deposits and investing 
i shares have risen from i;2,263,719 to je2,349,488, 
or an increase of i85,701). The gross profits 
j earned by the society during the year are 
I X107,878, upwards of X1,8G1 in excess of the 
) previous year. Of this amount X91,l!)6 has 
' been appropriated to the payment of interest 
j on shares and deposits, discount, and expenses 
1 of management, leaving a net balance on the 
; year's working of i;l6,G82. The surplus funds 
j amounted last year to .£l,7'l-6,4ss, of which 
^£1,575,700 was invested in Government, 
Indian, and Metropolitan Stocks, City of Lon- 
' don .and Colonial Bonds, gas and water stocks 
and shares, freehold ground rents, and other 
readily convertible securities, and £170,712 
remained at call in the hands of the bankers. 
At the present time the amount invested in 
convertible securities is dei,664-,512, being an 
increase of X8S,806, while the sum of ^£184,525 
stands to the credit of the society at the 
bankers, being i£13,783 more than last year. 
The total increase of the surplus funds is 
j£102,589. The proportion of reserve to liabi- 
lities is now upwards of 78 per cent. The 
total liabilities of the society are £2,340,488, 
and the assets .£2,446,902, showing a net 
surplus of £97,413. Of this sum £33,750 is 
invested in Consols as a permanent guarantee 
fund, leaving £63,663 to be carried forwa rd. 
The number of investors and depositors at the 
close of the year was 39,276, while the shares in 
existence number 33,305, on which £151,508 
has been paid up. 

Funds are being collected for the preser- 
vation of the fine church of St. Peter, Man- 
croft, Norwich. The following paragraph in 
last week's Athen<num, in connection with the 
matter, is complimentary to the profession, 
and will help its members to estimate at their 
true worth the noisy school of anti-restora- 
tionists, and those who support them : "While 
we advocate maintenance of this fine architec- 
tural and historical building, it is necessary to 
protest against the employment of an architect 
in this as in similar cases, because an architect's 
professional instincts, not less than his per- 
sonal interests may — at least, so long as the 
' five per cent.' practice obtains— lead him to 
do that which cannot by any possibility be done 
without destruction of all that is valuable to 
the future — aU that Norwich men ought to pre- 
serve and venerate in St. Peter's. If preserva- 
tion and due maintenance of what time has 
honoured, if to retain all that history prizes in 
Mancroft Church be really the Jesire of the 
vicar and churchwardens, let them employ an 






P. E. CHAPPUIS, Patentee. Factory, 69, Fleet-street, London, E.G. 



JoL^ 19, 1878. 

engineer, wlio can do all that is wanted, and 
probably at one quarter of the cost of what the 
architect would charge." 

The success — commercially and construc- 
tively^of the Tny Bridge has given notable 
impetus to the other great entei-prise which is 
required to complete the Scottisa and East 
Coast railway system. Mr. Bouch's design for 
a Forth bridge has been for some time in 
abeyance ; but in the recent passing of an Act 
of Parliament, which empowers four great rail- 
way companies to guarantee the undertaking a 
revenue of ^675,000 a year, it has taken a fresh 
start, with every prospect of speedy accom- 
plishment. As originally designed, the great 
spans were to be placed at the height of 150ft. 
above liigh-water mark, so as to admit of the 
free passage of her Majesty's ships of war to 
the anchorage of St. Margaret's Hope. Such a 
height being now superfluous, the promoters 
ask leave to cut it down to 135ft. — an alteration 
which, by enabling them to shorten their piers 
all over the structure, would ensure a very con- 
siderable saving in the cost of material. Deal- 
ing with an estuary whose depth precluded 
the possibility of founding piers in its bottom, 
Mr. Bouch was obliged to adopt an entirely 
different principle from that so successfully 
carried out on the Fh-th of Tay. Taking advan- 
tage of the island of Inchgarvie, about midway 
between North and South Queensferry, he con- 
ceived the bold idea of a suspension bridge in 
two enormous spans. From the high ground 
overlooking either shore to the edge of 
the deep water, the railway will be 
carried on a series of light-looking spans, 
supported on cylindrical brick columns, and 
somewhat resembling in their general appear- 
ance the northern section of the Tay Bridge. 
Where the bottom begins to shelve downwards 
there wiU be placed at each side of the Firth a 
lofty composite pier, consisting of four sets of 
iron columns resting on substantial basements, 
and securely braced together. Immense chains, 
duly anchored at points some distance landward, 
will be carried over the tops of these piers, and 
of two similar piers to bo planted on Inch- 
garvie ; and from these will be suspended the 
two lattice girder spans, each about 1,600ft. in 
length, by which the deep-water channels are 
to be crossed. In carrying out the work the 
first operation will be to construct the piers and 
get the chains into position. The spans will be 
built ashore, in lengths of 150ft. ; and these, 
being separately floated out, will be successively 
raised to the proper height and hung on to the 
chains, their relative positions being so nicely 
adjusted that they can afterwards, without 
difficulty, be worked together into continuous 



Hare REMOVED their SAFE anci LOCK BUSINESS to new 

Makers to tlie Queen 



(Patented in England, France, and Germany), 

Effect a Great Saving in Chnrging and Dischargirig, and 
50 ptjr cent, of Fuel. 

:> ROBERT LAN' 'ASTER, Leeds Brickmaklng Company 


The fourth new school erected by the Aston 
School Board was opened on Monday. The schools 
are situate in Burlington-street, and will accommo- 
date 900 children. Tlia building is of red brick, 
with stone dressings, and has a tiled roof. The 
schools, which are of Gothic design, have been 
erected by Messrs. Horsley Brothers, whose contract 
amounted to close upon ^£9,000. Mr. G. F. H;iwkes, 
19, Temple-street, Birmingham, was the architect. 

The Burial Board for Thirsk, Yorks, at a recent 
meeting appointed Mr. Wiu. Bell, architect and 
surveyor, of Thirsk and North Allerton, as their 
architect, and was instructed to prepare an approxi- 
mate estimate of the coat of buildiog the chapels, 
entrance lodge, walk, & 3. Mr. Henry Smith, soli- 
citor, of Thirsk, was appointed the clerk to the 
board. The site is still undecided upon. 

On Thm-sday week last a new chapel, in Frod- 
sham, in connexion with the Primitive Methodists, 
was opened. The building, which is of brick, is 
40ft. long, 32tt. wide, 16ft. high to the foot of the 
rafters, and about 24tt. to the ceiling, and will seat 
200 people. The plans were prepared, gratuitously, 
by Mr. C. E. Linaker, of Frodsham— Mr. T. 
Davies, of the same place, being the contractor. 

Two new board schools for the Durham School 
Board have been erected at Ferryhill and Chilton. 
The first accommodates 400 children, and the second 
600, the cost of the two being .£5,300. The build- 
ings are of brick. The designs were prepared by 
Mr. William Fox, architect, Durham. The sole 
contractors were Messrs. Hurst and White, of 
Langley Moor. 

The Town Council of Dorchester recently deter- 
mined to proceed with the necessary steps for ob- 
taining an improved water supply in accordance 
with specifications prepared by Mr. Norman, 
borough snrvsyor— a counter proposition to request 
Messrs. Gotto and Besley, of Westminster, 
who have reported to the council on the subject, to 
undertake the work, falling through. 

A new brewery has been erected at Loughborough 
under the direction of Mr. W. W. Pjpplewell, 
architect, of Derby. 

The Fine Arts Jury of the Paris Exhibition has 
awarded the ten grand medals of honour for paint- 
ing as follows :— To Messrs. Millais and Herkomer, 
representing England ; to MM. Mei3F0nnier,Cabanel, 
Gerome, Fr.inyais, and Bonguereau, French painters ; 
and to M. Munckack'^y, Hungary ; M. Mackart, 
Austria; and M. Wauters, Belgium. 

Mr. J. B. Nelson, a large railway contractor of 
York and London, died at Dublin the other day 
of congestion on the brain. At the time of his 
death Mr. Nelson was carrying out important con- 
tracts at Wolverton, near Eugby, and Stockton-on- 
Tees, for the London and North Western, and the 
North Eastern railway companies. 

The River Tyne Commissioners have accepted the 
tender of Messrs. W. and J. R. Freeman, granite 
merchants, of London and Penryn, for the supply of 
the whole of the granite ashlar required for the 
works of the Coble Dene Dock. Messrs. Freeman's 
tender (^16,500) was .£600 below any other received 
by the commission. 


Patent Ventilator or Air-Propeller, for 
the int-oduction of Cold or Warm Air into Dwell- 
ings, &c. 

The Machine may be seen in action at their Show- 
rooms, 127, Eegent-street, London, W. 

The apparatus consists of a drum with a double 
set of fans, which are worked by a fij-wheel placo'i 
in the centre, and on the same axle as fans. Th 
motive for this fly-wheel is arrived at by a small y-\ 
of water being directed on to it, causing both th 
wheel and fans to revolve with great velocity, tin 
air passing through the machine at a rate equal to 
2,-500 feet per minute, if desired, according to size ol 

N.B. — The above Machine may be used either a: 
an exhauster or injector, as may be preferred, o. 
both objects combined. 

Also Patentees of the Fireclay Burners for Ga 
Fires and Cooking Purposes, and Patentees of t".i 
Tubular Gas Boilerfor Baths and Conservatories, & 

Designers and Manufacturers of Lamps au 

Office and Works, 155, Qneen'sroad, Bay 
water, W. [Advt.] 

Static #tbjs. 


Crieff. — The Crieff joiners have continued work- 
ing at a reduction of their wages from 7d. to 6'A. 
per hour. 

Perth. — The Perth masons have agreed to work 
at a reduction of ^d. per hour, the wages at present 
being 7id. and 8d, per hour. A strike against this 
reduction took place about two months ago, but it has 
now been submitted to without dispute, there beinjr 
a good many men idle. 

Helliwell's Patent System 

OUT PUTTY, and without exposing any outside 
woodwork to paint, and NEW SYSTEM of COVER- 

The fasteners are brass or copper. The peculiar 
arrangement of the glass covers the whole of the 
woodwork, and only the small fastener is visible ; 
therefore the roof is indestructible, and outside 
painting unnecessary. The squares of glass can br 
easily removed, and the whole taken out and cleaned 
by any inexperieuced person. Breakage is impossi- 
ble except through carelessness or accident. 

The glazing is more air-tight than the old putty 
system, yet any amount of ventilation can be given. 

Old roofs may be re-glazed on this principle, ane 
roofs are covered with slates or zinc on this system. 

Extract from Building News :" Mr. T.W. Helli- 
well, of Brighouse, has recently patented and intro- 
duced a new system of glazing and covering roofs, 
which is certainly superior to anything of the kind 
we have seen before .... and it will, in our 
opinion, supersede any other system before the 

Important references and all particulars from the 
patentee, T. W. HELLIWELL, Brighouse, York- 
shire ; and 19, Parliament-street, London.— [Advt.] 




Now largely used. 



Made in same Material to any Patterns or Designs. 

The Cheapest and Most Durahle Paving 
noMJ in use, 

Through the widespread reputation which these goods have gained, many makers have been induced to send into the London and other naarketa sparions 
imitations, which are only COLOUKED by a chemical process, and will not bear any comparison for strength, durabiUty, &o., with the genuine article. 
Gold and Silver Medals Awarded at Pwris and Bnnsels Exhibitions. 








Made from this Material, 

July 26, 1878. 






ANEW interest attaches to the monu- 
mental history of these ishmds in 
consei|nence of recent events, whioh have 
revived their memories in Europe. In 
Cypnis itself there are no very important 
remains, so completel3' has the work of rain 
been carried out by its modern rulers, but 
the very names ujion the map suggest that 
it was once a country of temples and 
palaces, built, for the most part, in marble, 
though belonging rather to the Pha'nician 
than to the pure Greek architecture. Inde- 
pendently of this tlie Cyprian cities pos- 
sessed a wealth and a splendour of their 
own, comliining the characteristics of the 
East with those of the Soutli, and it is upon 
record how the timber of Olympus was 
exported to assist in building the mansions 
of princes in Egypt. However, the early 
worship of the island was devoted to the 
goddess Astarte, whose worshippers did not 
require, as a shrine of their faith, anything 
better than a rude conical stone. It is dif- 
ferent with Crete, which has had a greater 
niunber of historians, thougli theii- accounts 
arc always inextricably confused with tra- 
dition. Its principal monument, however, 
has had its very existence denied by his- 
torians, as has been the case with most 
labyrinths renowned in poetry. The defini- 
tion of a labyi'inth is agreed to be a large 
and complicated subterraneous cavern, with 
numerous and intricate passages, similar to 
those of a mine. The greatest example is 
the Egyptian, concerning which no doubt 
exists. It contained three thousand cham- 
bers, divided into courts, was surrounded 
by a wall, with colonnades of white marble, 
and was supposed to be a symbolical repre- 
sentation of the zodiacal system, though 
answering the purpose of a burial-place for 
kings and crocodiles. Tlie Cretan laby- 
rinth, however, though much more famous, 
is much more mythical, and many anti- 
quarians have ceased to believe in its 
existence at any time, auy more than in 
those of Lemnos, Samos, or Etruria, which 
many travellers have described, and no 
traveller, ancient or modern, ever saw. In 
these MediteiTanean islands, however, we 
have not to look so far back for illus- 
trations of an art and a genius which 
at one period unquestionably flourished 
in them. In Crete especially, the Sicily 
of the MediteiTanean East, Achaian 
and Dorian relics of the utmost beauty, as 
suggested by their fragments, abound ; it 
was called, indeed, the Island of the Hun- 
dred Cities, so exuberant was the architec- 
tm-e that fringed and brightened the sea 
along its shores ; but these were not all, 
or even for the most part, religious or 
decorative monuments. They consisted 
largely of immense cisterns, excavated in 
the solid rock ; basins, constructed as 
adjuncts to harbours ; aqueducts cut out 
of the moimtains, and canying water along 
their flanks ; and innumerable buildings 
erected in solid stone from quarries whicli, 
in all likelihood, originally suggested the 
idea of the fabulous labyrinth. Of such 
materials was constructed Gortona, at one 
time heii' to all the Grecian arts ; but even 
more singular were the valley fortresses 
reared by the islanders of the earlier epochs. 
These were composed, as in Cyprus, of 
Cyclopean blocks, carefully squared, and 
put together without mortar or cement of 
any kind ; but of structures belonging to a 
nobler class, as, for example, the Homeric 
Kydonia, no vestiges survive. The Turks 
have burned every bit of that marble 

antiquity in their lime-stone furn.aces. The 
monuments which they could not destroy 
are the rock shrines, hollowed through the 
solid stone like the Elephantan temples, 
though neither extensive nor sculptured, 
although in one spot have been marked the 
traces attributed to various Roman em- 
perors in a controversy which has not yet 
come to an end. The most certain informa- 
tion, indeed, that has come down to us 
respecting the monumental remains in 
these islands relates to their aqueducts. 
Their towns, generally planted on natural 
elevations, were, as a result, commonly 
deficient in their water supply. The rivers 
in the valleys wtre too far ofi to make up 
for the deficiency, and moreover were in the 
summer season frequently scorched to dry- 
ness. After, again, a city had become 
wealthy and populous, cisterns, however 
capacious, no longer sufficed for its demands. 
The inhabitants found themselves afraid to 
drink, and still more to bathe ; for, when 
the hot weather set in, Cyprus, Crete, and 
Rhodes alike were unable to foretell anotlier 
fall of rain. Their fountains were parched 
up to nothing ; their women came home with 
empty amphonr. They consequently pierced 
the solid hills for sources, drove large 
tunnels through them, made semi-scientific 
guesses at wells situated miles distant from 
the original point of penetration, and, 
under the weight of this necessity, erected 
a marvellous system of water- can-ying 
works. Reservoii's even were hollowed out 
in the heart of the moxmtain, and from 
these the villages of the present day derive 
the sustenance which, ages since, sufficed 
for the wants of magnificent cities. But 
the people of the three islands, like the 
Greeks, from whom they took their birth, 
desired that their works should be beautiful, 
not less than useful. Therefore, the 
Cretans, whom the Cypriotes imitated, 
designed a fountain, fragments' of which 
exist to this day, an approach through a 
grotto, statues of nymphs to guard it, a 
niche and the image of a pi'otecting god- 
dess, an elegant facade, and, in many 
instances, the crude rock encrusted with a 
coating of marble. It is so everywhere — 
amid the Hellenic remains of Selino, the 
primitive relics, all classic in their style, 
of Temenia, the superb Tyrinthian walls, 
and the Doric ruins of Elenos — each a page 
of Greek and architectural histoi-y, hithertio 
not fully deciphered. 

With respect to Crete, however, the 
monument it claims from fable is, as we 
have hinted, undoulitedly no work of art, 
but a quarry upon an extensive scale, exe- 
cuted upon no plan whatever, though the 
celebrated travellers, Belon and Pocoche, 
thought otherwise. In point of fact, it has 
no more existence, in justification of its 
legendary character, than the Catacombs of 
Paris or of Rome. The entrance, now, is 
almost completely blocked up, and a visitor 
has to crawl for at least forty yards upon his 
hands and feet, after which he has to 
advance, painfully, with bended back and 
knees. Then countless galleries radiate 
before him, the roofs of all supported by 
square stone columns, eaten away, however, 
on their surfaces and edges, by water and 
vermin. And in these depths occur the 
peculiarities which have suggested diffi 
culties to the antiquarian criticism of 
Europe. There are attempts at artistic 
manipulation, exactly similar to some which 
have been noted upon the older upper 
ground monuments, slight though they 
are in Cyprus, but connecting the earliest 
annals of the islands incontestably. More- 
over, a marble gate, entirely distinct 
from the stone around it, has been dis- 
covered, terminating one of the galleries, 
with, in near proximity to it, numerous 
specimens of bronze and jasper-work, and 
domestic utensils. The labyrinth, therer 
fore, may in itseK have been a legendary 

ideal ; but that, at different periods, the 
quarries were employed for other than 
industrial purposes, appears not capable of 
denial. Unfortunately the ruins ^above 
ground afford no more than an imperfect 
key to the ruins below — the temples of Ida 
are mouldered out of sight, the Lacedemo- 
nian Lyetus has scarcely left the fragment 
of a pillar with whicli to commemorate 
itself, and of Therapytua nothing is left 
beyond a few grape-covered walls, and 
similar ravage has been marked in Cyprus, 
concerning which the most distinguished 
explorer of his day declared, " Its antiqui- 
ties alone render it worthy of resort ; 
in this pursuit Cyprus may be considered 
to be as yet untrodden." As it was 
then so it is now, notwithstanding that 
a few inscribed tablets were removed 
from Baffo by Sir Sidney Smith. Of two, 
one was an epitaph, in Greek hexameter and 
pentameter lines, the other commemorating 
public benefits conferred upon the com- 
munity by one of the Ptolemies. But the 
Phtt'uician relics in the island are the most 
interesting, and have been the most per- 
sistently neglected. The inhabitants of the 
larger towns, indeed, rarely show any 
anxiety to dig in their own neighbourhoods 
for discoveiy's sake, though they seldom do 
so without bringing to light antique lachry- 
matories, lamps, and sepulchres, foundations 
of ancient buildings, and even id')ls belong- 
ing to the most primitive mythologies of the 
heathen world, dating from long before the 
conquest of Cypnis by the Ptolemies, and 
Phcenician in the earliest sense attributable 
to that ai'chasology. They are in terracotta, 
and a careful study of them dissipates the 
vulgar idea that Venus, and not Ceres, was 
the adopted goddess of the island — that is, 
if we may trust such evidence as engraved 
gems, medals, marbles, and images, which 
are, indeed, the authentic and original 
records of the country and its people. 
Upon almost all the intaglios, the highest 
authority assures us, found in Cypnis, even 
among the ruins of Paphos, the representa- 
tions are either those of Ceres herself, or of 
symbols designating her difl'erent modifica- 
tions. Intagliated scarabjei, too, have 
been discovered, with stone cofiins of an 
oblong rectangular form, each being, with 
the exception of its cover, monolithic, 
though some contained small vases of un- 
glazed terra cotta, rings, and jewels. One 
of these last, found several years ago, was a 
beautiful intaglio, representing Cupid whip- 
ping a buttertiy, typifying the power of 
love over the soul, but demonstrating, above 
all, how purely the art, civilisation, and 
mythological imagination of the people 
were Greek. 

It is as well, perhaps, to get at the 
parentage of our future subjects, if the 
descendants of any among their originals 
preserve the traditions of their ancestry. 
Signet rings, moreover, have been found in 
Cyprus, with Jewish, Egyptian, Roman, 
and Ai-abic inscriptions upon them, in plain 
onyx, and in stones set in gold, sometimes 
engraven with figures of animals — insects 
especially — at other times with portraits of 
women and men, an art practised previously, 
however, to the engi-aving of the cameo, 
which was not known before the Roman 
age, unless we class under that head that 
ill- wrought relic known to antiquarians as 
the Theban stone. However, the Cypms 
signets were famous in their day, and were 
executed in red garnet, or carbuncle, blood- 
stone, jasper, and even quartz, but the 
examples of them, absolutely identified as 
to place and date, are not frequent. Still 
less are the traces of the ruined cities. 
Fragments of colossal marble statues have 
been found, but very little architecture 
older than the Arabic period. The relics of 
Citium, indeed, appear, in the sight of 
modern criticism, very shadowy indeed. If 
we turn to Rhodes, celebrated though it be 



July 26, 1878. 

in both fable and histoi>y, we perceive the 
work of dilapidation, so far as antiquity is 
concerned, to have amounted to obliteration 
almost. It is true that many of the Sara- 
cenic forms of art, introduced into the 
island at an imhappy epoch, are more or 
less preserved or imitated, but these are 
the simplest modernising and corrupt 
copies from a corrupted style — a mingling 
of Arabic and Gothic, without the real 
character of either. Upon the whole, the 
monumental treasures of these Mediter- 
ranean islands have been far worse mal- 
treated than those upon the continent, for 
the reasons, it may be supposed, that, the 
space being small, the crowding of strangers 
was greater, and that there was less Hkely 
to escape the iconoclastic eye. But we may 
be sure that, more than in Rhodes or in 
Crete, Cyprus contains a world of hidden 
wealth belonging to the past, in some of 
its most interesting periods, which the 
explorers of a few years hence may briug 
to the surface. We may not, in Rhodes, 
identify the foot- impresses of the Colossus, 
which took rank among the wonders of the 
world ; or, in Crete, the traces of the Laby- 
rinth, which took rank as another, but in 
their sister island, Cyprus, there is a long 
and varied history, which tells itself in its 
relics and monuments. 

A NOTHER chapter in the history of the 
-'-^ proposals to decorate St. Paul's is 
opened, but we sincerely trust not closed. 
The Dean and Chapter have resolved to 
carry out an experimental portion of the 
scheme of the sub-committee, reported at 
length in our last number, and have given 
their sanction in part to a proposal for the 
mosaic decoration of the dome of the cathe- 
dral in facsimile, at a cost of about £4,000. 
In the abstract we have little to say against 
the proposal ; the idea of decorating the dome 
with mosaic is in accord with the notion of 
Wren himself; but the question is whether 
the suggestion made to treat only this por- 
tion of the cathedral is entitled to public 
support. It may be mentioned that Wren 
contemplated other works than the mosaic 
embellishment of the dome. The ornamental 
features at the east end were originally only 
intended to be temporary till the funds 
could be obtained for the completion of a 
magnificent altar, which he had designed. 
The domical compartments of the vault, 
and many of the details of the choir and 
nave, have been left plain for decoi-ative 
purposes, and certainly call for attention 
first. But to examine the sub-committee's 
report. The model left by the late Mr. 
Stevens, showing a more or less wrought- 
out scheme of mosaic decoration for the 
dome, has been purchased by the Dean and 
Chapter as the basis of what they intend 
to do, though we question whether their 
intentions do not virtually amount to a new 
design. Mr. Stevens's design is no doubt a 
masterly work in the style, and we cannot 
object to the acquisition of a model pro- 
nounced by all competent artists to be a 
masterpiece of architectural decoration. 
The proposed appointment of Messrs. 
Leighton and Poynter to carry out Mr. 
Stevens's design is also a happy one, as 
those artists have probably more sympathy 
for the style and character of this sjiecies of 
decoration than any others that might have 
been named. As we stated last week, the 
scheme contemplated by the committee is 
virtually that proposed by Mr. Oldfield in 
his recent pamphlet, and reviewed by us in 
the Building News of December 26th, 
1876. _ Mr. Oldfield is a member of the 
executive committee, and went to Italy to 
study Wie decorative works of churches 
resembling St. Paul's. The results of that 
gentleman's visit were, that the decoration 
of St. Paul's cupola should be in accordance 

with the works of the 15th and 16th cen- 
turies ; that Rome, Florence, Milan, and 
Genoa furnish the best models; that 
the pictorial motive found in many of 
the sacred historical frescoes should be 
subordinated to the architectni-al and more 
mechanical modes of treatment, and that 
the mosaic decoration of the cupola of St. 
Peter's affords the best example for imita- 
tion. Great stress was laid by Mr. Oldfield 
upon the idea that Wren intended first of all 
to decorate the dome. That gentleman also 
gave his reasons for selecting the cupola. 
He says it is the dominant and characteristic 
feature of St. Paul's — it surmounts a portion 
of the building that has of late years 
acquired new points of religious interest, 
and it is a part that may be undertaken 
without exciting the theological feelings of 
any party in the Church. As the committee 
have indorsed these views, it may be as well 
to say, with reference to the first point, that 
Wren's intentions were by no means con 
fined to the dome, and that though a domi 
nant feature in the cathedral, it is one of 
subordinate importance regarded with refer 
ence to the other more urgent architectural 
works required in the body of the edifice. 
We are surprised to find the report defers 
the decoration of the drum above the 
Whispering Gallery till after the dome has 
been treated, because, we are informed. Wren 
left no record of his intentions I'especting it 
— a singular reason for omitting it from the 
scheme. But, however much we may approve 
of the general design left by Mr. Stevens, it 
is certainly open to question whether a con- 
ception for a fractional part of the cathedral 
such as the dome — can be fairly realised 
before the lower parts of the structure have 
been considered. It is decidedly not a 
methodical or satisfactory way of dealing 
with a vast and elaborate building like St. 
Paul's to begin with the dome and work 
downwards. The plan is not, free from 
objections, and may be compared to that of 
a composition or picture in which the artist 
had elaborated a certain figure or feature 
before he had drawn the main outlines of 
his work, or had conceived a general scheme 
of colour. It seems to be inverting the real 
order of procedure. But the most obvious 
objection to the proposal is that a piecemeal 
treatment must necessarily lose sight of the 
scale of parts required to perfect a gi'and and 
hai-monious interior. A relation between 
the parts cannot possibly be maintained by 
the fragmentary mode of decoration con- 
templated. By selecting the cupola as the 
starting point of decoration the scale of 
colour and gradation for the whole of 
the lower part of the interior wUl have 
to be determined by it, and, moreover, the 
cupola (after all a mere fraction of the 
whole building) will become the key for the 
colouring and design. We cannot think 
this coiirse a judicious one, nor can the 
practice be sanctioned by that of any great 
example of mosaic decoration, like that, for 
instance, of St. Peter's. All the great 
churches visited by Mr. Oldfield were in- 
stances of a complete and harmonious 
oruamentation. Delia Porta, in the deco- 
ration of the basilica of St. Peter's, elabo- 
rated an entire scheme that was eventually 
carried out by Paul V., Bernini, and his 
successor ; and the other examples brought 
forward of cinque-cento ornamentation were 
equally the results of a co-ordinated study 
of colour and design. If we refer to the 
earlier semi-Byzantine mosaics in the 
Ravenna churches we observe, not frag' 
ments, but complete studies. 

Many of the greatest painters have erred 
in representing what should be conceived 
and painted in a grand style in a minia- 
ture and over-elaborated form, and even the 
tentative means to be resorted to in fixing 
large cartoons of the figure-subjects in the 
spaces cannot be implicitly relied upon in 
giving that relative prominence to each 

figure, and that true lineal and aerial per- 
spective so essential to a harmonious deco- 
ration of a great building. The report, too, 
is not definite in its recommendations as to 
the domical subjects. Eight great circles 
are suggested to be filled with cartoons by 
Mr. Leighton, at a sum of £600 for each 
circle, and Mr. Poynter has agi-eed to fur- 
nish cartoons for the other figure-subjects 
of Mr. Stevens's design at an aggregate 
cost of £11,480. The report speaks with 
much hesitation as to these smaller sub- 
jects ; the telamones at the base of the ribs 
are regarded as doubtful in effect, and the 
committee have not made up their minds 
what other kind of conventional architec- 
tural design can be substituted for them. 
A certain saving in the omission of these 
and other figure-subjects is suggested, but 
it appears to us that this uncertainty is 
prejudicial, and from the report it is clear 
that the effect of the recommendations will 
be to spend from £18,000 to £20,000 on a 
number of experimental cartoons — after all 
merely tentative and liable to considerable 
alteration before any real decoration is 
effected. We are, in fact, to spend this sum 
in trials of full-sized cartoons, coloured and 
gilt in imitation of real mosaic tessera;, 
and placed in situ before any real advance 
is made. Of course, we do not object to 
the means if the design were sufficiently 
elaborated, but the artists engaged have 
obviously not settled upon what they in- 
tend doing, and from all it appears that 
Mr. Stevens's design will be widely altered, 
if, indeed, it will not be mutilated. Another 
point which has not received, perhaps, the 
full consideration it demands is the divi- 
sion of the dome into compartments by 
ribs. Some contend, and not without a 
just conception of the decorative treatment 
of the inner dome, that ribs express a 
character out of keeping with its real struc- 
ture ; that the decorative dome is a mere 
internal shell, and should be treated accord- 
ingly. We do not share this opinion, inas- 
much as the pUasters of the di'um seem to 
warrant a continuation of those features ; 
but to decorate the spherical surface, and 
not the drum itself, is certainly an imperfect 
mode of dealing with it. The base of the 
visible dome should be the first step towards 
a satisfactory solution of the problem, as the 
coloured masses above would appear heavy 
and meaningless resting upon a plain base. 
We fear the omission would destroy the 
balance of parts. An excellent authority 
on mosaic decorations has said that legiti- 
mate decoration in this material should, in 
the first place, be made subservient to the 
architecture ; it should be simple in its 
design, and not aim at subtle gradations of 
colour and perspective. Whatever is at- 
tempted, no greater mistake could be made 
than to produce a fine picture suspended in 
the air — such, for instance, as one of 
Rizzi's designs in enamel mosaic at St. 
Mark's. We are not told in the report 
anything about the mosaic, what style is 
to be selected, or what models are to be fol- 
lowed — whether St. Mark's or the basilicas 
of Ravenna are to suggest the treatment, 
or the later works of the sixteenth century. 
Into the details, however, we refrain from 
entering; we only think it a mistake to 
expend a large sum upon experimental 
cartoons for the decoration of a mere frag- 
ment, as proposed by the committee, when 
so much has yet to be done to render the 
cathedral worthy of the nation and the me- 
tropolis in other respects. We do not find 
fault with the modus operandi ; no one can ob- 
ject to the employment of mosaic as themost 
fitting and durable form of mural decora- 
tion, nor could the committee have placed 
the task of translating the full-size cartoons 
of the artists into mosaic form into better 
hands than those of Mr. Hugh Stannus, a 
former pupil of Mr. Stevens, and a gentle- 
man well qualified to interpret the design in 

July 26, 1878. 



a right spirit. As regards the execution of 
the mosaic, the estimates obtained by the 
committee from the Murano Glass Company, 
and Messrs. Powell, of Whitefriars, are not 
unreasonable ; the price given by the latter 
firm is from 30s. to 35s. per foot. The area 
of domical surface has been calculated by 
Mr. Penrose at 16,000 square feet, which at 
the last-named price would cost €"J8,000. 

Another question, though not the least, 
refers to the subjects. The suggestion of 
Mr. Oldfield, that the subjects should be 
from the Apocalypse, has been agreed to by 
the committee. We have some hesitation 
in supporting this idea upon artistic grounds, 
though the dome is unqiiestionably a more 
appropriatelocation for a grand symbolic con- 
ception than any other portion of a church. 
Such a theme can be broadly handled, and 
be made to assist the architectural fi-atures 
better than simple nan-ative and pictorial 
scenes ; yet we have one difficulty — that 
of selecting a design worthy of St. Paul's 
The visions to be selected for the dome are 
not stated in the committee's report, and 
we are left in much obscurity respecting 
the actxial designs proposed. From a 
memorandum, however, on the subjects for 
the dome, drawn up by Mr. Oldfield, we 
gather the general arrangement of the sub- 
jects ccintemplated. Mr. Stevens's design 
shows eight compartments, separated by 
decorative piles, of figures or ribs. At the 
base of dome are colossal figures seated on 
thrones. Above are shown eight groups in 
large circles, and a third range of smaller 
circles above this are occupied by other 
groups. Thus three series of figure-subjects 
are sketched in Mr. Stevens's model, and 
the sub-committee suggest Mr. Oldfield's 
third memorandum or scheme on both 
theological and artistic grounds, which 
nearly conform with this arrangement. In 
the amended arrangement, the whole dome 
is divided into two parallel series of groups. 
The upper series comprises eight small 
circles, representing symbolic figures of Our 
Lord or the Holy Spirit ; while the lower 
series has eight large circles or groups, in 
which no divine person appears, but belong 
to the " earth, and its hours of darkness and 
delay." The Biblical order has been pre- 
sei-ved in each series horizontally, and a 
connection is also maintained vertically. 
Thus the Last Judgment is represented in 
the iipper and lower series in the eastern 
compartment of the dome — the upper sub- 
ject being taken from Rev. ss., 11, Christ 
on the White Throne; while in the lower 
circle we have " The dead, small and great, 
rising to judgment." In the first memo- 
randum the drum is incidentally referred to. 
Mr. Oldfield thinks that Sir C. Wren in- 
tended this space to be flat and unbroken, 
and not divided into parts; and he suggests 
thirty- two figures, illustrative of New 
Testament men and women, under the 
thirty-two windows or niched piers. As 
regards the eight pendentives under the 
Whispering Gallery, it is proposed to fill 
them with colossal mosaic figures in con- 
tinuation of the scheme of Messrs. Watts 
and Stevens, and that not till this is decided 
upon is the drum to be considered. 

In conclusion, we hope the Dean and 
Chapter will pause before committing them- 
selves to a scheme that must be admitted 
to be incomplete and fragmentary, and we 
■would suggest that, before the experiment 
on one section of the dome is tried, a more 
satisfactc-iry proposal should be brought be- 
fore the public. We would ask whether the 
subscribed funds would not be better em- 
ployed in perfecting the unfinished portions 
of our great metropolitan church, in 
remodelling the choir, and in relieving the 
present liare and unsatisfactory appearance 
of the domical area. We have before 
strongly urged the adoption of Mr. Street's 
suggestiiin for the erection of a second 
altar, with a baldacchiao under the dome — 

the only featui-e that can give a motive and 
purpose to so large an area. Such an occu- 
pation of the space must commend itself to 
every one capable of forming an opinion ; 
while the funds would be spent in gradually 
utilising the area, in the adornment of the 
noblest part of the cathedral, and in fur- 
thering that more comprehensive scheme of 
decoration intended by Wren and hia suc- 


A N interesting collection of models and 
-^^ drawings, illustrating the chief archi- 
tectural works contemplated or in progress 
in Paris, is arranged in the southera court 
of the gaily-deoorated pavilion of the Town 
of Paris, and located in the very centi'c 
of the Universal Exhibition. The build- 
ings exemplified are almost without excep- 
tion of a public character — a town hall, 
local authorities' offices, markets, theatres, 
barracks, churches, and schools being 
almost the only classes of exhibits. The 
nearly entire absence of domestic and minor 
works considerably detracts from the prac- 
tical value of the display. 

A large show is made of models executed 
in plaster of Paris, and occasionally 
coloured ; these generally illustrate the 
completed structure or its section. Neither 
in these nor in the drawings are the " de- 
tails " of construction or ornamentation 
shown to a large scale, and in estimating 
the merits of a design in this " Exposition 
de la Ville de Paris " one is frequently 
irritated by the omission of a scale, and of 
indication of the orientation. 

Broadly regarded, the buildings are gene- 
rally conceived in what maybe chai'acterised 
as a Vernacular Renaissance — a Classi- 
cism free from the eccentricities which indi- 
vidualise and occasionally disfigure the corre- 
sponding Jacobianisms of our own archi- 
tects. Ornamentation is applied without 
stint upon the leading lines, and the acces- 
sories of statuai-y and colour (both in fresco 
and stained glass) are largely employed to 
give life and light to the conception. There 
are very few examples of Gothic treatment 
(except of the earliest type) in the pavilion, 
even restorations being dealt with in the 
fashionable mode — horizontality stamps the 
style alike for a church or for a railway sta- 
tion, and there is therefore somewhat of 
sameness in the exhibits. Tlie plans are 
chiefly based on the central court- yard idea, 
the designer's skill being displayed in the 
manner in which the surrounding buildings 
can be grouped around this open area with 
economy in corridors and in walls. In 
scarcely any case is the perspective effect of 
the edifice sought to be shown, nearly all the 
drawings being geometrical in character. 
The materials proposed for use are usually 
concrete rubble for internal work, with or 
without an iron skeleton, and for facings the 
fine buff-coloured limestone quarried from 
the immediate vicinity of Paris. Bricks are 
rarely employed, and then only for filling-in. 

Passing from generalities, the most im- 
portant work exemplified in this architec- 
tural display is undoubtedly that of theHotel 
de Ville, now in courseof rebuilding from the 
designs of Messrs. Ballu and Deperthes, 
joint architects, a work illustrated by a 
very elaborate series of models, plans, and 
elevations. Considerable progress has been 
made in this re-erection ; only a very few 
fragmentary internal walls remind one of 
thetoo-successfrd labours of the petroleuses 
in May, 1871. The entire site is covered, after 
the manner of Paris, with gigantic and sub- 
stantial scaffolding and lattice-work, and 
the Rue de Rivoli front of the new edifice 
has risen to the mezzanine stage above the 
main floor. The Hotel de Ville occupies an 
isolated quadrangular site, the actual space 
to be covered by buildings being a rectan- 

gular area lllTSm. by80\S4 metres (4<54ft. by 
-<i5ft.), including that reserved for two open 
courts. The plan of the principal floor 
shows a gr.and vestibule in the centre, 
approached from the Place de I'Hotel de 
Ville by a double flight of steps, and open- 
ing directly into the chief apartment, the 
hail of the municipal council. At the rear 
of this is a small court (Louis XIV.), lead- 
ing into a long room (Salle de St. Jean), and 
on the left, facing the Rue de Rivoli, a 
similar oblong apartment (Salle de Repub- 
lique), with kitchens, sei-ving rooms, &c., 
attached. Throughout the several floors 
the rooms to left of grand vestibule are 
reserved for bureaux, and those on right for 
the Prcfet, but the plans are "skied" too far 
ti> allow of the close study they deserve. 
The elevations show that the frontages are 
well broken up by slightly recessing por- 
tions, thus bringing forward the ccnl-rcs and 
end wings. The chief facade is treated in 
two orders set upon a high basement, and 
with loftily-pitched roofs marked at the 
angles by pavilions and Mansard towers, 
and finished with elaborate ridges. Niches 
are provided for statues, and the columns 
dividing the windows of the recessed por- 
tions of this front are to be terminated with 
sculptured figures. Over the central 
entrance is a pediment to be filled by an 
emblematical group, beneath being the in- 
scription, " 1533 • Hotel de ViUe • 1878." 
Behind this a lofty fleche rises from 
the centre of roof. Square at juncture, 
the angles of this tower are canted 
off in next stage, and this octagon 
supports a circle of columns forming a 
belfry ; above this is a gallery, the whole 
being crowned by an ogee turret 
and vane, at a height of 51'3t)m. (168ft.) 
above the datum level. Both the court- 
yards are splayed off at the Inner angle 
for an external circular staircase, which 
^rill be raking, as in the chateau at Blois, 
and will form a striking feature of these 
internal spaces. The side fronts to the Rue 
de Rivoli and the Seine wiU be kept com- 
paratively low, the spaces between the 
columns and the roof being glazed. The 
former fa9ade seems to us scaicely dignified 
enough for the street and the edifice. There 
is sufficient repetition in the treatment of 
the several fronts to give homogeneity and 
character to the building, and though there 
are many details the propriety of which one 
might question, bordering, as they do, on 
the rococoesque, the new or rather recon- 
structed town hall will be worthy of the 
city of Paris, and a monument reflecting 
credit on Messrs. Ballu a.nd Deperthes. 

The local authorities of Paris are being 
provided, especially in the more recently- 
added districts, with fine and substantial 
buildings (" mairies ") for the transaction 
of business relating to their arrondisse- 
ments. That for the Xlth arrondissement 
(Popincourt), M. Gancel, architect, is built 
around a square courtyard, entered by 
archway; above the principal roof is a 
tuiTet, and the whole arrangement is very 
simple. The mairie for arrondissement 
XIII. (des Gobelins), M. Bonnet, architect, 
has greater pretensions to originality, but 
the planning is uneconomical, and too much 
cut up by passages ; that for the arron- 
dissement XV., in the Rue de Vaugirai-d, 
designed by M. Devi-oy, also illustrated 
by model and elevations, is ingeniously 
contrived to utilise space, being U- 
shaped with central entrance. One of the 
largest models in this pavilion is that of the 
abattoirs and cattle- markets in the suburb 
of La Villette, planned by M. Janvier In 
conjunction with M. Baltard; the sheds 
have iron roofs and stone sides with louvres 
for ventilation, and arranged in parallel 
rooms with avenues between sufficiently 
wide to allow of the easy turning of an 
animal. The Marchc des Mavtyi-s has been 
built by MM. Arnoult and Guiborge, fils. 



July 26, 1878. 

of Paris, from the designs of M. Magne, 
M. L. Magne superintending the work of 
erection, and is treated in a Romanesque 
spirit. The interior is divided into nave of 
five bays by cast-iron columns behind up- 
run aisle-passages. The roof is of wide 
span and of iron, cleverly and lightly trussed 
with substantial diagonal pieces and slender 
tie-rods and uprights. Light is obtained 
from the north, and ventilation by louvi-es ; 
the ends of the building are glazed with 
ground glass with blue and ruby red 
borders. The walls are of good thickness, 
of concrete faced with ashlar. The interior 
of the market, which is reached by double 
flights of no fewer than 20 steps at each end, 
is laid out in rectangular spaces, much as 
in the new Metropolitan Meat Market at 
Smithfield. Between the columns are arches 
turned in stone, supporting the groining 
of roof. Beneath the market are vaults 
slightly below the street level. 

Important extensions are about to be 
made at the rear of I'Ecole de Mcdeoine so 
aa to face the recently-cleared Boulevard 
St. Germain. A single order of Ionic 
columns will be set upon a lofty, rusticated 
base, the intercolumnar space being pierced 
by plain, oblong, heavily-transomed win- 
dows, lighting a principal floor to be used 
as a lecture-hall, and a smaller one above. 
By this simple means the architect (M. 
Ginain) has given a bold fa?ade to the 
school buildings, and one quite in keeping 
with the old frontage. 

Church architecture is well represented 
on the walls both in restorations and new 
buildings. M. Vaudremer sends di'awings of 
his restorations of St. Germain I'Auxerrois, 
including some measured drawings. The 
church of Notre Dame de la Croix, recently 
built from M. Heret's designs, is a spacious 
Middle Gothic edifice, with substantial 
western tower and spire, having a lofty nave 
of six bays, choir in three bays, transepts, 
and a triapsidal east end of three semicircular 
chapels; the plan is compact, and although 
the treatment is studiously plain, the internal 
effect of the grouping of chapels and aisles 
is imposing. In a very different style 
is the Church of St. Augustin, near the 
"Western of France terminus — an iron-roofed 
florid Renaissance building with a super- 
fluity of carving and colour, completed a few 
years since from the designs of M. Bault»rd. 
Notre Dame d'Auteuilhas been designed by 
M. Vaudremer. It is a basilioal edifice, with 
heavy-vaulted roof of wide span, and broad 
shallow transepts. The west front is spoiled 
by a slender circiilar turret, suggestive in 
outline of a bodkin, and finished by a heavy 
iron cross. One of the most remarkal:>le 
series of drawings is that illustrative of the 
Church of the Sacred Heart, the foundations 
of which fabric have just been completed on 
the heights of Montmartre. The style is 
Lombardian. At the crossing is to be a 
large dome, flanked by four smaller ones, 
and at the east end is an equally lofty cam- 
panile, all these features and the angle 
turrets being roofed with cone scales in 
stone. The external materials are stone and 
marble disposed in broad bands. At the 
angles of the west portico are to be erected 
equestrian statues in bronze. The architect 
of this remarkable structure, which is esti- 
mated to cost ujjwards of three-quarters of 
a milli on sterling, is M. Abadie. The church 
of St. Joseph (M. Ballu, architect) is a 
Romanesque building of considerable im- 
portance, with nave and choir each of five 
bays, transepts, and an eastern chevet of 
chapels. A free use is proposed to be made 
of engrailled and stained glass. The general 
treatment appears, in the model, flat and 
somewhat mechanical. The same architect 
also sends designs for the Church of the 
rinity, a basilical structure with detached 

An interesting group of drawings is 
that representing the restoration of the 

tower of Jean Sans Peur, forming part 
of the ancient residence of the Dukes 
of Bourgogne. A perspective of the un- 
restored building is given for purposes of 
comparison. The tower is of five stories, 
and of 15th century character ; it seems to 
have been much neglected, and the renova- 
tions are thorough, including the opening 
out of windows, refacing in great pai-t, and 
the substitution of a steep-pitched slated 
roof for the flat ogee covering. M. G. 
Haillard was the architect. Another work 
of restoration of a purely Classic character 
is that of the fine 16th century residence, 
once belonging to Madame de Sevigne, and 
known as the Hotel de Carnavalet. It has 
been carried out fi-om M. Roguet's designs. 
The library of I'Ecole de Droit, built last 
year from M. I'Heureux's designs (M. 
Chedeville, sculptor), exhibits a simple and 
effective mode of meeting the requirements. 
The plans show a rectangular chamber 
leading into a polygonal one ; the latter is 
domed over vrith light iron and glass roof ; 
two iron galleries are carried round the 
walls and are reached by circiilar staircases, 
also of iron ; by this means the maximum 
of space is preserved for the book-shelves. 
A symmetrical and compact group of school 
b\uldings is to be erected in the Rue 
d' Alesia, from the designs of M. Vaudremer. 
The designs for the new Vaudeville Theatre 
(M. Magne, architect) indicate the use of a 
highly-decorated type of Renaissance ; the 
principal front is adorned with busts of 
Scribe, Colic, and Desangiers, and termi- 
nates in a scale-coned circular cupola. A 
well-arranged fire-engine station is the 
Caserne de Sapeurs Pompiers in Rue 
Philippe le Grand and Rue de FAqueduc. 
The site is a triangle or rather pentagon, 
with streets on all sides. The central court- 
yard is enclosed by ranges of buildings two 
stories high, with towers five stories 
high at the three chief angles. These 
towers contain the superintendent's and 
officers' residences ; along the sides are the 
stables, and over them the men's apart- 
ments, the wide end of the yard being 
covered in as a gymnasium. The building 
is treated with simplicity, the angle quoins 
being accentuated, and the effect is good. 
M. Sovidee is the architect. 

The fountains of Paris are well worthy 
of examination, not only as works of art 
in themselves, but as exhibiting solutions 
of the problem how to dispose of the water 
expended in display in the most effec- 
tive manner. The mode most frequently 
adopted in this city is to direct several 
streams towards a central point ; another 
is to allow the water to spring in several jets 
from the centre, and fall into a nearly flat 
basin, escaping in a thin almost unbroken 
sheet over the edge into a larger receptacle 
below. In the drawings of fountains con- 
structed from the designs of M. Davioud, 
there are examples of each of these varieties 
— of the latter opposite the Theatre 
Fran<jais, and of the former that in the Place 
de Chateau d'Eau. At the Chateau d'Eau 
the design loses much, as executed from 
the' ill-modelling of the eight couchaut 
lions, fi-om whose mouths, with question- 
able taste, the water is spurted. They are 
almost dog-like in appearance, and are 
so disposed in groups of four as to leave 
two awkward intervals on the principal 
sides. In this room there are also a few 
casts in plaster of columns and capitals at 
the Palais de Justice, and in the older 
churches. In another court of the pavilion 
will be found models and drawings of the 
sewerage works, and the appliances for 
cleansing, repairing, and watering the 
streets of Paris— these are well worthy of 
attention, as exemplifying the enterprise, 
activity, and vigilance of the governing 
]_>ody of this city in matters relating to 

E. W. P. 


M FONTAINE'S treatise, translated by 
• Dr. Paget Higgs, is an ably written 
digest of tlio art of electric lighting, showing 
its numerous applications, to what extent it can 
be applied to a multitude of industries, and the 
erroneous and prejudiced ideas that have been 
entertained of it. It deals rather in detailing 
the elements of electric lighting that have been 
practically tested, and the best conditions of its 
use, than in speculative theories. For light- 
houses, maritime, and military works, few will 
deny the value of this light ; but it is to show 
its value also for large workshops and show- 
rooms that the author writes. He says very 
justly that its applications would be very 
limited if we should continue to deprive our- 
selves of light, as it is the custom in some 
manufactures ; its value, however, is beginning 
to be recognised by those who are convinced 
that the present system of lighting is insuffi- 
cient and uneconomical. There is an intelli- 
gent conviction that by intensifying light in 
our workshops, better products are turned out, 
nightly inspection is economised, and manu- 
facture itself is facilitated. Hence many 
manufacturers are replacing their present sys- 
tem by lighting four or five times more intense. 
The Gramme machine, by which the electric 
light is obtained, has been applied in numerous 
instances since last year, when it had not more 
than a dozen applications. M. Fontaine's trea- 
tise is divided into twelve chapters, the first six 
being devoted to the study of the voltaic arc, 
the carbons, regulators, and magneto-electric 
machines, while the last six treat of the realised 
applications and the comparative costs of dif- 
ferent sources of illumination. The voltaic arc 
— the chief method of obtaining the electric 
light— is fully described in the first chapter, 
and the experiments of scientific men to deter- 
mine its properties, and the phenomena it pre- 
sents are recorded. The voltaic arc is obtained 
by employing two carbon electrodes, between 
the ends of which a dazzling or luminous arc 
appears. It has been called the " voltaic arc " 
in honour of the inventor of the battery which 
produced it for the first time. The brightness 
of the arc depends upon the intensity of the cur- 
rent, the electrodes, and the medium. Potas- 
sium or sodium produces a more brilliant arc 
than one of platinum or gold. The researches 
of Despretz upon the length of the arc pro- 
duced by different numbers of elements em- 
ployed are recorded. Wheatstone, Faraday, De 
la Rive, tfecquerel. Grove, Tyndall, Le Rous, 
Matteucci, Favre, and many other authors have 
been consulted. The voltaic arc results from 
the incandescence of a jet of particles detached 
from the electrodes, and projected from the 
positive to the negative pole. Foucault and 
Fizeau have discovered that the voltaic arc at- 
tains in briUiancy to half that we receive 
from the sun on a clear day, and therefore far 
surpasses the Drummond and other sources of 
light. Professor Tyndall has shown the mar- 
vellous heat of the voltaic arc by placing a 
piece of black paper in the reflected luminous 
focus, which is instantly pierced and ignited. 
The same effect takes place when a band of 
blackened zinc is placed in the focus, a plate 
of platinum has been heated to whiteness. 
In the Opera in Paris the electric light was em- 
ployed to produce the effect of the rising sun, 
and in theatrical effects it has been largely used 
to reproduce physical phenomena, M.Duboscq, 
for instance, has reproduced the rainbow and 
lightning by its means, the former being ren- 
dered through the agency of several lenses and 
a prism. In the Paris Opera, batteries, instead 
of a steam motor, are used, as the architect 
objected to the latter. In the lighting of fetes 
and public works during construction the 
electric Ught has been of great service. The 
Serrin electric light system has been used by the 
Spanish Northern Railway Company : the light 
was found to he regular and good, and hyper- 
bolic and parabolic reflectors were employed. 
The expense per hour for material consumed 
was 2 90 francs per lamp — a saving of 60 per 
cent, on the use of torches, the fumes of which 
are inconvenient to labourers. The Exhibition 
in Paris, the Grands Magasins du Louvre, and 
several railway works have been executed by 

• Electric Lightiuj ; A Practical Treatise. By Hippolyte 
Fontaine. Translated by Paget Higgs, LL.D., A.I.O.E. fl 

London : E. and F. N. Spon. 

July 2fi, 1878. 



the aid of this powerful light, and it has been 
found that workmen, not oppressed by the heat 
of day, can do more labour during the night 
if aided by a good light. 

The chapter on electric " regulators," or 
lamps, is interesting. Electricians have long 
endeavoured to regulate and maintain at a con- 
stant distance the two carbons between which 
the voltaic arc plays. The author speaks of 
M. Serrin's regiJator as the best. This appa- 
ratus is simple, works with preci.'iion, and gives 
.1 good light. The regulator of Foucault, per- 
fected by Uuboscq, is placed next. It consists 
of an electro-magnet or clockwork movement to 
actuate the bars of the two carbon carriers, 
which move by racks and wheels. The carbons 
are separated by clockwork, and also brought 
together by its means. Viwious other ingenious 
means of regulating the carbons are described, 
the electric lighting, without regulators, as 
patented Ijy M. Jablochkoff, a Russian officer, 
in 1870, is mentioned, in which tlie carbons are 
placed side by side, and are separated by 
porcelain ; various other improvements have 
been made by the same inventor. Chapters on 
electric carbons and magneto-electric machines 
follow, frciui which we gather that retort 
carbon gives better results than wood-carbon 
rods. The Gramme machine, to which the pro- 
duction of electric lighting is chiefly due, has 
been applied to several purposes. Its principal 
purpose is to transform mechanical force into 
electricity. M. Gramme exhibits at Paris this 
year, we believe, a machine which wiU give the 
greatest luminous intensity with the smallest 
motive force that has ever been obtained — a 
machine with multiple poles, intended to pro- 
duce simultaneously several foci. 

We proceed to notice the chapter on indus- 
trial application, as that of chief interest to 
architects. Electric lighting is so intense that 
it is aided by reflection from all objects it falls 
upon, and is thus diffused in all directions like 
daylight. Two machines are necessary, so that 
the shadows produced by one light may be 
illuminated by the other. Electric light is not 
found to be fatiguing to the eyes ; it preserves 
the tints of colours — a great point in dying 
establishments and in workshops where it is 
desirable to discriminate colours. Kooms should 
not be much less than four metres high for 
the introduction of this light ; and the follow- 
ing data of the areas lighted by a single 
apparatus may be useful : — " Generally there 
may be conveniently lighted with a single 
apparatus 500 square metres of fitters and tool 
shops, modelling rooms, &c. ; 250 square metres 
in spinning mills, printing and weaving estab- 
lishments ; and 2.000 square metres of yard, 
dockyard, quay, and open-air works. A com- 
plete apparatus in France costs about dElOO, 
including lamp, conducting wire, transport, &c. 
Convenience as well as cost should be con- 
sidered in estimating the advantages of this 
mode of lighting, and we are informed that the 
fire-offices have offered to lower their tariff for 
all buildings lighted by electricity. TVe have 
not space to mention the workshops in which 
this mode of lighting has been introduced. In 
one case, the Ducommun factories at JIulhouse, 
the cost has been .£400, which is about that of 
250 gas burners ; while the total light exceeds 
that of 401-1 burners. Messrs. Sautter, Lemon- 
nier, and Co., the well-known makers of light- 
house lenses at Paris, have introduced electric 
lights on a large scale ; and M. Menier has also 
employed them. To show the value of a 
luminous ceiling one of the halls of the great 
warehouses of the Louvre at Paris is stated to 
have been illuminated by a white light, soft 
and in all respects equal to sunlight. The light 
is transmitted through a frosted plate-glass 
panel in the ceiling from an upper chamber, 
and is reflected by tin plates placed above the 
Eght in the form of a truncated pyramid. 
Besides the large use of this light in Paris 
it has been employed in Austria in light- 
ing a large skating rink in Vienna of 5,700 
square inches, the light being supplied by 
two Gramme machines, placed at 135 metres 
from the rink, and worked by a portable 
8-horse-power engine. Two reflectors prevent 
the waste of light upwards, and concentrate it 
upon the ice surface. We cannot refer to other 
applications to lighthouses, ships, and to forts, 
for which the electric light has been found ad- 
mirably ad.ipted ; but simply mention that with 

equal light emission, it is stated " the electric 
light costs less than gas, and this in the ratio 
of about 1 to 2'2(!, with interest and deteriora- 
tion, and of 1 to 717, without interest and 
deterioration." On the modes of lighting by 
incandescent carbon.s and Geissler tubes a 
chapter is added. We can recommend Dr. 
Higga' translation of Fontaine's treatise to the 
consideration of the managers of all public 
buildings, factories, and workshops, and to the 
architect's attention. Indeed, as a powerful 
auxiliary to modern industry, lighting by 
electrical means cannot bo over-estimated. 


APROCE.SS of making artificial marble has 
been recently patented in this country on 
behalf of llarriet G. Hosmer, of Rome, which 
differs from previous processes in the fact that 
limestone in the solid state is employed as the 
base instead of a mixture of plaster and cement. 
The limestone is worked by any suitable means 
to the desired form, and is then placed in a 
boiler furnished with a safety-valve and mano- 
meter, so that the pressure therein may be 
noted and controlled as may be rec^uired. The 
boUer is then filled with pure water at the ordi- 
nary temperature, care being taken that there 
is no mineral deposit introduced with the water. 
Care must also be taken that the water com- 
pletely covers the objects placed within the 
boiler. The boiler is then hermetically scaled, 
and fire applied, and the water allowed to boil 
until the manometer indicates five " degrees " 
of atmospheric pressure if the objects are 
small, and six or seven degrees of pressure if 
the olijects are Large. When the heat reaches 
the above-mentioned point the water is allowed 
to cool until the pressure indicated by the 
manometer returns to zero. The water is then 
taken out of the boiler, either by me-xus of a 
pump or a siphon, and the objects are removed 
from the boiler preparatory to being placed in 
the alum or coloured bath. If, however, steam 
alone can be introduced into the boUer (always 
maintaining the above-mentioned degree of 
heat and pressure) the result attained will be 
the same, the action of steam, not the presence 
of water, being necessary for acting on the 
stone. When it is desired that the objects 
should retain the natural colour of the stone, 
the alum bath should consist of pure water con- 
taining five degrees of alum, as indicated by 
the areometer. The articles must remain in 
this bath at least twenty-four hours, but they 
may be left in the same bath for a week, or for 
a month even, by which time they will acquire 
still greater hardness. The stone will, how- 
ever, have become sufficiently petrified for all 
ordinary purposes in twenty-four hours. If 
pure water be iised in the boiler, according to 
the process first described, instead of steam, the 
alum bath may be effected in the boiler itself, 
thus avoiding the necessity of removing the 
objects ; but it must be remembered that the 
application of alum is only admissible when it 
is intended to preserve the natural colour of the 
stone. In such case the alum is put in the 
water before the boiling commences, and the 
objects must remain in the boiler for 24 hours 
after the pressure, as indicated by the mano- 
meter, returns to zero. The articles, when 
taken from the alum bath, may pass into the 
hands of the polisher if in the form of plain 
blocks, slabs, or flat pieces, but if they be in 
the form of statues, busts, vases, columns, or 
other ornamental works of art, they may be 
placed in the hands of an artist to finish, if re- 
cjuired, as the stone does not attain its greatest 
hardness until it has become perfectly dry, 
which will require a fortnight, more or less, 
according to the size of the object. When it is 
desired to impart colour to the stone the 
coloured baths are prepared in the manner indi- 
cated below, in which the objects must be 
immersed, and must remain therein at least 24 
hours. The coloured baths must be boiling, or 
very nearly so, and it is better to remove the 
objects to be coloured from the first boiler and 
place them in the coloured liquid while they are 
still warm from the steam or water. There is 
no danger, however, of injuring the stone, even 
if it should be put into boiling liquid while 
cold, or into cold water while the articles are 
still heated, but the colour penetrates deeper 
when both stone and bath are in a heated state. 
It it be desired to place an object a second time 

in the coloured bath in order that it may acquire 
a deeper colour it should first be placed in an 
oven at a temperature of from 80 to 00 degrees, 
in which it may remain ten minutes, after which 
it may be immersed in the coloured bath. To 
produce black or dark grey colour take of pure 
water 2 litres ; red wood, 300 grammes ; fustio 
wood, 120 grammes ; sulphate of iron, 10 
grammes ; sulphate of copper, SJ grammea. 
Boil the red wood and fustic wood for an hoar 
and a half, then add the sulphates, and con- 
tinue the boiling until all the salts are dissolved. 
Three or four minutes will probably be suffi- 
cient for this purpose, the solution may then bo 
passed through a sieve, and half a tumbler of 
acetic tincture of iron added. Stone colour or 
ligliter grey is obtained in the same manner, 
with a weaker solution. In order to prepare a 
red colouring solution take of pure water 
3 litres ; Brazil wood, 330 grammes ; Scotaus 
(sic), 5 grammes ; cream of tartar, 1 gramme ; 
alum, 1 gramme. Boil the mixture untU all tho 
colour of the wood is extracted, and then pass 
the solution through the sieve in order to re- 
move therefrom any solid matters that may be 
held in suspension therein. A yellow colour is 
obtained by adding to three litres of pure 
water extract of yellow wood of Cuba, 20 
grammes; sulphite of magnesia or alum, 10 
grammes. The mixture must be boiled until 
complete solution of extract is effected. In 
order to obtain a green colour dissolve in three 
litres of pure water extract of yellow wood of 
Cuba, 20 grammes ; and 10 grammes of alum. 
BoO the ingredients as above, and then add 
carefully (by means of a wooden spoon, and 
keeping at a certain distance) as many drops of 
acid sulphate of indigo (Saxon blue) as may be 
necessary to give tone of colour desired. To 
ascertain the depth of colour pour a few drop3 
upon white paper, or dip a piece of dry plaster 
of Paris in the solution. For a blue colour dis- 
solve alum, 10 grammes ; acid sulphite of indigo, 
20 grammes in Slitres of water, until the desired 
colour is obtained. As all the varied colours of 
aniline penetrate the stone perfectly, they may 
be used at pleasure. It is only necessary to dis- 
solve the colour selected in a little alcohol, 
which is afterwards diluted with warm water, 
in which alum is dissolved in the proportion of 
24 grains of alum to every litre of water. The 
solution may be even stronger in alum ; this is 
for colours which are insoluble in water. For 
such aniline colours as are soluble in water no 
alcohol is necessary. They may be dissolved in 
boiling water in which a little alum or sulphate 
of magnesia is introduced Care must be taken 
to select only those colours which are durable. 
Thft same colours which are permanent in cloth 
are permanent in stone, and in general the same 
rules which apply to the art of dyeing cloth may 
be applied to the art of dyeing stone. Pave- 
ments which are coloured, particularly if the 
colour is very delicate, and if there be fear of 
dampness, are better laid down in cement of a 
light colour. For the darker colours the cheaper 
darker cement is equally good. For the stone 
of which the natural colour is preserved no 
cement is absolutely necessary unless the place 
in which they are to be laid is particularly damp; 
After the objects have been taken out of their 
respective baths they are allowed to dry, during 
which process the work may be re-touched, if 
necessary. When dry they are reduced to a fine 
surface by means of pumice stone, after which 
a stdl finer surface may be given by means of a 
piece of slate, or still better, of lead, after which 
they may be rubljed with oil. When the oil is 
dry the articles may be rubbed with phosphate 
of lime, and the lustre will be rendered perfect. 
The ordinary methods of polishing marble wiU 
apply to the polishing of petrified marbles pre- 
pared by the above process. 

A new fine-art institution is about to be erected 
in Glasgow at a cost of iiM.OOO, from the designs 
of Mr. Burnet. The style of the propoaed building 
is Classic, with a predominance of Greek feeling. 

The Counterslip new Baptist chapel, Bristol, was 
formally opened on July 17th. It is Gothic in 
style, and is faced externally with brick. The 
extreme length of the new chapel ie 91ft., and tho 
width 3'.1.itt.. accommodation having been provided 
for between SOO and 'Ml adtdts. The architects ara 
Messrs. Foster and Wood, and the general contractor 
Mr. J. Crick. Mr. Gardner has acted as clerk of 
the works. The undertaking will have involved a 
total outlay of nearly i;ll,OUO. 



jTJLt 26, 1878. 



Cyprns— Crete— Rhodes ; Their Monuments 

The Decoration of St. Paul's 

Parisian Architecture at the Paris Exhibition 

Electric Lighting 

Artificial Marble « 

Onr Lithographic lUastrations 


A Chapter of Transitionists 

Arts, Manufactures, and Mines 

The Late Mr. H. P. Lockwood, Architect 

The New Eddystone Lighthouse 

Efflorescence on Brick Walls 

Diminution of Circular Chimney Shafts or Oolnmns.. 

Cool Rooms V. Ventilation 

Boilding Intelligence 

Parliamentary Notes 

Legal Intelligence 


Intercommunication 95 

Water Supply and Sanitary Matters 95 

Our Office Table -. 96 



was Mr. E. Twelvetreea, of Biggleswade, the 
whole having been carried out from the design 
and under the superintendence of Mr. S. J. 
Nicholl, architect, 1, Caversham-road, N.W. 

ST. bkigid's church, aedaoh. 
The new church shown in our view, and now in 
course of erection, is one of many structures in 
progress throughout Ireland, which, even in 
remote districts, are fast superseding poor and 
often wretched buildings, in which poverty and 
politics condemned Eoman Catholics, until with- 
in a recent date, to celebrate the rites of their 
religion. The site has been generously given 
by Sir George Fetherstone, Bart., and is prettily 
situate near the entrance gate to Ardagh 
House. The church consists of nave, aisles, 
chancel, transepts, and lady chapel under 
tower; also a commodious sacristy. The total 
internal length is 87ft. Gin. ; the width 
including nave and aisles, is 45ft. 2in., and in 
clear of transepts, fi5ft. 2in. The walls are 
built of rubble on concrete foundations, and are 
faced with coursed hammered ashlar of light- 
coloured sandstone, with dressings of blue 

Our Lithographic Illustrations. 


AsHFORD. — On Thursday week the members 
of the School Board were engaged from nine 
o'clock in the morning until nine o'clock in the 
evening, in the selection of designs from the 
twenty-nine sent in for the new board schools. 
At length they reduced the number to ten, 
and in choosing three from these they were 
aided by the advice of the masters of the 
elementary schools. The three chosen bore 
the following mottoes : — " Abecedaire," 
estimated cost, £3,700; " Spero," £2,535; 
"Tuition," £2,700. 

Geeat Yaemotjth. — At a meeting of the 
mayor, aldermen, and burgesses of the borough 
of Great Yarmouth, on Monday last, the fol- 
lowing report of the New Public Offices Com- 
mittee was confirmed : — " The committee, 
having carefully considered the designs sent in 
by the 41 competitors with respect to the pro 
bable cost, the light given to the courts, rooms, 
and corridors, the width of the corridors and 
passages, the sanitary arrangements, and the 
architectural merits of each of the several 
designs, and with the assistance of Mr. Edward 

limestone, finely chiselled. The nave is Boardman, architect, of Norwich, whom the 


The subjects from Hambleton and Egleton 
may be regarded as quite characteristic of the 
domestic architecture of Eutlandshire. Eliza- 
bethan or Jacobean work of more or less merit 
is to be found in almost every village in the 
county. Perhaps the prevalence of this style 
may be accounted for by the abundance of good 
building stone ready to hand and suitable for 
such characteristics as muUioned windows, 
gable copings, &c., as well as for general 
walling. The latter is, in many cases, very 
effectively banded in irregular courses, with 
rubble and rough ashlar alternately. The 
garden front of Hambleton Hall is very slightly 
varied from the entrance front given in sketch. 
It is now a farm-house, and lately contained 
several suits of armour. The old house at 
Narborough, near Leicester, owes its pic- 
turesqueness to the projecting timber-framed 
bay window in the roof. No doubt this feature 
is a somewhat later addition, the main portion 
of the building being apparently Jacobean, but 
so completely draped with foliage that its 
details are scarcely visible. — J. Languam. 


The illustration shows a studio and chambers 
lately erected for C. Green, Esq. The whole of 
the elevations are faced with red bricks, the 
porch and the front windows are of cut and 
rubbed brickwork, the cornices and pediments 
being of red terra cotta. The studio on the 
upper floor is 18ft. high, and is warmed by an 
open fireplace and a German stove obtained 
from Nnremburg. The works were carried out 
by Messrs. Manley and Rogers, of St. George's- 
road, Eegent's-park, the foreman of works being 
Mr. G. Dickins. The architects were Messrs. 
Batterbury, and Huxley, of 25, Great James- 
street, Bedford-row, W.C. 


This establishment is the diocesan school for 
orphan and destitute boys in the Roman 
Catholic dioceses of Northampton and Notting- 
ham, and under its director, the Very Eev. 
Canon CoUis, is in course of reconstruction and 
enlargement. The view gives the schoolroom 
and dormitory just completed, and the old 
chapel, which has been raised a story, and is 
intended to serve as the sacristy for the in- 
tended church. The boys are taught various 
trades, and the design has been influenced by 
the desire to give useful employment to the 
boys, who, under their able instructor, have 
done the whole of the carpenters' and joiners' 
work, portions of which, especially in the 
internal fittings, have been designed of an 
ornamental character, so as to afford opportuni- 
ties for the exercise of skilled labour. The 
general contractor for the work in the school- 
room and dormitory, not done by the inmates. 

divided from the aisles by moulded arches of 
Bath stone, supported on grouped polished red 
granite pillars, with marble bases and annulets, 
and carved Portland stone caps. The Lady 
Chapel will be groined in stone. Polished 
marble and granite pillars will be freely used 
in the interior to corbel shafts and arcadings. 
The roofs will be covered with slates laid in 
bands of colours, and the ceilings finished with 
pitch-pine diagonal boarding, divided into 
panels, with elaborate cornices and mouldings, 
and curved and moulded principals, dividing 
the church into bays corresponding with the 
arcading, the whole sized and varnished. The 
windows, glazed in lead quarries, having rolled 
cathedral glass in various tints, with coloured 
margins. The traceried windows are to be 
filled with painted and stained glass; the 
fioors of encaustic tiles ; the sittings, alta,rs, 
and other interior finishings will be all carried 
out in keeping with the style of architecture 
adopted. The works are being satisfactorily 
carried out by Mr. Patrick Callam, buUder, 
under the supervision of the architect, Mr. 
William Hague, 44, Westland-row, Dublin. 

The new Eoman Catholic church at Haflzor, near 
Droitwich, dedicated to St. Richard de Wyche and 
St. Herbert, was opened on Tuesday, July ICth. 
The church is built to accommociate 100 persona. 
It is a simple edifice of the Flemish brick style of 
architecture of the thirteenth century, built from 
the designs of Mr. C. A. Buckler, the builder beiflg 
Mr. A. Stokes, of Droitwich. 

The corner and memorial stones of a new 
Wesleyan Sunday-school and lecture-hall, in connec- 
tion with Queen-street Wesleyan Chapel, Scar- 
borough, were laid last week. The new building 
will harmonise with the old chapel, and be of red 
brick with stone dressings. The large room will 
afford sitting accommodation for over 600 adults. 
The contracts amount to about ^£1,800. The work 
is being executed from the designs and under the 
supervision of Mr. William Watson, of Wakefield, 

There has just closed in Berlin an exhibition of 
models for the Liebig monument. Twenty-one 
sculptors competed, five of whom, Begaa, Pfuhl, 
and Su9«mann-Hellborn, of Berlin, and Gedon and 
Wagmiiller, of Munich, were invited to do so. The 
models will now be exhibited in Munich, where 
afterwards a committee, already appointed, will 
decide which model is to be accepted for execution. 

The parish church of Sutcombe, Devon, dedicated 
to St. Andrew, and built in the Perpendicular style, 
has been in part restored, and further renovations 
are in contemplation. The architects engaged are 
Messrs. Bodley and Garner, of London. The church 
consists of a western tower, nave, north aisle, 
chancel, and south chancel aisle. The works 
embrace the restoration of the chancel-rcof and 
renovation of the chancel generally ; new stalls have 
been made with richly carved ends, the late type of 
ornament general in the church being strictly 
adhered to in the new work. The carved work has 
been carried out by Mr. Harry Hems, of Exeter. 
The root of the chancel has been decorated in colour. 
The general works are by Mr. AUin, of Sutcombe. 

The district of Hoyland, near Barnsley, is about 
to be provided with an independent wiiter supply, 
in lieu of taking, as at present, from the Shefiield 
Water Company at a fixed rate of Is. per 1,000 
gallons. Messrs. Mitchell and Peacock, of Barnsley, 
are the engineers 

committee had called in, and who stated that 
he was entirely ignorant of the names of the 
authors of any of the designs, resolved unani- 
mously to recommend the council to award the 
first nremium to the design bearing the motto 
' Beacon Blue ' as fulfilling the requirements 
of the council more than any other design sent 
in, and for similar reasons to award the second 
and third prizes to the designs bearing respec- 
tively the mottoes ' Saxon ' and ' Bona Fides.' 
The committee feel assured that the design of 
• Beacon Blue,' when carried out, will not only 
answer the purpose for which it was intended, 
but also add to the architectural embellishment 
of the town. The specification sent in with the 
design stated that the author -was confident 
that the building as designed could be carried 
out for the sum named in the instructions to 
architects." The mayor subsequently opened 
the sealed letters which accompanied the three 
designs sent in, to which prizes had been 
awarded, and it appeared that the design sent 
in with the motto ' Beacon Blue ' was submitted 
by Mr. John B. Pearce, architect, of Norwich ; 
the design sent in under the motto " Saxon " 
was submitted by Messrs. G. Nattress and G. 
Sedger, architects, of 31, Great James-street, 
Bedford-row ; and the design sent in under the 
motto "Bona Fides" was submitted by Mr. 
Brightwen Binyon, architect, of Ipswich. 

Last week, Mr. Edward Baker, said to be a. 
master builder in an extensive way of business at 
Folkestone, was charged with being drunk and 
disorderly at Mersham on July 3rd. The magistrates 
sentenced him to twenty-one days' hard labour 
without the optioa of a fine, and issued a warrant for 
his apprehension. 

On Saturday last the Archbishop of York conse- 
crated the new parish church of St. Andrew, Dry- 
pool, Hull. The total cost of the fabric is esti- 
mated at £6,000. It is in the Geometrical style, 
and is built of red brick, with stone dressings. It 
has been constructed from the designs of Messrs. 
Adams and Kelly, of Leeds, and erected under a 
joint contract by Mr. Barrasa and Messrs. Allan 
and Son. . 

The guardians of the poor of the parish of Saint 
Matthew, Bethnal-green, have it in contemplation 
to improve the water supply of their workhouse 
establishment by sinking an artesian well into the 
chalk basin. Mr. Peggs, C.E., of Westminster, who' 
has carried out the improved water supply at Shore- 
ditch workhouse, will also carry out the necessary 
works here. 

There has just been an informal opening of the 
new library-room connected with the Barnsley 
Mechanics' Institute, in the Public Hall Buildings. 
It has been fitted up from designs furnished by 
Messrs. Taylor and Senior, architects. The shutters 
to the book-cases are supplied by Messrs. Salmon, 
Barnes, and Co., of Ulvtrston. They are fitted 
together with copper bands, and the larger ones 
worked by an improved spring motion. In addi- 
tion to the book-cases, revolving shutters are fixed 
in the archway communicating with the second read- 

The local authority of Dorking having been 
threatened with an injunction for pollution of the 
IPipbrook by sewage, have invited the neighbouring 
authority of Leatherhead to co-operate with them 
in forming a joint scheme of drainage. They 
received a favourable reply last week, and negotia- 
tions are in progress. 

Thf. Bliildinc [.>F,ws.JuIy 26 1">77>. 


7hf. Bi'ii.DiNc. r^ 26 ]^7Z. 


Pboti.l.liK>{upM i IVtatxl )>7 .!<»> Aliiriiiu.6 . Queen Squ. r> W C 

The Building r<> 26 1^7^. 

Jtjlt 2fi, 187«. 




CJTYLES do not begin and terminate at 
" momentary periods, nor by rigid lines, 
Int have their interchanges and transitions 
aa seasons have. Such was the Elizabethan 
age to carpentry. Attenuations of the 
ancient way reached through it ; yet novel 
modes were strongly indicated from the 
beginning. Henry YIII. was a free patron 
of foreign genius. Torrigiano would, no 
doubt, have found a permanent asylum 
here but for the truculenee of his disposi- 
tion. The Swiss, Holbein, whose promi- 
nent gifts were painting and design, was 
©ailed upon for more than the embellishment 
of architectural works — he was invited to 
create them ; and his buildings would, in 
all probability, have been numerous, had 
his portraits been less attractive or less 
profitable. Girolamo da Trivigi (whom I 
conclude to be the Girolamo da Treviso, 
painter, architect, and engineer, who de- 
signed a facade of the Palazzo Leoni — now 
Sedazzi — at Bologna, and whose picture of 
the Virgin with St. Thomas a Becket re- 
mains in the Chm-ch of Santo Salvatore, as 
■well as the miracles of St. Antony of Padua, 
in the Church of San Petronio) held the 
post of master mason, which Walpole 
thinks equivalent to architect. Both terms 
are based on the power to invent and deli- 
neate, as perspicuously stated by Horman : — 
" He is not worthy to be called mayster of 
his craft that is not cunynge in drawynge 
and purtiiiynge. Nou est architecti nomine 
dignus qui graphi disperitus non est." To 
Girolamo succeeded John of Padua, who 
was called " devisor of the King's works," 
though, at that late period of the reign, 
most of the royal buildings were complete. 
Jane Seymour's marriage to the King, in 
1536, i-dised the fortunes of her brother 
Edward to the highest pinnacle. He was 
made Earl of Hertford, and, at Henry's 
decease, Duke of Somerset and governor of 
Edward VI. He immediately commenced 
the erection of Somerset House, on a plan, 
as is understood, of the King's devisor. It 
■was in active progress from 1546 to 1549, 
when the Protector's reverses began, and 
(if completed) was probably not inhabited 
dm-ing his life. Although brickwork had 
been used by Cardinal Morton for his 
Lambeth Gatehouse, and by Henry VIII. 
at St. James's, the old method of rubble 
and ashlar, ■with abundance of timber, 
seems to have been adhered to at Somerset 
House, and, accordingly, buildings were 
demolished, as well for the sake of material 
as space. Britton observes that " the real 
name of John of Padua, and his works 
abroad, if any, are totally unkno^wn — unless, 
indeed, he ■was the same person known as 
John Thorpe."* Against this it is to be 
considered that John Kaye, bom at Nor- 
wich in 1510, entered Gonville Hall, Camb., 
1529, was made fellow in 1533, and went to 
Padua in L539, to study medicine, under 
Montanus, of Verona. He there took the 
degree of doctor of medicine, and, returning 
about 1544, was admitted ad eundem at 
Cambridge. The fact that he became suc- 
cessively physician to Edward VI., Mary, 
and Elizabeth might seem at variance with 
his appointment as architect to Henry 
VIII.; but he had the qualifications of eru- 
dition, travel, and observation, which would 
certainly recommend him to the King's 
favour. The more jealous segregation of 
the present time was unknown, and the 
anomaly was less in every way than in the 
case of William of Wykeham, who, under 
Edward III., held a similar office, conjointly 
■with great ecclesiastical preferment. 

Kaye obtained from Mary a charter for 
enlarging Gonville Hall, and converting it 
into Gonville and Caius College, under 
which title the house was re- dedicated in 
3558. The works that ensued, including 

" Architectural Dictionary." 

the throe gates of " Humility," " Virtue and 
Wisdom," and of " Honour," remain. They 
exhibit the intermixture of Gothic and 
Italian features, and are attributed to Joltn 
of Padua (under whom there probably 
ofiiciated one Theodore Have, of Cleves). 
Longleat, Wilts, is traditionally assigned 
to him, and he probably began it for Sir 
John Thynne in 1567 ; but, dying during its 
progress, was succeeded by Thorpe, who 
effected the completion in 15T9. 

Kaye was master of his college from 1559 
to 1573, in which year, after resigning the 
office, he died in London, on July 29. " Fui 
Caius" was his epitaph, and on the frieze 
of his tomb was inscribed. " Vivit j)ost 
funera virtus." The suffix, "of Padua," was 
most likely one of tliose honorai^y designa- 
tions conferred by popular usage upon the 
eminent in art and learning, and was rather 
received than assumed by Kaye, whose 
ultimate distinction in medicine and letters 
induced him to relinquish it. Thus John 
of Padua became an incorporeal celel>rity — 
a myth — but Dr. John Kaye an embodied 

The account of Kaye's buildings at 
Cambridge show that the timber for them 
was bought standing : — 

X 8. d. 
/mpWniis for trees honffht of Sir Honrie 
Cornwall, outof Worboys and Kamsey 

Woods, in number 510 66 8 

Item for hewin?, marking, felling, lop- 
ping-, eqnaring, drawing, and carriage 
bv land and water from thens to 

Cambridge 46 4 8 

Item Rothesey and his men for their 
worke by daye from Midsomer, 1566, 

nntil Midsomer, 1573 123 6 3 

Item- for boardea bought and brought 
into the colledge 29 15 10 

It is worthy of notice that in 1563, only 
two years after the publication of L'Orme's 
work in France, John Shute, " paynter and 
architecte," who had visited Italy under 
the patronage of the Duke of Northumber- 
land, dedicated to the Queen a foho 
volume, entitled, " The First and Chief 
Groundes of Architecture, used in all the 
Auncient and Famous Mon3rments." The 
means may thus be seen by which the classic 
taste was promulgated, and intercourse 
maintained with Italy through individual 
adherents of the Romish creed, after the 
Govei-nments had been estranged by the 

The " royal merchant," Sir Thomas 
Gresham, was bom in 1519, and, like 
Dr. Kaye, educated at Cambridge. He is 
most popularly known Ijy the munificent 
presentation of the fii'st Royal Exchange to 
the City of London, and the magnitude of 
his work was such as to cause commotion 
in the building -world similar to that created 
by the Courts of Justice now. It was a 
necessary stipulation that " strangers " 
might be employed, but the permission gave 
palpable umbrage to bricklayers and other 
artisans at home, who resorted to personal 
coUisionsand affrays, justas though modern 
organisations had existed. Gresham's 
suburban seat, near Brentford, was called 
Osterley Park, and he had Mayfield, in 
Sussex (that had belonged of old to the 
Archbishops of Canterbury), as well as other 
places. The timber for the Exchange was 
brought from his estate at Rinxhall, in 
Suif oik, where the pits it was sawn upon are 
said to be still perceptible. But " he bar- 
gained for the whole mould and substance 
of his work in Flanders." The stone, the 
slates, iron, wainscot, glass, all came from 
Antwerp, The design was derived from the 
Bourse of that city, and Henrick, the archi- 
tect, was a Fleming. The Queen went from 
Somerset House, in state, to the City 
A.D. 1570, dined at Gresham's new mansion 
in Bishopsgate- street, and performed, as she 
returned, the ceremony of opening the 
Exchange, which, from that time and inci- 
dent, was termed " Royid." The character 
of the edifice is well known from contem- 

porary engravings, which may be said to 
show the state of art in two cities, and faith- 
fully portray the earliest example of the 
Anglo-Dutch style, so long followed in this 
country. Whither Henrick's connection 
with England continued or ceased after the 
completion of this great work does not 
appear, but the building itself was consumed 
in the great fire of 1666, and was then re- 
built by Edward Jerman. 

Her father had left the cro^wn so well 
provided with buildings that Elizabeth had 
little scope for the patronage of architec- 
ture; but this defect was amply made up for 
by the statesmen and courtiers of her reign. 
Brereton Hall, Cheshire, of which the 
Queen is said to have laid the first stone, 
contains a painting of Elizabeth, with the 
date 1579. This edifice is very Tudoresque 
in general forms, with ornamentation of 
foreign character superficially applied. The 
evidences are numerous, indeed, that the 
new style was displayed in supei-ficial addi- 
tions long before its general acceptation as 
an elementary and constructive principle. 
But Montacute House, Somersetshire, erected 
between that period and the end of the 
century, though retaining some leading 
characteristics of English design, is embel- 
lished with cornices and modillions, statues 
in hemispherical niches, segmental pedi- 
ments, balustrades, and obelisks, more 
directly referable to original intention. 
Doric columns are placed about the terrace 
in the useful, if undignified, capacity of 

In the year that saw the Queen's " solemn 
and splendid procession " to the Royal 
Exchange, Kirby, in Nottinghamshire, was 
begun ; " whereof," says John Thorpe, 
•' I laid the first stone, A.D. 1570, for 
Lord Chancellor Hatton." Thorpe, and 
his volume, in the Soane Museum, are 
familiar to readers of the Building- 
Ne'ws, and the character of some of the 
designs was possibly influenced by Gres- 
ham's work. The pointed arch is gradually 
eliminated, and the obelisk made an acces- 
sorial feature, reflecting here the admiration 
that object excited after 1586 at Rome. 
Taking Lord Dorset's as his primary in- 
stance, and Sir Walter Cope's for his last, it 
would give to this architect an active course 
of more than forty years — 1565-1607. (Cope's 
son-in-law, becoming Earl Holland under 
James I., save to the latter mansion the title 
of Holland House.) To those -n'ho bear in 
mind that Cockerell and Tite were jointly 
engaged on the London and Westminster 
Bank, as were Digby Wyatt and Scott at the 
India Office, it will not be surprising to find 
Thorpe's name occasionally mixed with 
others, as at Longleat and Audley End. 
This consideration ma.j help to reconcile 
the conflicting testimonies concerning Wol- 
laton Hall. Claiming for Thorpe an inti- 
mate and practical connection with many of 
the buildings represented, the plan of 
Henry VII. 's Chapel alone puts a limit to 
such claims; while the testimony of Robert 
Smithson's monument, in the chancel of 
WoUaton Church, has the sanction of more 
than two centuries and a-half. The recent 
idea that he was clerk of the works is of 
little moment, because clei-ks then were 
really clerks, with educational qualities fit 
for holy orders or other learned callings. 
Thomas Larke, for example, was overseer of 
the works at King's College, Cambridge, 
but Thomas Larke was also a king's chap- 
lain, and later on an archdeacon. As Robert 
was father of Huntingdon Smithson, archi- 
tect of Bolsover Castle, Derbyshire, there is 
the greatest reason for wishing the WoUa- 
ton memorial to be truthful. Of Thorpe's 
end there are no authentic particulars, but 
had it taken place in France, as his reference 
to the Queen-Mother's (Mary Queen of 
Scots?) house in Paris might make pos- 
sible, his drawings would have more pro- 
bably perished. 



July 26, 1878. 

It has been elsewhere demonstrated, and 
is perfectly obvious, that without a corre- 
sponding condition of the paper manufac- 
ture the triumphs of the modern burin 
would have been unachieved. In Thorpe's 
day the home-made article of chief repute 
was " London brown." The material of his 
volume bears different water-marks. A 
portion, that may be Dutch, has a shield 
charged with a bunch of grapes, and the 
inscription ivavode on a scroll below. On 
another part is a high-stemmed vase of Cellini 
pattern that would indicate Italian make. 
France is remembered by the fleur-de-lis ; 
while a yet further part, impressed with a 
frothing tankard, vividly suggestive of 
plebeian beer, is assumably from the Low 

The princely offices of the most princely 
of newspapers, the furbished College of 
Arms, and a few nominal memorials at 
Blackfriars, are not far from the site of a 
destroyed palace called the King's Great 
Wardi'obe. Among the ministers of fashion 
in that courtly vicinity lived Ignatius Jones, 
a Romanist in creed, a clothworker and 
tailor by vocation. His son, born in or 
about 1572, and christened Inigo, was in 
due time apprenticed to a joiner ; and thus, 
in a practical if humble way, began a great 
acquaintance with the building arts ; for, 
though not earliest, he became the most 
perfect and refined of Renaissance pioneers, 
and has been styled the English Vitru- 

Early patrons (notably Lord Pembi'oke), 
attracted, doubtless, by his graphic promise, 
sent him to study landscape painting in 
Italy, where, as an English Catholic, his 
welcome would be assured. But, in the 
then absence of any special school of land- 
scape art, he must have found himself 
dependent on spontaneous effort, and the 
intention of becoming a painter, if at any 
time seriously entertained, wasi-elinquished. 
Architecture was naturally more congenial ; 
and, leaving Venice for Vicenza, he reached 
the birthplace of Palladio, whose works 
abounded near the spot ; and where his 
death had occurred so recently as 1580. 
Thence, he was called to Denmark, and be- 
came architect to Christiern IV. The sister 
of this prince (Anne of Scandenburg) 
married James VI. of Scotland at Upslo, 
Norway, in 1589, and was crowned at Edin- 
burgh, the next year. She had been 
educated as a zealous Lutheran, but a 
joyous temperament, with an agile habit 
and well-formed person, kept her free from 
intolerance. It is needless to inquire, 
therefore, whether the masks and revels 
that were so frequent after James's ac- 
cession to the English crown, and in 
which Ben Jonson was official of the Muses, 
had not a friend at Court ? Christiern 
came to visit his royal relatives in lti06, 
and brought Jones over in his retinue, so 
that an important date is clearly fixed. 
Jones was appointed architect to the Queen, 
and thus his employment at Somerset 
House may bo ti-aced. The post of Sur- 
veyor-General was also bestowed upon him 
in reversion. The death of Prince Heurj, 
the heir-apparent, in 1612, thi-ew a gloom 
upon the royal household, and gave the 
architect opportunity for a second visit to 
Italy. That visit proved of some years' 
duration, and enabled Jones to prepare and 
fortify himself by further observation 
and renewed study of the best examples and 
authorities to effect the masterly produc- 
tions that give unfailing lustre to his name. 
His grand patroness, the Queen, died at 
Hampton Court in 1619 ; but he was now 
well settled in the service of the State. In 
1620 he was made a commississioner for 
the repair of St. Paul's Cathedral, and three 
years later began the work. But the most 
admirable and permanent monument of liis 
talent is the design for the palace at White- 
hall, where the banqtiettiug-house (now the 

Chapel Royal), the only executed portion, 
remains in eloquent attestation. 

Prom this great name the line of Renais- 
sance architects, as also that of Surveyors- 
General, may be followed. Jones fondly 
hoped that Webb, his son-in-law, would 
succeed him in the atter office, but Sir John 
Denham's claims prevailed. Within a stone's 
throw of the Chapel Royal stands, if I 
mistake not, the " mouse-trap " of Van- 
brugh, and a memoir of the surveyors (or 
materials) from that locality would be a 
graceful contribution to the " Dictionary " 
now approaching that prolific letter. 

In provincial carpentry the old archi- 
tectural features were but slowly superseded. 
The western counties long maintained the 
native forms, and John Abel, carpenter to 
Charles I., was extensively employed there. 
He saw the light in 1577, and was laid to 
rest in Sarsfield churchyard, A.D. 1671'. At 
that time Anne, the after Queen, was ten 
years old. Thomas Moekis. 


IN these days of literary productiveness, the 
dictionary or encjclopfedia form has con- 
siderable advantages, for it is quite impossible 
now to keep one's book-shelves mi cowrant with 
the recent literature of any branch of science, 
art, or manufacture ; and practical men are apt 
to turn immediately to a good index or to a 
dictionary for any special information they are 
in search of. Hence the unquestionable advan- 
tage of manuals and books of reference. There 
is, however, one disadvantage of the dictionary : 
its information is continually passing out of 
date, and every five years, or a decade at the 
most, a revision or a supplement becomes 
necessary. The most satisfactory form of 
literary production now-a-days is undoubtedly 
that of the weekly or monthly journal ; it is a 
running index that never gets old, and a full 
index makes it therefore more reliable than the 
cycloptedia form. Dr. Ure's " Dictionary of 
Arts, Manufactures, and Mines " has long en- 
joyed a reputation as being one of the most 
handy textbooks devoted to the branches of 
which it treats, but it was found that when the 
last pages of the third volume were printed in 
1875, several of the earlier articles needed 
revision or addition, owing to the rapid advances 
that had been made. A supplementary volume 
has just been issued, in which all the changes 
and additions have been recorded, and the four 
volumes now represent pretty completely the 
present condition of human knowledge and in- 
dustry in the great departments treated. The 
names of the authors of the new articles are a 
siifficient guarantee to the reader. Thus we find 
Mr. Emerson Bainbridge has written the 
articles on " Safety Lamp" and "Heat," Prof. 
Bischof on " Spongy Iron Filter," Mr. J. Cole- 
man, Commissioner of the Philadelphia Exhi. 
bition, on " Agricultural Mechanics," Mr. T. 
B. Jordan on " Boring Machines," and Mr. A. 
Eansome on " Wood-working Machinery." 
The editor also expresses his obligations to the 
Enijlish Mechanic and other journals, and our 
own pages have been laid under contribution. 
We may turn at random to a few subjects. 
Under the head " Cement " we have the follow- 
ing quoted from the German Berg und Hiltten- 
miinnisches Jahrhuch : " The manufacture of 
Portland cement is not so widespread in Ger- 
many as in England, but something resembling 
the English material is prepared near Kufstein 
from the natural marl strata of the lower ter- 
tiary formations. Prof. Puchs, of Munich, 
thus explains the theory of cement manufac- 
ture. The carbonate of lime becomes caustic 
on burning, and acts upon the clay in such a 
manner that the silicic acid is set free by means 
of the caustic lime, and combines with the lime 
upon subsequent treatment with water, produc- 
ing a chemical product (hydro-silicate), the 
presence of alkalies by their substitution 
through heat favouring such reaction. Further 
investigators have shown that cement owes its 
quality of hardening to the presence of the 
silicates and aluminates of lime formed by the 

• Ure's Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, aud Mines. 
By KonERT Hunt, F. U.S., Keeper of Minint? Records, &c. 
Vol. IV., Supplement. Loudou ; Longman, Green, and Co. 

action of heat. ... To manufacture watev 
pipes from cement equal quantities of ths 
material and of hydraulic sand are mixed wifh 
the necessary amount of water, and this mix- 
ture is poured into the pipe moulds, the said 
being previously washed and well mixed with 
lime in a proper apparatus. The interior of 
mould is rubbed smooth with dry graphite 
powder and a linen rag. The core is then put 
In, the cement introduced from the mixing 
appai-atus, and pressed down with a wooden 
rammer. For a 4in. tube 3ft. Gin. long, 1 cubic 
foot, or 581b. of lime, and 1 cubic foot of 
washed sand are used. After the mould has 
been filled, the screws that keep it together are 
tightened to ensure the cement being equally 
compressed throughout. The exterior of pipe 
is octagonal. During the setting, which takes 
place in from two to four days, the core must 
for the first 12 hours be slightly turned every 
half hour. After 12 hours the core may be 
withdrawn." The estimated cost for such 
pipes is about 5d. per foot. Under " Furnace " 
some useful information is given respecting 
muffle construction. M. de la Bastie's process 
for toughening glass is described in detail, and 
many valuable experiments are recorded. 
" Iron and Steel " have been exhaustively 
handled, and the additions contain Mr. Bar- 
nett's process for steeling iron, aud Professor 
Barff's method of preventing corrosion. From 
the latter we read : " The oxide (formed by 
the steam) is harder than the original iron. 
. . ; If the operating chamber is heated only 
to 500° Fahr., and the exposure is continued for 
only five hours, a surface is obtained which will 
resist emery paper for a considerable time, and 
which will not rust within doors, or after any 
moderate degree of exposure to moisture. If 
the oxidising process is conducted at 1,200', 
and continued for six or seven hours, the sui'- 
face will resist any exposure to weather." The 
Pulsometer is described. Eock-boringmachinery 
appears to be very completely handled. Thus, 
the various sorts of compressing engines are 
detailed. We have descriptions of Sommeiller's 
compressor, used in driving the Mont Cenis 
Tunnel, Ferroux's, used in the St. Gothavd tun- 
nel, various rock-boring tools, and every detail. 
Under the article " Ventilation," Mr. Martin 
Tobin's system of ventilation is recorded, the 
Times notice of the system being given in full. 
We have so recently described and commented 
upon this plan, that it will be superfluous to 
say more than that the system, correct in itself, 
is by no means a. new one, and has been adopted 
from time immemorial in sundry forms. The 
inward flow of air up the ascending tube is 
determined by the difference of the densities 
between the inner and outer temperatures of a 
rcom, and the more the internal air is rarefied 
or consumed the greater will be the force of 
the entering current, and thus the air adjusts 
itself to the demand, and it is said to be only 
necessary that the inlets should be sufficient for 
the maximum demands of the room. Now, 
inlets over doors and by windows act precisely 
in the same way in ordinary closed rooms, but 
we have certainly need for outlets in crowded 
rooms as well as inlets, as our own experience 
of buildings, unprovided with proper outlets 
for the vitiated gases, proves. Under the article 
" Wall-papers " we have some interesting facts 
regarding the dangerous effects of arsenical 
wall-papers. It appears that red papers, 
coloured with coralline dye, must be looked 
upon with suspicion, though the results of 
analysts have shown that pure coralline is not 
poisonous, and may be employed as a dye, but 
that injurious effects have arisen from fixing it 
by an arsenical mordent which acts injuriously 
upon the skin. Under " Water," the addi- 
tional information given is pretty full and con- 
cise. As regards filter?, Mr. Hunt, the editor, 
speaks highly of both Mr. Spencer's and Prof. 
Bischoff's filters, the magnetic oxide of iron re- 
moving all trace of organic matter. Several ad- 
ditions have been made under " wood-working 
machinery." We find among sawing machines 
Messrs. Eansome's "roller feed frame" for 
logs, and the band saw noticed, besides various 
improvements in deal and flitch frames by Mr. 
Frazer, also Furness and Co.'s four-cutter 
planing and moulding machine, Wurr and 
Lewis's labour-saving band and circvdar 
saw, general joiners, moulding, shaping, and 
dressing machines, &c. In wood preservation 

JiTLT 26, 1878. 



a«etate of iron 15 mentioned as a remedy for 
fitagous growths, and sulphate ot iron, 
bithloride of mercury, &c., for preservings wood, 
and a good stain for wood is said to be a mix- 
ture of 3oz. of tallow, 4OZ. of wax, 1 pint of oil 
of turpentine, melted together and rubbed in 
In a postscript a few additions have been made 
to this supplementary volume ; the question of 
the electric light and its application to our 
lighthouses is one of them, and we also notice 
under gases the liquefaction of oxygen and 
nitrogen made by M. Raoul Pictet recently, 
and a short description of the phonograph and 
telephone. We can confidently recimmcnd 
Mr. llunt's supplementary volume to all manu- 
facturers and students of the industrial arts as 
the most recent compendium of the kind, and 
as bringing up to the latest period the various 
branches of applied science. Those who have 
the three previous volumes will find the fourth 
to be an indispensable addition. 

rriUOSE interested in the architectural pro- 
-*- gress of Bradford, as well as the profession 
generally, will hear with regret of the death 
of Mr. Henry Francis Lockwood, the leading 
partner in the well-known firm of Lockwood 
and Mawson, which occurred at his residence. 
Heron Court, Richmond, Surrey, on Sunday 
morning last. Mr. Lockwood, we understand, 
had been in a precarious state of health for 
some time, though his natural activity did not 
allow him to remain merely a passive member 
of the firm, and he attended to business till 
within a very short time of his decease. We 
hear the malady he suffered from was cancer. 
Mr. Lockwood was a native of Doncaster, com- 
menced practice in Hull at the age of 23, and 
was in his 67th year. Me was a pupil of 
the late Mr. Peter Robinson, of London, and 
was engaged at the termination of his articles 
in superintending the rebuilding of York 
Castle. Coming to Bradford, in 184(1, when 
that rising town was just commencing to deve- 
lope its resources, Mr. Lockwood found a large 
field open for his energies. In conjunction with 
his partners, Mr. Wm. and Mr. Richd. Mawson, 
Bradford owes much to him ; indeed, many of 
the principal structures in that town have been 
erected from the designs of this firm. We may 
mention the Town Hall, won in competition, the 
Markets, St. George's Hall, the Bradford Ex- 
change, Airedale College, &c., some of which 
have been illustrated in our pages. In Halifax 
Mr. Lockwood has been largely engaged upon 
buildings on the White Swan estate, and a bank 
is about to be erected there from his designs. 
But the greatest work, one which will pro- 
bablj' add most to Mr. Lockwood's reputation, 
was the planning of the town and park of Salt- 
aire, near Bradford, founded by the late Sir Titus 
Salt, for whom he carried out besides numerous 
public and private works. In these works Mr. 
Lockwood possessed the entire confidence of his 
patron. The new town of Saltaire, near the 
Aire — from whence and the founder's name it 
derives its designation — ^contains an immense 
alpaca factory, warehouses, and hundreds of 
cottages, with wide streets, squares, and gar- 
dens, schools, and every requirement for a 
large industrial community, combining every 
modern improvemeut. The mill is of great 
length, is built of stone from the neighbouring 
quarries, and is in the Italian style. Sir Titus 
Salt spent half a million or more of money at 
Saltaire. Of other buildings we may mention 
the Inns of Court Hotel, London ; mansion at 
Broomfield for J. Crossley, Esq. ; the works of 
M. Scheppers Loth, Belgium ; works at Asnieres, 
near Paris ; and at Dusseldorf and Alsace, and 
the Government Rifle Factory at Enfield. 
Kingston College and St. Stephen's and St. 
Mcrk's Churches, Hull; the South Cliff 
Church, Scarborough ; St. Stephen's, Twicken- 
ham ; and Cleckheaton Chapel, Leeds, are from 
the designs of this firm. In 1870 he was ap- 
pointed one of the twelve architects to compete 
for the New Law Courts, and since that 
time Mr. Lockwood, in connection with 
Mr. Mawson, has been engaged in the erection 
of many public buildings in the metropolis. 
One of the largest buildings of a mercantile 
class is the extensive block of shops and show- 
rooms in Holborn Viaduct for Mr. Charles 

Meeking ; close to this may be mentionod the 
City Temple — another work of the firm. Work- 
houses at Liverpool, Hull, Bradford, Barnsley, 
Dewsbury, Pontefract, Carlisle, Xorth Bierley, 
Haslingdon, &c., wore built from designs by 
this architect. Of more recent buildings we 
may mention the warehouses for the Merchant 
Taylors' Company, the Civil Service Association 
in Bedford-street, recently completed, of red 
brick and terra cotta,andlhePore-st. company's 
warehouse. Lately the firm became success- 
ful competitors for the new Dublin Markets 
described by us, and a new bank at Hull is 
about to be commenced from their designs. 
Messrs. Lockwood and Mawson have been 
largely engaged in competitions, and we under- 
stand that the firm has kept a separate staff for 
this class of practice. Mr. Lockwood moved to 
London in 1871. He was educated in the 
Classical school, though many of his best works 
are Gothic. St. George's Hall, Bradford, is 
undoubtedly one of the most successful of Mr. 
Lockwood's earlier works, and evinces a keen 
insight into the adaptability of Classics. 
In the design for the New Law Courts, Messrs. 
Lockwood and Mawson adopted the Gothic 
style, the details and features of which design 
are largely borrowed from Italian sources. The 
character of this design, as that of others by 
the same architects, is highly florid in treat- 
ment ; the voussoirs to the arches are of 
different colours, and there is much in the 
spirit of the composition that resembles Sir 
Gilbert Scott's design for the same work. 
Another important competition in which Mr. 
Lockwood was engaged was for the public 
offices of Leeds. In this instance an Italian 
style was chosen, and the drawings we remem- 
ber seeing were remarkably bold and artisti- 
cally coloured in sepia, and displayed consider- 
able knowledge of Classic design. 

Mr. Lockwood was a man of varied attain- 
ments, and, in his own profession, a devoted 
student. He was the author of several works — 
one a description ot the fortifications of York — 
and the profession will lose in him an accom- 
plished member. Though a very successful 
member of his profession he did not belong to 
the Institute, albeit he was a F.S A., and a 
member of the Archaeological Society. The 
funeral took place on Wednesday last. 


MK. J. N. DOUGLASS'S design for the 
new Eddystone Lighthouse is much 
larger than that of Smeaton, and varies con- 
siderably therefrom. Fundamentally the same 
general form is to be adopted, and the shaft 
of the tower is a concave elliptic frustum 
— realised in Smeaton's original conception as 
the bole of an oak — but, in order to give weight 
and solidity to the substructure, with corre- 
sponding power of resistance to the violence of 
the waters, the lower course of masonry up to 
and inclusive of the twelfth, are to be perfectly 
cylindrical in form up to the level of about 3ft. 
above the high-water level of ordinary spring 
tides. At this point there is a diminution of 
more than 8ft. in the diameter, forming a 
commodious landing platform, whence springs 
the shaft proper of the tower. The diameter 
assigned to the cylindrical base is 44ift., and 
that of the tower at its springing is between 
35ft. and 3Gft., at the height of a little over 
22ft. above the foundations. Tlie circular shaft 
attains its smallest dimensions (18ft. Gin. 
diameter) at a height of about 134ft. above 
the rocky bed of its foundation ; swelling 
out, witli a bold and graceful curvetto, 
to an enlarged diameter of 23ft., main- 
tained up to the level of the gallery-course or 
lantern-floor, at a total height of 142ft. above 
the base of the lighthouse, of 122ft. tiin. above 
the level of high water of ordinary spring tides. 
The magnitude of this noble light-tower will 
bo at once apparent by comparison with the 
similar dimensions of its existing predecessor. 
Smeaton's shaft diminishes from a diameter of 
34ft. at the foundation-course of 26ft. at the 
level of high water ordinary spring tides ; and 
thence to 20ft. at the entrance door, and 15ft. 
at the top, the gallery-course being but 61ft. 
above high water mark, and the lantern-floor 
about 7ft. higher. Thus the new light will be 
displayed at an elevation 55ft. greater than 
that of the old one, and its range of visibility 

and efficiency wiU be proportionately extended. 
The structure is to be built entirely of granite, 
and to be entirely solid (except a small water 
tank) up to the level of the entrance floor, at 
about 22ft. above the landing platform; the 
access from low water mark being by an out- 
side step ladder, formed of gun-metal cleats, 
recessed in the granite below the platform, and 
projecting from the sm-face of the tower above 
that level. Tho foundation is to bo formed by 
cutting away the rock, in benchings or steps, 
for tlie first four courses, all the stones which 
bed on the rock being secured thereto by metal 
bolts. Throughout the entire structure every 
individual stone will be closely united, or 
bonded in to those surrounding it, by solid 
dovetail projections, fitting into corresponding 
recesses ; and each course of stones is simi- 
larly to be connected with those above and 
below it, so that in this manner, when set 
in Portland cement, the entire mass will 
acquire almost the homogeneity and strength 
of the solid granite rocks from which 
its component elements were quarried, as has 
been amply demonstrated by experience. The 
hollow upper part of the tower will be similarly 
built, the rings being formed of single stones 
running through from the inside to the outside 
of the shaft. The internal diameter, as pro- 
posed, varies from lift. 6in. to 14ft., and the 
thickness of the rings from 8ft. Gin. to 2ft. Sin. 
This part is to be divided by arched granite 
floors into nine stories, apportioned as stores, 
coal, oil, crane, living, bed, and service rooms. 
The door and window openings will be provided 
with gun-metal doors, sashes, and shutters ; 
and the general fittings of the tower are pro- 
posed to be of the same character. The total 
quantity of granite in the proposed new tower 
is approximately something less than 69,500 
cubic feet, giving to the mass a total weight of 
about 5,150 tons of masonry. The metal work 
in cast, malleable, and wrought iron in gun- 
metal, Muntz-metal, bolts, copper and brass, 
and other materials, wUl make up a gross total 
of about 50 tons more, or 5,200 tons in the 
whole. The time allowed for the completion 
of the work is five years, giving an average of 
1,030 tons to be erected in each year, practi- 
cally limited to the summer season, so far, at 
least, as the actual work at the rock is con- 
cerned, inasmuch as during the winter half of 
the year it is impossible to carry on operations 
of this kind at all ; and, indeed, the work can 
only be executed intermittently even during 
the summer months. 


Fa recent number of the Buildincj News 
(see page 415, Vol. XXXIV.) we gave the 
substance of a paper by W. Trautwine pub- 
lished in the Joiirnal of the Franklin Institute, 
in which he traces the cause of the disfigure- 
ment of brick walls to the sulphur existing in 
the coal consumed in the processes of manufac- 
ture and of domestic life. Mr. Henry Pember- 
ton, in another paper " On the evil effects 
arising from the use of dolomite lime in build- 
ing brick walls," in the same journal, remarks 
upon the above contribution. Pointing to the 
proximate causes of the mischief, Mr. Pember- 
ton says they are twofold. " First, the existence 
of silicate or other salts of magnesia in the 
brick clay, converted into sulphate of mag- 
nesia in the process of burning in the kilns, by 
the sulphurous vapours from the coals ; and, 
secondly, the employment of lime containing 
magnesia for the mortar used in the walls, 
which, by the absorption of the sulphurous 
vapours of the coal gases in the general atmo- 
sphere of the city, becomes converted into sul- 
phate of magnesia, and being dissolved by the 
rain, penetrates tho substance of the more or 
less porous bricks, efflorescing ultimately upon 
the surface." The writer points out more 
serious evils than the unsightliness of this 
white efflorescence — namely, the disintegration 
of the mortar, the washing out of the joints, 
causing the destruction and fall of chimneys, 
&c. The writer observes that the salts of mag- 
nesia formed in the brick during burning, 
though it may account for the first appearance 
of the white salts, are insufficient to explain its 
reappearance, but that the magnesian lime 
used in the mortar is the main source. The 
author next shows the contradiction between 



July 26, 1878. 

the statements of European writers, as to the 
influence of magnesia in lime for mortar, and 
builders' experience. Thus, in Muspratt's 
" Chemie," the analysis of ancient and modem 
mortar is given, and it is there shown that in 
Vienna the mortar used contains lime and 
magnesia in the ratios of from 5 to 1 to 2 to 1, 
though Wagner, in his " Chemischen Techno- 
logie," says that the effect of 10 per cent, of 
magnesia in the lime makes it become " lean," 
and 25 to 30 per cent, renders it perfectly 
useless. Mr. Pemberton found in Philadelphia 
that no lime available for chemical purposes 
would be accepted by builders, the latter 
using a strong magnesium lime, seldom if ever 
containing less than 30 per cent, of magnesia 
in the calcined lime, while lime for chemical 
purposes containing over 98 per cent, of car- 
bonate of lime is sold ab a lower price for agri- 
cultural uses. A fair average of these mag- 
nesian limes shows upwards of 37 per cent. 
of magnesia, or only 3'08 per cent, more lime 
than would be required for a perfect dolo- 
mite. It is readily seen how easily a 
cement composed of a substance, easily dis- 
solved and formed into a soluble salt, must be. 
come disintegrated or washed away in the pre- 
sence of sulphuric acid. The author shows how 
enormous is the quantity of sulphuric acid fur- 
nished by the coal consumed in that city — that 
6,0001b., or 3 tons of coal, render acid 480,0001b. 
of water. From a consideration of these facts 
the author advocates the use of a free or pure 
lime. Why bricklayers prefer mortar made 
from magnesian lime is, " that it forms when 
slacked a fatty gelatinous mass, absorbing much 
water, allowing a large quantity of sand to be 
mixed with it, and the bricklayer can spread out 
the mortar as far as he can reach without re- 
moving his feet from their position. He places 
the brick in line upon this bed of mortar, 
placing as he does so a little mortar on the end 
of each brick as laid, until perhaps seven or 
eight or more are in place, then points up the 
brick with the trowel on the face of the work. 
With pure lime mortar this plan wUl not do." 
The mortar becomes too firm and is less pasty, 
and only two or three bricks can be laid before 
it sets. The author says this is only a local 
habit, as in Pittsburg, where only a pure lime 
is obtained, the bricklayers use no other, and 
no efflorescence takes place ; and he mentions 
his experience in the erection of some buildings 
in Philadelphia, in which case a pure carbonate 
was obtainable at a cheap rate ; but the 
builder and bricklayers pronounced it worth- 
less, and it was found cheaper to pay 30 per 
cent, more for lime that the workmen were 
accustomed to, and which set less quickly. Mr. 
Pemberton's facts and experiences are interest- 
ing to us in England, and it may be worth 
while to inquire how far the same habit pre- 
vails amongst us. Numerous buildings are 
subject to the incrustations mentioned, due to 
the peculiar property sulphate of magnesia 
possesses of efflorescing, and which property is 
derived from the lime and magnesia in the brick 
clays and the sulphurous vapours in the air. 

In the paper of Mr. Trautwine (q.v.) some 
suggestions are given, as, for instance, that 
pressed and ornamental bricks should be burned 
with wood or coke, but the main remedy is to 
use pure lime in the mortar. When the bricks 
covered with this efflorescence of salts become 
wet the compounds dissolve ; and, on dry 
weather succeeding wet, the solution evapo. 
rating from che bricks leaves them coated with 
the same compound. 


Tj^IG. 1 . — The upper diameter of a column is 
-*- less than its lower diameter, but the 
gradual diminution between them should not 
be made by straight, but by curved lines. The 
usual mode of describing the curved contour of 
the diminution is as follows : — Let a b be equal 
to the lower diameter of the column, of which 
let efghe the line of the axis perpendicular to 
a b f g, the height of the column, and r 6 its 
upper diameter. On ab describe a semicircle, 
and from r and 6 draw lines parallel to the axis, 
cutting the semicircle in s o ; divide sa or o b 

* Extract from paper read by R. M. Banchoft befor^ 
he Civil and Mechanical Engineers' Society. 

into any number of equal parts, the more the 
better, and divide the height,/ 3, into the same 
number of equal parts, as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 
through these draw lines crossing the axis per- 
pendicularly. Then, by drawing lines parallel 
to the axis through the corresponding divisions 
in the semicircle meeting these points, the 
curved contour of the column will be obtained, 
and by bending a lath so as to pass through 
these points the curve may be drawn. 

Fig. 2. — The same thing may be obtained in 
a manner somewhat different, as here shown. In 
this a 6 is equal to the lower, and c d to the 
upper diameter. The points in which this latter 
cuts the semicircle being found, the portion of 
the radius, xp, is divided into certain equal 
parts, and the height of the column, fg, into the 
same number of equal parts, and from the points 
where lines parallel to ab drawn through the 
divisions in x p meet the semicircle, other lines, 
parallel to the axis, are drawn as before to inter, 
sect the Unes drawn through the divisions of the 
height, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 0. 

/^/ C./ F / G Z 

Fig. 3 shows another method of describing 
the section of the shaft or column. Le t e be 
the line of the axis of the column, A b half of 
the lo>ver diameter, and B e half of the upper 
diameter. Take in the compasses the length 
of the semi-diameter at the bottom, and setting 
one foot in the extremity of the upper diameter 
at B, with the other foot across the axis at h 
produce the lower diameter indefinitely, as Ar, 
and through B and the point, h, on the axis 
draw a line cutting A r in i, then from i as 
centre draw any number of lines as i 7 and m 6, 
&c., and make each of them, as i 7, «qual to the 
lower semi-diameter. 

In Fig. 4 is represented a trammel for doing 
the same thing as has been described ; a 6 e i a 

right-angled rule, kept to its form by the angle- 
piece, c (i. In the limb, be, is a groove, which 
is made to coincide with the axis of the column, 
and in which slides freely a stud, ft. The other 
arm, a b, of the rule carries a stud, h. The rule, 
/ g, has a groove or slot sliding on stud, fc, and 
its other end carries the stud which slides in 
6 e. Now, it is evident that if the points, kb hg, 
of the trammel be adjusted in accordance with 
the preceding description, the point, g, will on 
the rule, / g, being slid along, guided by 
the grooves, describe the elliptic curve, A, 


AT this season of the year we have various 
complaints of defective ventilation in our 
offices and stuffiness in our domestic apart- 
ments. A multiplicity of contrivances are 
before the public, with the object of remedying 
these evils ; still we have much the same com. 
plaints that we had years ago. These arise 
from various misimderstandings. It must not 
be imagined that cool rooms are the best ven- 
tilated, or that because we have large apertures 
in a room it is necessarily perfect in ventila- 
tion. A large stream of air may be passing in 
at one aperture and out at the other, and yet 
the room be imperfectly ventUated. A rapid 
draught of cold air through a room, say from a 
window to a doorway, does not sweep out the 
air within the room — it leaves certain stagnant 
places and eddying corners, like we see in a pool 
of water sometimes, or in a river through which 
a mid-channel stream is running. These stag- 
nant comers of the room may remain for a long 
time — the room may be cool, but the draught is 
not pleasant nor desirable. The object is to 
produce a thorough displacement of the air in a 
room, a continual change of all the air ; the in- 
lets should be well divided and distributed to 
afford numerous thin streams of air, and these 
should be placed somewhere at the breathing 
level, cither above or below it. Among inlet 
arrangements the window-sash and door present 
us with the simplest kind. One of the plans we 
can strongly recommend is to fit a deflecting 
board to the middle rails of a sash window, and 
bore openings through the lower top rail, by 
which means a thin sheet of air can be allowed 
to enter, and be deflected above the heads of 
those in the room. Another good plan we lately 
saw was a long valve fitted in the hcEid of a 
window inside, which can be closed or adjusted 
by a cord. On the outside, in the upper part 
of the window-frame, holes are drilled in a 
slanting direction, so that driving rain cannot 
enter, while the air is admitted, and is obliquely 
directed towards the ceiling by the aid of the 
valve. Glass louvres are upon the same prin- 
ciple, but are often draughty through the 
volume of air admitted. Sheringham's valve is 
another good adaptation of it, and Jennings's 
air-bricks, with sloped inlets to give the air an 
upward current, are well adapted for the pur. 
pose, and are used in barracks about 9in. above 
the floor level. Vertical pipes or flues built 
into the side walls form another admirable 
means of air inlet. We may mention ShillitO 
and Shorland's vertical ventilating tubes. In 
churches a perforated pipe placed under the 
hookboards has been suggested as a means of 
supplying pure air at the breathing level. It 
could be warmed to 55° or CO^. We might say 
much upon the position of inlets ; the natural 
currents and eddies of a room, the position of 
doors and fireplaces must be considered in 
selecting the best positions for them. For out- 
lets the ceiling is undoubtedly the best, and the 
various air-extracting appliances that have been 
recently patented can be made to assist the up- 
ward draught in a pipe carried through the 
house with openings at the ceiling levels. Such 
ventilating arrangements as these may be made 
to an ordinary house for about ^£1 a room. We 
may here recommend Messrs. Barnard, Bishop, 
and Barnards' fire-grates (slow combustion), 
where the fire-trough is reduced in depth and 
the combustion is confined to the surface 
exposed to the room. To find the draught in a 
chimney flue the rule is : Multiply the column 
of air in flue by the difference of temperature 
between outside and inside, and divide by 
491. The square root of the result multiplied 
by S gives the velocity of the upward current in 
feet per second. 

July 26, 1878. 



Biiiltiiitg fitttUigtttcc. 

Ediuburgh. — A new church has been opened 
at Granton, in connection with the Church of 
Scotland. It is built by the Duke of Buecleuch, 
from designs by Messrs. Hardy and Wight, in 
the Early English style, to hold 350. The lancets 
are moulded, and the roof open, constructed with 
trusses resting partly on the walls, and partly 
on corbel pillars. The church contains a fine 
stained glass window, with representation of 
the " Parable of the Talents." This was erected 
as a tribute of respect to the memory of the 
late J. Hawkins, C.E., superintendent of works 
of Granton harbour. The cost was jE2,000. 

Gloucester. — The Dean and Chapter of 
Gloucester at a recent meeting considered 
and approved plans prepared by Mr. Waller, 
their architect, for the reconstruction of the 
organ and the erection of a new screen. The 
screen will be almost a counterpart of the stall- 
work in the choir, with a canopied doc^rway in 
the centre. It will replace the present heavy 
modern stone division between nave and choir, 
and give the long-desired vista from end to end 
of the cathedral. The organ will be arranged 
in two divisions, occupying the easternmost 
arch on either side of nave, and the old cases 
will be re-erected on the aisle fronts, north and 
south of the new structure. The organ speci- 
fication h;is been entrusted to Mr. Willis, of 

Great Crosby. — The Great Crosby schools 
for the Merchant Taylors' Company are situated 
on ten acres of land upon the high road from 
Liverpool to Southport. Close to the entrance 
gates is the lodge, the schools occupy the 
central part, and the masters' residence and 
gfarden the western extremity of the ground. 
Over the principal entrance is a handsome 
tower 16ft. square and 90ft. high, containing 
in the upper part a chamber for clock and beU. 
The clock face, 5ft. 3in. diameter, will be illu- 
piinated. The gable over the entrance itself 
is ornamented with carving, and the centre 
panel contains the arms of the Merchant 
Taylors' Company. The style is mediaeval, 
executed in red brickwork, with dressings and 
ornaments of Stourton stone. The roofs are 
covered with banded green Westmoreland 
slates. The building is to accommodate 250 
boys, and is arranged for enlargement to receive 
400. The grounds are planted with a large 
variety of trees and shrubs, and are prepared 
for two cricket grounds, fives-courts, &c. The 
cost of the whole will be about i;i7,000. The 
architects are Messrs. Lockwood and Mawson, 
of London and Bradford; the principal con- 
tractor, Mr. T. Webster, Bootle, near Liver, 
pool; Mr. W. E. Bennett was the clerk of 
works. The opening ceremony took place on 
Thursday, June 2", 1878. 

London School Board.— At the meeting of 
this board on Wednesday the tender of Messrs. 
Atherton and Latta, of Chrisp-road, Poplar, 
was accepted at .£5,886, for the erection of a 
school for 600 children in Dalgleish-street, 
Limehouse ; the tender is at the low rate for a 
London school of i;8 ISs. Od. per head for the 
actual building, and is the lowest of fifteen 
received. It was decided to erect a central 
correspondent's ofBce for the Greenwich division 
at Tanner's-hill school, Deptford, at an esti- 
mated cost of i323. After a long discussion, 
and a division, it was decided to accede to the 
request of the National Health Society that the 
playgrounds attached to the board schools in 
Lower Chapraan-street, Berner-street, and 
Old Castle street— all in Whitechapel— should 
be opened to all children on Saturday after- 
noons and summer evenings, on payment of 5s. 
per week by the society for the necessary super- 
intendence. The works committee were autho- 
rised to expend the following sums for supplying 
the necessary furniture and fittings to theunder^ 
mentioned new schools respectively: — Har- 
grave-park-road (infants' department), ^84. 
13s. 2d., 154 school places, lOs. lid. per head ; 
Eandall-place, Koan-street, Cxreenwioh, JE603 
lOs. 8d., 763 school places, 15s. lid. per head ; 
Teesdale-street, Bethnal-green, £4,76 12s. 6d., 
1,257 school places; Camberwell-road, (boys' 
and girls' departments), .£371 Is. 6d., 360 
school places, 203. 8d. per head; and Stephen- 
Street, Lisson-grove (enlargement), ^6371 6s., 

■136 school places, 179. per head. It was ex- 
plained that the wide differences in the cost 
per head arose from the furnishing or omission 
of infants' departments in which the outlay is 
much lower than in the other departments. 
The following new schools or enlargements 
will be opened immediately after the mid- 
summer holidays: — Middle-row, Kensal-new- 
town ; Marlborough-road, Chelsea ; Caledoni;in- 
road ; Hargrave-park-road (infants' depart- 
ment) ;, Roan-street ; Teesihile- 
street, Bethnal-green ; Beresford-atreet, Wal- 
worth ; Camberwell-road (boys' and girls' 
departments) ; Lyham-road, Brixton ; Henri- 
etta-street, Manchester-square ; Stephen-street, 
Lisson-grove (enlargement of boys' and girls' 
departments) ; and Mary-street, Bromley by 
Bow (enlargement). 

Liverpool. — The Koman Catholic church in 
High Park-street, Toxteth-park, which has 
been in course of erection for the past two 
years, and is dedicattd to Our Lady of Mount 
Carmel, was opened on Saturday. The edifice, 
which was designed by Mr. O'Byme, and has 
been erected at a cost of about .£7,000, is in 
the Early Decorated style, the exterior being 
of red compressed brick, with Runcorn stone 
dressings. The dimensions are 110ft. by 60ft., 
and the church has seat accommodation for 
850 persons. The internal walls are at present 
perfectly plain, but the pillars are composed 
of polished Aberdeen granite. The capitals 
have been carved by Mr. J. A. Hanley, of 
Chester, and the style may be characterised as 
a bread treatment of Early English adapted 
from Westminster Abbey and LlandafE Cathe- 
dral. The builders are Messrs. Roberts and 

MAGHnLL. — The foundation stone of a new 
church, to be dedicated to St. Andrew, was 
recently laid at Maghull, near Ormskirk. It 
is being built in Early English style ; the total 
length is 127ft. x 51ft. wide, exclusive of tower, 
and 45ft. high to apex of roof. The nave mea- 
sures 69ft. X 24ft. 6in.; the north and south 
aisles each 69ft. x 10ft., and chancel 27ft. x 
20ft. 6in. There are also organ chamber and 
chapel, each 15ft. x 14ft., and a vestry 13ft. 
square, and the foundations of tower, 21ft. 
square, are laid at west end. The church is 
being built of Yorkshire shoddy walling and 
Stourton stone dressings, the chancel being 
faced internally with white stone. Accommo- 
dation will be provided for 574 worshippers, the 
estimated cost, without tower and vestry, being 
£6,000. Mr. Jas. F. Doyle, of Liverpool, is the 
architect; Mr. Samuel Gunning, of the same 
town, the clerk of works; and Mr. James 
Leslie, of Miller's Bridge, Bootle, the con- 

RoTHLET. — The parish church of St. John 
the Baptist, Eothley, has been reopened after 
restoration. The architect was Mr. R. Rey. 
nolds Rowe, P.S.A., of Cambridge, the Ely dio- 
cesan surveyor. The tower masonry has been 
thoroughly repaired, and the battlements 
renewed in Ketton stone ; the bells have been 
entirely rehung, new fioors and a new roof pro- 
vided. Two of the piers, and the bases of all 
the piers of the arcade between the nave and the 
north aisle were crushed. The clerestory wall 
has been shored up, and the defective masonry 
renewed in hard stone, upon huge masses of 
concrete. The roofs of the nave and the north 
aisle were entirely renewed and re-covered 
with lead. A new stone porch has been added 
on the north side. The chancel has been 
entirely rebuilt on the old foundations ; the 
ancient windows and buttresses have been in- 
corporated with the new work. The whole of- 
the interior masonry has been restored, the 
walls replastered, and the windows newly glazed 
Mr. Charles W. Hunt was the clerk of the works. 
RuQELET. — A fortnight since the foundation 
stones of new public buildings at Rugeley were 
laid. The style is Geometric, or MidcUe Pointed 
Gothic. The materials to be used are best 
pressed red bricks, with Bath stone dressings ; 
and for the roofs Whitland Abbey green 
slates, with crestings and finials of cast iron. 
The contract for the erection has been taken 
by Messrs. Dawson and Bradney, of Wolver- 
hampton, at je7,000. Mr. W. L. Eoulkes, of 
Birmingham, is the architect. 

Seacombe. — A Presbyterian chapel was 
recently opened in Liscard-road, Seacombe, 

for the use of the Welsh population. The 
building is cruciform in plan, consisting of nave 
and transepts, with vestry and necessary lava- 
tories and cloak-rooms, &c., at back. The 
accommod.ation at present is for 270 in the 
nave, to which may be added 120 who can sit in 
the transepts. Immediately over the inter- 
section of the nave with transepts is a fli^che 
rising above the roof about 20ft. The whole of 
the external masonry consists of limestone — 
that for the dressed portion being obtained 
from the Penmon quarries, near Beaumaris, 
Anglesea ; and the shoddies or ashlars from 
Mrs. Eoulkcs's quarries at Graig, Denbigh. 
The gas pendants and iron hinges, &c., were 
supplied by Messrs. Jones and Willis, of Bir- 
mingham, from special designs supplied by tho 
architect. Messrs. Hart, Son, and Peard 
and Co., of London, supplied the entrance 
gates, railings, &c. The porches are laid with 
Maw's tiles. The clerk of works was Mr. J. 
Jones, of Egremont, and the whole of the work 
was carried out under the superintendence of 
the architect, Mr. K. G. Thomas, of Menai- 

Sevenoaks. — On the 26th ult. the Right 
Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P., laid the foundation 
stone of the Institution for the Education of 
Daughters of Missionaries, which is intended 
for the reception of 100 girls of all ages and 
denominations. The silver trowel employed was 
presented by the architect, Mr. E. C. Robins, 
F.S.A., Adelphi. The design is in the Old 
English style. The building will be faced with 
red bricks (red Dumfries stone being used for 
the chief entrance only). The upper or third 
story will be faced with vertical tiling. Tiles 
will cover the roof, with wooden verge boards 
to the gables. The plan of the building is a 
parallelogram, with an open court in the centre, 
which, on the ground floor, is divided by the 
intervention of the dining hall. At the north 
end of the dining hall are the kitchen and 
domestic offices ; on the south side is the chief 
entrance, on the right and left of which are 
the chief mistresses' and committee and recep- 
tion rooms and library, forming the south side 
of the quadrangle. On the east side are the 
school and class rooms for the junior, and on 
the left side are the school and class rooms for 
the senior division of the school. A small 
infirmary is situated at the north-west angle, 
connected by a covered way with the main 
building. The laundry and fuel stores are 
situated on the north side of the kitchen court, 
which intervenes between them and the 
domestic offices, housekeeper's rooms, and 
cookery school. The upper floors are arranged 
for dormitories. The cost of the land, founda- 
tions, lodge, and fencing amounts to JE5,000, 
and a further jElO.OOO is required to complete 
the building. 

St. Alban's Cathedral. — The scaffolding 
has very recently been removed from the 
north side of the nave of this building, and 
the beautiful proportions of the work of Abbot 
Trumpington in the clerestory arcade, recently 
restored, can be seen. Workmen are now fixing 
the stone groining of the south aisle of the 
nave, one side of which will rest against the 
wall that has been recently restored to a per- 
pendicular position. It is now intended to pro- 
ceed with the restoration of the Early English 
southern front, which, from the perishable 
nature of the Totternhoe stone employed in its 
construction, is in a sad state of decay. In the 
repairs a harder stone from Chilmark, near 
Salisbury, of the same colour, will be used. The 
levels of the floor will also undergo alteration, 
bringing them back to their original form. of the great western porch will be lowered 
.some 2ft. 6in., and immediately inside the great 
doors a noble flight of five steps extending all 
across nave and aisles wUl be fixed, forming a 
grand feature at the entrance. Where excava- 
tions have been made in the porch in order to 
find the ancient level, beautiful moulded bases 
of Purbeck marble have been discovered. They 
have been for centuries hidden beneath the 
comparatively modern pavement. These are 
the work of Abbot John de Cella, who died in 
1214, and in future, of course, will be exposed 
to view. The Abbey Restoration Committee 
met at the Court-house, St. Alban's, a fort- 
night since, when it was determined to place a 
new high-pitched roof on the nave, extending 


July 26, 1878. 

from the great western porch to the tower. 
This very great work, renewing the form which 
the roof presented during the first 400 years of 
its existence, up to about 14.40, when the then 
Abbot (Whethamstede) lowered it to its present 
pitch, will require the exercise of a considerable 
amount of skill and caution. It is proposed 
to retain aU parts of the old ceiling which can 
be preserved. 

Steetton Sugwas. — A new church has been 
erected for the parish of Stretton Sugwas, and 
is to be consecrated on August 6. The building 
has been erected by Mr. James Bowers, of 
Hereford, from designs by Mr. W. Chick, the 
architect. The material of the walls is old red 
sandstone, and that of the window jambs and 
tracery, inferior arches, string-courses, plinths, 
&c., a yellowish oolite from the Ham Hill Quar- 
ries, Somersetshire. The whole of the material 
of the old church has been made use of ; five of 
the fifteenth century windows have been 
inserted in the north aisle, and three Norman 
doorways do duty in the new church. The old 
timber tower, with its " black and white work," 
erected about the year 1672, has been taken 
down and re-erected on a massive stone base. 
Hit. high. The nave and north aisle will be 
paved with Gregory's wood blocks. The chancel 
will belaid with Messrs. Godwin's tiles. 

Woolwich. — The new chancel of St. 
Michael and All Angels' Church, Woolwich, 
which has been added to an iron temporary 
church, as the first section of a permanent 
building, was consecrated a fortnight since. 
The chancel is 50£t. in height, and has lofty 
clerestory and groined roof ; the clerestory 
windows are a reproduction of the 13th century 
ones in Exeter Cathedral. Built in the main 
of brick, the dressings are of Bath stone, and 
the steep pitched roof is covered with red 
tiles. The internal walls are enriched with 
bands of coloured tQes. The lower portion 
of the reredos is finished, and is of Bath stone, 
with Devon marble slab and columns. The 
flooring is of Webb's tiles. The east and two 
side windows have been filled with stained 
glass by Mr. Drake, of Exeter, the subjects 
being the " Ministrations of Angels." The 
chancel seats 250 persons, and there are also a 
south chancel aisle, south-east vestry and base 
of tower, adjoining the lower part of which, 
opening into chancel, form the organ chamber. 
Mr. J. W. Walter was the architect, and 
Messrs. Kirk and Randall, of Woolwich, the 
buUders. The gas fittings and cross were 
supplied by Messrs. Hart, Sou, and Peard. 


The Ventilation of the House of Lords. — 
In the House of Lords, on Monday last, Lord 
Granville adverted to the oppressive state of the 
atmosphere in the House of Lords on Thursday last 
during the ^reat debate on the Eastern Question ; 
and he asked the Lord Chancellor to use his 
influence with his colleagues to induce the Board of 
Works to improve the ventilation of the House. 
The Lord Chancellor sympathised with Lord 
Granville to a certain degree in the blame he had 
thrown on the ventilation of the House, and would 
endeavour to ascertain through the medium of the 
Board of Works whether any improvement conld 
be made in its ventilation. 

OP SCIENCE, most of them from the pens of the leadine 
Sciuntiac and Technical Authorities of the day. Thousands of 

tiSc papers, i 
formation have also appeared c 

The earliest and 

scientific discoveries and mechanical 

information respecting t 

ioeipts and 
i period. 

. . be found in 

pages, and its large circulation renders it the best medium 

■■ advertisers who wish their announcements to be brought 

fie woricers, 

— -^- . -, et, Covent- 

Karden. W.C. 

e of manufacturers, mechanic 


[We do not hold ourselves responsible for the opiniona of 

oiir correspondents. The Editor respectfully requests 

that all oominiinications should be drai:'n up as bi-iefly 

as possible, as there are many claimants upon the space 

aUotted to correspondence.] 

All letters should be addreascd to the EDITOR, 31, 

To OuK Readeks.— We shall feel obliged to any of our 
readers who will favour us with brief notes of works 
contemplated or-iu progress in the provinces. 

Cheques and Post-office Orders to be made payable to 
f. Passmoke Edwards. 


The charge for advertisements is 6d. per line of eight 
words (the first line couutiug as two). No advertisement 
inserted for less than half-a-crown. Special terms for 
series of more than sis insertions can be ascertained on 
application to the Publisher. 

Front Page Advertisements and Paragraph Advertise- 
ments Is. per line. No front page or paragraph 
Advertisement inserted for less than 53. 

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office not later than 5 p.m. on Thursday. 

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N.B. — American and Belgian subscribers 
to remit their subscriptions by International P.O.O., 
to advise the p\iblisher of the date and amount of their 
remittance. If the last-mentioned precaution is omitted, 
some difficulty is very likely to arise in obtaining the 
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numbers, are commenced from the nest number published 
after the receipt of the subscription. 

Cases for binding the hall-yearly volumes, 23. each. 

Recfived.— F. and Co.— M. R. Co.— R. R. G.— J. R. C— 
F. W. U.S. M. H. C— P. Bros.— R. P. C. Co.— B. and 
B.— De L. and Co.— E. S. and Co.— W. E. R.— W. H. K. 
— H. McE. and Co.— J. H. 

0. B. (We refer " O. B." to " Hunt's Law of Boundaries 
and Fences." Consent must be first obtained of adj oin- 
ing owner. Under the Building Act a " building owner " 
has to give three months' notice of his intention.) 

Erratum. — In article, in last number, on " Chapter 
Houses," for "Ceverham " read *' Cockersand." 

and, as the plans were under motto, we may 
reasonably suppose, from the numbers who saw 
them, that some did so. 

The selection of Mr. Trevail's design is easily 
accounted for, as it was the only one with a 

ground-floor " arrangement for the large hall 
and the council chamber, with the municipal 
offices comprised in the existing building, or 
that was likely to be carried out within the 
proposed outlay — points which must have been 
vital in any selection. I write this in the in- 
terests of fairness to all parties. — I am, &c.. 
An Outsideb. 


Dear Sik, — I can quite understand that a 
little disappointment will be felt by the unsuc- 
cessful competitors in the above : this is but 

All the competitors who stated that additional 
time would be of service to them were allowed 
to retain their drawings until the time fixed for 
the meeting of the committee of the society. 
The society met on July 1st, and confirmed the 
report of the committee, awarding the student- 
ship to Mr. Horsfield. and on July 2nd the fol- 
lowing letter was sent to each of the competitors 
the fuU report of the committee being also 
published in the British Archilect, in the issue 
of July 5th. 

It is the desire of the Society of Architects, 
as much as possible, to further the interests of 
the students, and I think an apology is due to 
it from your correspondent for his extremely 
unjust letter. I think he will find very few 
who will agree with his sweeping charge 
against it, and I hope not viany who will 
endorse that portion which reflects on — Tours, 
&c., Jno. Holden, Hon. Sec. M.S.A. 

July 22nd, 1878. 

Tkavellinq Studentship. 

Dear Sir, — I am requested by the Council of our 
Society to inform yon that the travelling stadent- 
ship for this year has beeu awarded to Mr. J. N. 
Horsfield. They, at the same time, de-sire me to 
express their satisfaction with the drawings sub- 
mitted by yon in the preliminary competition, and 
which have evidently been prepared with much care. 
Should the studentship be repeated another year, 
they hope that your name will be again foaad 
amongst the competitors. — I am, &c., 

July 2, 1878. Jno. Holden, Hon. Sec. 


Unstamped Aoreements. — At a recent trial 
in a County Court held in the North Biding of 
Yorks, before Judge Turner, a joiner sued a 
School Board for ^61-5, which was retained by the 
architect in his certificate for delaying the works, 
as fixed compensation for such delay. In the first 
place the joiner was nonsuited, because the agree- 
ment was insufficiently stamped — viz., it had on the 
face only one 6d. .stamp for six contractors ; there- 
fore, before the plaintiff could proceed with his case, 
he had to pay XIO penalty, with £1 for expenses 
of stamping, &c. The memorandum of agreement 
required a 6i. stamp for each contractor's signa- 
ture, besides the stamping of general conditions and 
plans. When the case was opened out, which occu- 
pied over S hours in hearing, after referring to a 
great many cases in point, &c., and the Judge, 
proving to the hoard's legal adviser that the board 
was held responsible for their architect as agent, 
the architect was unable to prove that the joiner 
completely stopped the works — therefore a verdict 
was given for the plaintiff with costs. But the 
costs did not include the penalty, because the joiner 
was not the first to sign across the stamps — there- 
fore the agreement was null and void. 


To the Editor of the Building News. 
Sir, — In glancing over the sketch for above 
in your last week's issue, I note a few points 
which I should like information upon : — 1. Are 
the chimneys constructed of brick or of con- 
crete slabs ? 2. If of the former, as they 
appear to be in the sketch, what foundation 
have the two end stalks (where, by-the-bye, six 
flues are shown in lieu of five) ? 3. Are the 
windows flush on the outside as shown in the 
elevation (more particularly that of the mission 
church), or do they project as shown on the 
plans ?— I am, &c., " Concrete Slab." 

Sir, — As a constant reader of the Building 
News, and a resident of Bodmin, I was in- 
terested in the remarks relative to the above in 
your last issue. With your permission I will 
explain, knowing, as I do, the whole circum- 
stances of the case, that Mr. Trevail was not 
so much to blame as has been represented. 
Happening to be passing through the town on 
other business he was correctly informed that 
the plans bad been open to public inspection, 
and very naturally expressed a wish to see them, 
as, I take it, would be accorded to any one 
now visiting Yarmouth, where designs for the 
new town buildings are under inspection. The 
person whose name has been associated with 
his merely performed the function of opening 
the door, and the inspection lasted about five 
minutes without comment of any kind. I am 
quite sure that other competitors in the town 
or locality would have had similar facilities, 

The Cork Town Council, at their last meeting, 
appointed Mr. Cotton, CE., to report on the 
drainage of the city, and also on the pollution of the 
River Lee, at a fee of five guineas a day. At the 
same meeting one hundred guineas were voted to Mr. 
Walker, the city surveyor, as an honorarium for 
services rendered in connection with the Artisans' 
Dwellings Act improvement scheme about to be 
carried out at a cost of .£.50,000. 

A new Wesleyan chapel is about to be built at 
Askern, West Biding. It will be constructed of 
brick, with stone facings, and will cost .£1,500. 
Messrs. Perry and Co., of Castleford, are the 

The Preston Corporation have accepted five 
tenders from Messrs. S. B. Wilding and Sons, and 
one from Messrs. Parker and Ingram, being the 
lowest received, for painting the exteriors of the 
several properties belonging to the town. 

Memorial stones of a new chapel for the United 
Free Methodists were laid at Betford last week. 
The building is to be erected on the site of the 
present one in Union-street ; it will seat 600 persons, 
and will cost ^61,600. Mr. John AUsopp, of 
Worksop, is the architect, and Mr. Jonathan Fish, 
of Retford, the contractor. 

Mr. Holman Hunt has returned to London after 
a long residence in Palestine. 

The memorial stone of a new schoolroom, to be 
built in connection with the Baptist Chapel in New 
London-road, Chelmsford, was laid on Tuesday week. 
The Eev. S. K. Bland, of Beccles, Suffolk, is the 

St. Thomas's Church, Gawber, was reopened last 
week after restoration, under the care of Meaars. 
Dixon and Moxon, architects, of Barnsley. 

A new lecture on "Life, Health, and Disease" 
was delivered at the Polytechnic by Mr. J. H. 
Pepper, tor the first time, on Wednesday evening. 
Dr. B. W. Eichardson presided, and at the close 
expressed his gratification that this institution had 
at length attempted to instruct as well as amuse; 
he trusted that this new departure marked the 
commencement of useful work in popularising sani- 
tary science. 

July 26, 1878. 



[5439.]— Bmoke Prevention at Briok-kllns.— 

How can smoke be prevented or rednced from brick- 
bnrningr in obloiipr open-lire down-dmuifht kilns, so 
as not to bo a nuisance to uciirhbouriup houses ? 
Is there any contrivance for tlii3 purpose, or are 
there any special instructions to bo given to the 
men who manage the kilns ?— i'. W. 

[5440.] — Peter Harrison.— Can any of the 
readers of the Building Nkws assist me to infor- 
mation in rejrard to the life and works of Peter 
Harrison, architect P Ho came to America and 
settled at Newport, K.I., where be erected many fine 
edifices, both public and private. His works are 
Classic in di-sixu, well planned, and remarkablv pure 
in detail. Amon? others may be mentioned tlie 
Redwood Library, State House, and City Hall. He 
married and became collector of this port, and also 
of the port of Xew Haven, where he died in 177.'i. 
Tradition asserts that he was an assistant to Sir 
.7ohn Vanbrugh in the buildinsof Blenheim Palace. 
But little is known in America in regard to his 
early life, and I am dcsirousito collect what facts are 
still to be obtained. If he were at any time con- 
nected with the works at Blenheim, perhaps some 
member of the old V:inbrngh Club can assist mo.— 
G. C. M. J., U.S., Newport, E.I. 

[SMI.]— Dilapidations.— At the end of a seven 
years' lease, containing the usual clause to paint in- 
side during the term, can the landlord charge for 
graining and varnishing also .- And, supposing the 
tenant has not painted, but left the old grained 
work merely cleaned and varnished, is the landlord 
to charge for painting only, and have the graining 
thus put out :■- (3r does the fact of work being origi- 
nally " grained " take it out of the meaning of 
parts usually " painted," and thus prevent the 
tenant from touching it ?— Kilbubn. 

[■SJ4-'.J— St. Magnus' Cathedral, Kirkwall, 
Orkney. — Can any of your readers kindly inform 
me as to whether measured drawings of thisbuilding 
have been published ?— Cakamel. 

[5 ^IS]— Swiss Cottages. —Having bought a 
small plot of land in a pleasant and romantic 
locality, T wish to put up a few neat Swiss cottages 
to rent £'0 to £m per annum. Where shall I find 
some suitable designs .-— C. B. 

[5144.]— Proportion.— Will some reader kindly 
mtorm me the best method of studying proportion 
in architecture ?— Student. 

[5445.]— Sketching. -Will some reader kindly 
give me a few hints on sketching— for instance, the 
interior of a church, also exterior views of the same ? 


[5446.]— Pire-resisting Stones.— I notice, in 
yonr issue of the 6th inst.. that under the heading 

Protection of Life from Fire," Mr. Trickett says 
we shou d not use " soft limestone " for staircases 
by which I presume he means " Portland." He 
would greatly benefit ourselves and a number of 
your readers if he would give the names of the stones 
which Kdl stand fire. We are continually being 
asked this question, and one client wo told that 

solid oak" steps were the best "stone" in the 
world, and we used it, and he paid for it ; but, still, the 
question IS a serious one, and the information Mr. 
Irickett could give would be valuable to aU in the 
trade.— Bui LDERS. 

[5447]— Crete EnameUing.- What is it, and 
the cost f Is it better than distemper ?— A. Z. 

[5448.]— Stain and Wax Floors.— What is the 
best mode of tr.ating white deal doors with stain 
and bees-wax r— A. Z. 

Ionic (Roman) column, and is it necessary in brick 
pilasters to give a swelling p I find some of the 
Queen Anne revivalists ignore altogether the pro- 
portions generally used.- PlliLCs. 

[5455.]— Garth and Chevet.— I shall bo glad 
for the following information : — What is the 
origin of the term "garth" applied to n cloister: 
also if any reader of the Building News wonld 
kindly give a list of a few chevets noted for any 
peculiarity of plan or design f— Student. 

[»449.]— Cardinal Points.— Can any of vour 
surveying readers expUiin the meaning of the 
cardinal points of the compass in the theodolite 
Being reversed on the instrument f— Plain Theo- 
dolite 6in. 

[5450.] - Copying Apparatus. — Information 
with regard to tL- above wUl oblige. To obviate 
the expense of lithography, I want a serviceable and 
eHective apparatus which will give about half a 
dozen copies of quantities, ice, from one written 
copy.— E. T. 

t^^y— Tapering of High Columns or Shafts. 
— Wliat rules are usually adopted for this purpose ? 
lake, for example, the Duke of York's Column or 
l^ddystqne Lighthouse. The idea is to follow out 
the outhne of the bole of an oak— not a regular taper 
from bottom to top. Any information will be gladly 
received by a— Student. 

[5452.]— Cement Slab Cottages.— I shall be 
obliged to know at what cost this class of building, 
described in yonr last issue, can be erected ; if 
estimates are prepared by the patentee, also how the 
ornamental timbering is formed and fixed ? Is not 
a plinth or wall necessary to rest the studs ? I do 
.not quite understand how the inside slabs are 
finished at the .ioints.— Enquikek. 

[5453.]— Old St. Paul's.— Is there anv anthenti- 
TOted plan published of the old cathedral showing 
the dimensions and position of the cloisters and 
chapter-house r— Akch.i;ology. 

[5451.]— Proportion of Column.— What is con- 
sidered to be the right proportion and entasis for an 

[5126.]— Consecration Crosses. — There is a con- 
secration cross on the south side of Exeter Cathe- 
dral — a fioriated Greek cross. — M. 

[5^20.]- Consecration Crosses. — In reply to the 
above query I have extracted the following from the 
I'ciuuj Post, page 82, 1872:—" There are consecra- 
tion crosses in the chapel of Leycester'a Hospital, 
Warwick. The chapel is over the weat gate- 
way of the town, and is dedicated to St. .Tames. 
Ton dedication crosses remain at Moorlinch Church, 
Somorsetshiro. Other examples are on the external 
walls of Salisbury Cathedral, Edendon Church, 
Wilts; Cannington Church, Somerset; Brent 
Pelham Church, Herts ; in one of the piers of St. 
Mary's, New Shoreham, Sussex ; and ou the north 
and west walls of Amberloy Church, in the same 
county. There is a very ancient example of dedica- 
tion or consecration cross on the base of the old 
round tower of Brechin Cathedral, in Scotland." — 
C. F. W. 

[5130.]— Heat Through Walls.-Fill the cavity 
with powdered chalk and silicate cotton (slag wool). 
These are both non-conductors of heat. — H. Sorby. 
[5131.]— Keeping Down a Spring of Water. — 
The best preventive against water breaking through 
such a floor as " Perplexed " mentions, wo'ild be to 
line the sides and bottom of the chamber with 
flanged cast-iron plates, bolted together, and joints 
staunched with red lead putty. In fact it would be 
bedding a cistern inside walls. It wonld be necessary 
to have the sides of cistern higher than water line, 
and any space between plates and masonry can be 
made good with Portland cement. I have seen 
water spring through 12in. thick concrete flooring. — 
' MiCHL. Hawnet. 

[.5435.]— Winchester Cathedral-- If "Archi- 
tect's Pupil " applies to Mr. John Colson. F,E.I.B.A., 
architect to the Dean and Chapter of Winchester 
Cathedral, he would doubtless obtain the permission 
he seeks. To make sketches of St. Cross write to 
the authorities of the hospital. I have sketched at 
both places, and had no difficulty in doing so. — 
G. H. G. 

[5137.]— Professional Charges. — "Beta" does 
not explain in what relation he stands to the board, 
or whether any agreement, written or implied, exists. 
For the small contract mentioned the ordinarj' £o 
per cent, is quite inadequate, and " Beta " ought to 
charge his time and expenses. He is certainly 
justified in taking a higher charge on the second 
contract, if he is not bound by any agreement with 
the board. The customary practice is to make an 
agreement with the board for such services, and in 
absence of this to charge for time. — Surveyor. 

[5138.]— Lights.— To secure the old light to the 
adjoining property, there is a rule to the effect that 
the new building should be set back such a distance 
that the old window shall receive all the light above 
the angle of 45'. But the decision of the courts 
have been made irrespective of any rule, and an ad- 
joining builder can be restrained from erecting any 
building so as to darken or obstruct the free access 
of light to the ancient windows enjoyed previously. 
If "A. T. T." will explain in detail the circum- 
stances of his case, a more definite answer may be 
given.— G. 


Patent Ventilator or Air-Propeller, for 
the int-oduction of Cold or Warm Air into Dwell- 
ings, &c. 

The Jlachine may be seen in action at their Show- 
rooms, 127, Regent-street, London, W. 

The apparatus consists of a drum with a doable 
set of fans, which are worked by a fly-wheel placed 
in the centre, and on the same axle as fans. The 
motive for this fly-wheel is arrived at by a small jet 
of water being directed ou to it, causing both the 
wheel and fans to revolve with great velocity, the 
air passing through the machine at a rate equal to 
2,500 feet per minute, if desired, according to size of 

N.B.— The above Machine may be used either as 
an exhauster or injector, as may be preferred, or 
both objects combined. 

Also Patentees of the Fireclay Earners for Gas 
Fires and Cooking Purposes, and Patentees of the 
Tnbular Gas Boiler for Baths and Conservatories, &c. 

Designers and Manufacturers of Lamps and 

Office and Works, 155, IQueen's-road, Bays- 
water, W. [Advt.] 

Sanitary Pkogi:ess in Birmincsiiam.- Tho 
report of Dr. Hill, medical officer of health for 
Birmingham for the year 1877, shows that improvo- 
moat is continuing to be made in the sanitary stftto 
of the borough. House construction has. Dr. Hill 
says, made under the bye-laws adopted in 1876, for 
regulating the construction of new streets and new 
buildings within tho borough, considerable advances, 
foremost among which is the abolition of the back- 
to-back system. Tho provision of more space around 
the dwelling is another groat improvement, but 
drainage has not yet received sullicient attention. 
So badly, as a rule, are drains couBtrnctcd in 
Birmingham that they fail even to carry off slops, 
and entail the further evil of bringing into bouses 
the dangerous gases from tho sewers, or those 
engendered within the drains themselves. The lead- 
ing defects of a common drain are that it has no 
trap, or the trap is upon such a bad principle that 
it allows drain air to come out of the drain and pre- 
vents liquids from going into it j this is especially 
so with tho common belt-trap. If it bo of brickwork 
the masonry is often badly constructed, and allows 
leakage into the soil, so as to contaminate air and 
water ; and if it consists of so-called ."ianitary pipes, 
the numerous inevitable joints are left without lute 
or puddle, and afford as many points of exit for both 
li*iuids and gases, occasioning dampness and 
impurity of soil and walls and floors. This is the 
simplest case, snch as is commonly presented by 
small-house property ; a consideration of the defects 
in better class property, where the luxuries of sinks, 
bathroom, lavatory, and w.c. are indulged in, woald 
reveal still more prolific sources of danger. In tho 
laying of external drains. Dr. Hill is more than ever 
convinced that the work should be subject in every 
case to supervision by a competent corporation 
officer, a step necessary to guard against the indiffer- 
ence and ignorance, and in some cases the careless- 
ness, if not dishonesty, of tho persons concerned. 
The question involves the purity or impurity of tho 
soil over the whole town, and the condition of the 
soil is one affecting the general tone of the public 
health. The action the Corporation is taking to 
abolish ashpits, dumb wells, and other surface 
nuisances, will not be complete until the surface 
drainage is also dealt with. It is satisfactory to 
learn from the annual averages tabulated in the 
report that the character of the water supply exhibits 
a progressive improvement ; during 1877 olJG private 
wells were closed as being polluted. In the same 
period six miles of sewers were constructed in streets 
taken to by the Corporation, and three miles in 
streets not taken to, and this extension of sewering 
is stiU being continued. The abolition of the 
noisome and dangerous ashpits is being rapidly 
effected, and the privies attached to them are in pro- 
cess of conversion into pan closets. The number of 
pans introduced during the year is 6,64S ; the total 
number introduced being at the end of the year, 22,GG8. 
The paving of the roads and footpaths has been very 
considerably extended, and constitutes a great and 
much-needed improvement. At the end of the year 
the length of streets in the borough was lfl3J miles ; 
of which 151 miles had been taken to by the Corpora- 
tion. In the former and through private lands tho 
sowers measured about 129 miles, in streets not taken 
up, 35 miles. Ten miles of the carriage ways are 
paved, while two miles on tramway routes are partly 
paved and partly macadamised. 

Helliwell's Patent System 

OUT PUTTY, and without exposing any outside 
woodwork to paint, and NEW SYSTEM of COVER. 

The fasteners are brass or copper. The peculiar 
arrangement of the glass covers the whole of the 
woodwork, and only tho small fastener is visible ; 
therefore the roof is indestructible, and outside 
painting unnecessary. The squares of glass can be 
easily removed, and the whole taken out and cleaned 
by any inexperienced person. Breakage is impossi- 
ble except through carelessness or accident. 

The glazing is more air-tight than the old putty 
system, yet any amount of ventilation can bo given. 

Old roofs may be re-glazed on this principle, and 
roofs are covered with slates or zinc on this system. 

Extract from Building News :" Mr. T.W. Helli- 
well, of Brighouse, has recently patented and intro- 
duced a new system of glazing and covering roofs, 
which is certainly superior to anything of the kind 
we have seen before .... and it will, in our 
opinion, supersede any other system before the 

Important references and all particulars from the 
patentee, T. W. HELLIWELL, Brighouse, York- 
shire; and 19, Parliament-street, London,— [Advt.] 



JuxT 26, 1878. 

Out Of5ce €Mt 

We regret to record the sudden death, which 
took place last Monday at Hampton Court, of 
Mr. W. Wyke Smith, solicitor to the Metro- 
politan Board of Works, of angina pectoris. 
The deceased was engaged previous to 18G1 by 
the Commissioners of Sewers, and since that 
date has held the appointment which death has 
now left vacant. He was much respected and 
well known by a large class of architects in 
London, and has on many occasions been of 
considerable service to the Board of Works. We 
hear from his assistant, Mr. Napier, that he 
appeared in usually good health on Saturday 
last when he attended at his office. Mr. Smith 
was in his 70th year. 

Eye church, as most readers know, is to be 
restored. The Athenceum protests, as usual, 
because the building is " the cynosure of an 
ancient town " — whatever that may be. " Mr. 
Street," it is declared, " may readily produce 
a more beautiful building than the ancient 
structure at Kye, but not even his genius and 
learning can endow a new church with that 
grace of time's bestowing which clothes the 
ancient walls, piers, pillars, windows, and door- 
ways. To remove the old pews and replace them 
by stalls will by no means add to the comfort of 
the parishioners, or to the profitableness of the 
sermons delivered from the fine and character- 
istic pulpit, which has been good enough for 
six generations of townsmen and their pastors, 
and is a capital example of its kind. A smartly 
restored church, standing among the old tomb- 
stones in the profoundly impressive graveyard, 
must needs to be out of keeping, unless it is 
intended to ' restore ' the tombs, or abolish 
them altogether. It does not seem that there 
is the sligtesl need for the proposed operations 
at Kye, and it is to be hoped that funds may 
not be forthcoming for this transmogrification. 
If it is really needful to repair any part of the 
structure, that would be better done by an 
engineer than by architects." 

The Surveyor of the Poplar District, Mr. 
Eobert Parker, has introduced a new system of 
ventilating and purifying sewers, which has 
been lately referred to the Metropolitan Board 
of Works. The board referred the matter to 
their engineer. Sir Joseph Bazalgette, to report 
upon, and some experiments were undertaken 
by the officers of the board, the result of which 
was satisfactory. Mr. Parker's system may be 
described as a combination of the ventilating 
shaft and cowl inlet, by which means fresh air 
is forced into the sewer.'and drains, and mixes 
with the foul air, rendering it innocuous before 
it escapes at the outlets of the rain-water pipes 
or untrapped sinks. Mr. Parker fixes ventila- 
ting shafts, about 9in. diameter, with reversible 
cowls, so fixed as to force wind into the sewers 
and house drains. He also places ventilating 
pipes above the house drains at the rear of 
houses, and continues them to the roofs ; the 
soil-pipes are proposed to be ventilated by 
Jin. pipes, carried up as near to the closet 

pans as possible. When the sewers are 
surcharged, or the fluctuation of sewage 
is great, smaller shafts at convenient posi- 
tions are recommended, to convey the foul 
gases to the higher levels. Mr. Parker shows 
how the system can be applied to houses drained 
by a system of back drainage, in which a block 
of houses is connected by one drain. This he 
does by erecting at the end of such main drain 
a shaft with reversible cowl, so as to force the 
wind into the sewer and house drains. The 
draught or current is proposed to be regulated 
by a flap trap at the outlet of the drain, with 
an aperture in it 3in. in diameter. By this 
means the air would be forced into the sewer, 
and a portion would pass through the venti- 
lating pipes at the rear of the houses. We can 
recommend the plan proposed by Mr. Parker, 
in those cases especially where the houses are 
combined, and no proper system of disconnec- 
tion between sewers and house drains exists. 

The committee of the Liverpool Art Club 
propose to open an exhibition of the works of 
Josiah Wedgwood during the next session. To 
make this exhibition a useful representation of 
Wedgwood's productions it has been thought 
advisable, so far as it is possible, to exhibit the 
specimens in the order in which they are de- 
scribed by Wedgwood himself in the various 
editions of his " Catalogue." A committee, con- 
sisting of Messrs. William Bartlett, A. H. 
Brodrick, Charles T. Gatty, and T. Shadford 
Walker, has been appointed to carry out this 
plan, and they will feel much obliged if those 
who are collectors or possessors of old Wedg- 
good ware would give them some general 
description of the works they possess, and which 
they would be willing to exhibit. Communica- 
tions may be addressed to Mr. C. T. Gatty, at 
the Art Club, Myrtle-street, Liverpool, who is 
compiling the " Catalogue," and will gladly 
give any further information. 

The thirty-first annual meeting of the 
Builders' Benevolent Institution was held on 
Thursday, at Willis's Rooms, St. James's ; Mr. 
Dines in the chair, in the absence of Mr. Wm. 
Higgs, the president. The annual report (read 
by the Secretary, Major Brutton) congratulated 
the subscribers to the institution on the fact 
that although the past year had been one of 
almost general adversity in trade, the income 
of the institution had not been diminished. This 
was especially gratifying, in view of the recent 
increase in the amount of the annuities to 
pensioners. Six pensioners had been elected 
during the past year, and by the new rule, one 
widow of a pensioner had been placed on the 
list of annuitants without election. It was a 
source of much gratiflcation to the committee 
that they were enabled to recommend that all 
the candidates (three) presenting themselves 
in May last should be placed on the funds of 
the institution without the trouble and expense 
of canvassing. The institution was very much 
indebted to its president during the past year 
( Mr. William Higgs ). The balance-sheet 
showed that the total receipts for the year were 
.£2,4-15 2s. 2d., and the expenditure (including 
the purchase of ^£209 3 per cent, consols) to 

jei,773 7s. lid., leaving a balance of X671 
14s. 3d. in the hands of the bankers. The 
report and balance-sheet having been adopted, 
votes of thanks were accorded to the president, 
treasurer, trustees, committee, and other 
officers of the institution. Mr. Plucknett was 
re-elected treasurer, Mr. Keeble was asked, and 
consented, to undertake the duties of hon. sec. 
to the annual ball ; and Mr. Edward Conder 
was unanimously elected president for the 
ensuing year. It was announced that the 
annual dinner had been fixed for Thursday, 
Nov. 7th next, at the Freemasons' Tavern. 



{PatCDted in England, France, and Germany). 

Effect a Great Saving in Charging and Diicharging, and 

50 per cent, of Fuel. 


J ef a prey-^reen tint, i 


Holloway's Pills are especially recommended to 

all annoyed by tender bowels— a nource of constant weakness. 
If not Indicative of danger. Diarrhoea, flatulency, nausea, spa-sms, 
and dlBtension yield to the extraordinary power this purifying 
medicine eiertB over digestion and those subservient functions 
which extract the food's nutriment for the body's malnteuanoe. 



BonENEMOUTH.— For pnllinfT down old buildings and 
erecting three shops in the Commercial-road, Bourne- 
mouth, Hants, for Messrs. Clark. Messrs. Kemp-Welcb 
and Pinner, architects ; quantities supphed : — ^ 
Allow for old 



£5,273 12 


... JE90 . 

. £5,183 12 




... 210 . 

. 5,115 



... 110 . 

. 5,027 




... 120 . 

. 4,971 

Hoare and Co. ... 



... 250 . 

. 4,950 

Jones and Son ... 


... 100 . 

. 4,950 

Jenkins and Son 



... 150 . 

. 4,900 




. 4,880 

Watts and Ellison 

4,779 6 


... 130 . 

. 4,649 6 

Hammerton & Co. 



... 250 . 

. 4,530 

Minty (accepted) 



... 190 . 

. 4,320 

Camberwell.— For the erection of Sunday schools for 
Uenmark-place Chapel, Cold Harbour-lane. Mr. Herbert 
D. Appleton, architect; quantities supplied by Messrs. 
Corderoy and Sandull : — 

Huydon £3.087 

ThompsoQ 2,924 

AnseU 2,874 

Downs, W 2,733 

Tarrant and Sons 3,6W. 

Hawkins 2.5G0 

Hook and Oldrey 2,495 

Hig^andHUl 2,490 

Cambeewell.— For alterations and additions to Grove 
Chapel, Camberwell. Mr. Alfred R. Pite, architect, 
Bloomsbury. square : — 

Allen and Son, Finsbury £1,690 

Turner and Son, Aldgate 1,500 

Smith, Norwood 1,396 

Falkner, New Kent-road (accepted) ... 1,285 

Cambridge. — For north block of buildings for the 

CrovemorB of the Leys Schools, Cambridge. Mr. Robert 

Curwen, architect, Liverpool ; quantities by Mr. J. S, 

Alder, London:— 

Stephens and Bastow, Bristol £9,699 

Roberts. L. H. and R 9,558 

Brass ... 9,480 

Dove Bros 9,350 

Pattinson, S. and W. (accepted) 9,200 





Works : Ditchling and Keymer Junction, near Burgess Hill, Sussex. 

J. & Co. have obtained MEDALS at tlie London and Philadelpliia Exhibitions for GOOD DESIGNS and EXCELLENCE of 
MATERIAL and WORKMANSHIP, and will, on request, send samples of work. 

RIDGE TILES, EINIALS, BRICKS, TILES, &c., which are hard in texture, smooth, and of a deep red colour, and will resist 

the action of the weather. 

Estimates on application. 

Office on the Works, Keymer Junction. 

Aug. 2, 1878. 






DISMAY, unexampled, has been created 
throughout Spain by the official 
announcement that this unique Palace and 
Temple of Spanish pride is to be, in a 
manner, dismantled, and converted into a 
Galleiy of Art rather than a Tomb. A 
technical objection to the burial of the 
young Queen Slereedes may have influenced 
tlie Royal decision, but it is none the less 
peremptory on that account ; and, in f;wt, 
the Escorial is a structure of whose tra- 
dition, as they stand, any Spanish Sove- 
reign might well wish to be rid, more 
especially one to whose dead wife it refused 
a grave. It may, possibly, be in conse- 
quence of this that a Royal decree has gone 
forth, transforming the gloomy edifice into 
a centre of holiday resort and home of pic- 
tures and sculpture, from a solitude, of 
Ai't, indeed, yet one which was little more 
than a melancholy reminiscence for Spain. 
The guide-books — even the best of them — 
give but an insufficient idea of that lonely, 
magnificent, long-walled, and high-roofed 
edifice, which seems like a part of the 
mountains amid which it stands. The 
Spanish architects, with all their love of 
tradition, can scarcely keep it intact : rain 
drops through the Saracen roof, and wet 
disfigures the Arabian floors. Yet this was 
the Eighth Wonder of the World. Thirty- 
eight years ago the entire edifice was in 
danger of perishing entirely out of sight, 
when a public subscription saved it ; but, 
even since then, revolutions have stripped 
it of many treasures, and now, except for 
the intervention of the Government at 
Madrid, with a reasonable purpose, it would 
be condemned to final ruin. As to the 
traditions, they are, like most traditions, 
favilty in the extreme. The structure is 
not a palace, or convent, or a tomb, but all 
three combined, and its name may as well 
be derived from a group of rocks, a cluster 
of scrub oaks, or a weed, as from the tra- 
ditional gridiron of the ultra-Catholic 
Saint. Moreover, the history is altogether 
uncertain which ascribes the building of 
the edifice to the second Philip, after the 
victory of St. Quentin. Modem inves- 
tigations have demonstrated monastic relics 
of a far earlier date. The broiling 
work had been done, if legend may be 
believed, long before the architectural 
gridiron was constructed. But, as its 
history is coining now into question, and 
may rise into importance before long, as 
substituting a grand picture-gallery of 
Spain for a sepulchre, some little notice 
may be worth bestowing upon the great 
shrine of the dead, built over the site of a 
Pagan temple. Its first stone was laid, it 
is said, April 23, A.D. 1.563, by Juan Bap- 
tista de Toledo, " whose great pupil," says 
the controversial authority, " Juan de 
Herrera, finished the pile September 13th, 
1584," though for neither of these state- 
ments have we any absolute warrant what- 
ever. It is not even certain that the 
Escorial was either designed or erected by 
Spanish architects — or, still less, by French 
architects — at all, while the Moorish genius 
was still in the enjojrment of its full glory 
throughout Southern Europe. The Escorial, 
it is true, has not the Saracenic character '■ 
it is not a multitude of green-painted cop- 
per-vaulted domes ; but it is a tomb, 
though it was intended to be a palace. 
Nobody knows who erected it. The King 
of Spain himself could not tell. A French 
hodman, Louis Foix, once claimed the credit 
as his own. Colemenar, Moreri. and Voltaire, 
all asserted the design as having originated 

with France. To whom, however, the 
design is due. it w;is not a happy imr ; and 
the man, half king, half monk, who 
inhabited the mighty convent during four- 
teen years, could have felt little more 
glorious beneath its roof than if he had 
been an Indian fakir. Still, the Escorial, 
associated as it has been, through nearly 
the last three hundred years, with the arts 
of Spain, is, under all circumstances, a 
centre of European interest, though not, 
like the Alhambra, celebrated on account of 
its architectural and artistic wonders. 
Tliose who see it from the neighbouring 
hills, are, at a first glance, undoubtedly dis. 
appointed. They have come, probably, 
from the ruins of the Acropolis, or the 
relics, even, of Dax, in Southern France, 
and they find little, in the huge Spanish 
structure, which satisfies any antiquarian 
or artistic sentiment. The building is a 
vast uprearing of cool, grey, granite ; its 
roof is blue-slated, with leaden pipes and 
gutters; it might be a manufactory, a 
prison, or an asylum for lunatics, for all 
that the outward appearances show. But 
the whole configuration of the place is a 
denial of its vulgar traditions. There are 
no eleven thousand windows, any more than 
there are eleven thousand chambers at the 
Vatican, or were Virgins at Cologne ; what 
orifices exist in the heavy walls " resemble 
a ship's port-holes, and might be real em- 
brasures for cannon " — unplanned for the 
gigantic structure they were intended to 
illuminate — " bits of bigotry," as the writer 
of the Imperial Philip declared, and alto- 
gether degrading to an architect. 

There is no such other building in the 
world, and we doubt whether it can ever, 
even as a picture-galleiy, be made humanly 
enjoyable. Viewed from a distance, it looks, 
as it has been described, like a palace of 
death. The interior is even more gloomy — 
744 feet from south to north ; 580 from east 
to west — partially Doric in style ; gridiron, 
with a little addition of fancy, in shape ; 
towered at the four corners, platformed in 
front, and terraced, with fishponds on the 
upper and under slopes ; three thousand sq. 
feet in area, and, as the guides are never 
tired of reiterating, within the centre, the 
chapel surmounted by a dome ; sixty-three 
f oiuitains, twelve cloisters, eighty staircases, 
sixteen court-yards, and three thousand feet 
of painted fresco, " exceedingly magnifical 
of fame and glory through all countries." 
So far. the guides. W^ are left to better 
instructors when the grand interior is 
reached. There is nothing to view, except 
corruption and hideousness, in the Hall of 
Dead Kings, and little better in the Vesti- 
liule of Sovereigns, with its statues of the 
Kings of Judah, each seventeen feet high, 
all cut up, the keepers of the triple struc- 
ture say. from a single granite block, with 
hands and heads of marble, crowns of 
gilded bronze, and figures resembling, in 
all except their leanness, those of the 
Caryatides. In the great court, the 
stranger is confronted, and, it may be said, 
confounded, by a vastness and magnificence 
nowhere else to be exemplified in the world 
— not even in the palace regions of Agra, 
Benares, and Delhi. For, a parallelogram 
opens upon him — 320 feet long, by 120 
feet less wide, marbled, colonnaded, 
cloistered, partly white, partly coloured, some 
of it cloistered, some of it mosaiciscd — all 
intensified in the highest sense and meaning 
of architectural beauty. There are, in this 
open space, no fewer than 275 windows — 
a barbaric waste of adornment, not giving 
a proportionate degree of light, because 
the whole design of the edifice is one of 
shadow. Nevertheless, something like a 
splendour is thrown upon the entire group 
of palaces, or temples, or monasteries, or 
whatever they m.ay have been intended to 
represent, by the grand Arabic flat roof, 
the half-hidden choii', the cavern-like 

arches, and the perfect distinction of the 
mighty edifice from all other monuments 
approaching it in glory between the West 
and the East, the North and the South, of 
Europe. The eye is first attracted, not by 
ornament, but by the absence of it — n.) 
gold and purple Virgins, no blue and 
gilded Infants — all simple and solemn ; btit 
so far away from the present life of Sp.'tin 
that little wonder is left when its reigning 
King determines that the Escorial shall be, 
not tomb, or convent, or oratorio, but a bright 
and monumental Gallery of Art. Already 
it is 60, in a particular and special sense. 
The chapel, in itself, is of more than 
Roman magnitude — 320ft. long, 250ft. wide, 
and 320ft. up to the toj) of the cupola, the 
warning and the stigma over-crowning all, 
that " God alone is great !" Unlike the 
Alhambra, the Escorial was never devoted 
to other than a Christian purpose. For in 
it there was no " last of the Abencerrages ;" 
it has been, from its foundation, a Christian 
palace, temple, and sepulchre, and is now 
to be the Vatican of Spain. Yet, long ago, 
and since its existence, it has enclosed a 
world of art, with the red-veined steps of 
its high altar, its jasper columns, gold and 
bronzed based ; its Cangiaqui frescoes, and 
its senseless San Lorenzo on the gridiron. 
Never was so lofty a Christian shrine thus 
wantonly degraded — with its gigantic saints 
and its martyrs ; its brass medallions 
and pasteboard rood ; its wooden tabernacle 
and its gilded effigies of kings. The reigning 
monarch of Spain, according to the decree, 
intends, however, to respect the ancient art 
consei-ved in the chambers and corridors 
of the Escorial, while dedicating them to a 
more exact and distinctive purpose in con- 
nection with the arts for which the Spanish 
genius has so long and so superbly been 
celebrated. The bronze-gilt figures in the 
oratories will not be removed, or in any 
way disturbed ; the painted effigies will still 
kneel at their grotesque altars, and the 
profane epitaphs of former Spanish monarchs 
are to remain, unashamed of the dust by 
which they are rebuked ; while, again, 
"the statues which are portraits," will not 
T)e displaced ; but there is abundance of 
room for the royal pleasure, even though 
the works of Giacomo Trazzo, Lucca 
Giordano, and Pelegrino Tibaldi are super- 
seded with those — the bronze medallions, 
the holy rood, and the fifteen gilt statues 
of Pompeio Leone — not to mention the 
Saviour on the column, and bearing the 
Cross, and the Ascension of the Virgin, by 
Z. Zuccaro. We have here the nucleus of 
a magnificent Spanish National Gallery, 
glowing with Spanish art from the days 
when Spanish art was in its zenith, at its 
climax, and, indeed, in its perfection. 
Already, as we have said, those who have 
visited the Escorial must have recognised 
on its walls the masterpieces of historical 
portrait-painting. Assuredly, we have 
never admired, in the much-boasted Bava- 
rian galleries, portraits equal to those of 
Philip II., the mother of Philip III., and 
Don Carlos, comparatively modera though 
they are. There are fifty inferior altars in 
the Escorial, each surmounted by a pic- 
ture, which is not invariably a portrait, 
and archieologicaUy interesting as illustra- 
tions of armotir and costume. Besides 
these, we have reckoned over the canopies 
of Navarette the Dumb, who " spoke with 
his pencil," the Spanish Rubens, the 
Zuccaroi, the Sanchez, and the Tibaldji. It 
is to be marvelled at, however, how^ the 
young King of Spain can imagine himself 
as possessing a power to contradict all the 
traditions of his ancestors by transfiguring, 
as it were, this triple shrino into a sort of 
commonplace picture and sculpture gallery, 
when its principal traditions are so kingly, 
historical, or sacred. The Relicario itself 
must be removed before the building can 
be secularised — 11 whole bodies, 300 heads 



Atjo. 2, 1878. 

— " Hunter," says j\IiuTay, " never founded a 
finer anatomical museum." A thousand 
other points mis^ht be polished in this light, 
but they are scai'cely worth keeping in sight. 
The interest, for the living generation, con- 
sists in the future destination of the 
Escorial, as decreed, in his bereavement, 
by the young King of Spain. We have to 
remember that the Spanish monarch s 
possess absolute authority in these matters. 
Philip II. " kept these precious relics in 515 
shrines of Cellini-like plate, some wrought 
by Juan D'Arfe, but La Houssaye took all 
the bullion, and left the reUcs on the tloor. 
These, when he departed, the monks col- 
lected in baskets, but, in the confusion, many 
of the labels got undocketed, so that," &c. 
But, in all this splendid pillage, there were 
sacred images and vessels of silver and of gold, 
■with other wonderful works in the precious 
metals ; yet with these the world of to-day 
has little enough to do ; it descends, indeed, 
into the Royal Tomb, and finds nothing there 
beyond royal tombs, chamber-houses of 
death, gorgeous and ghastly with Spanish 
marble, gilt, and the customary Golgotha 
decorations. Then, a deep vault, with a 
land-spring, irrepressible, heard trickling 
behind its masonry. Aftenvards, as an 
Italian author, copied by an English gazet- 
teer, writes, '" descending again by a green 
and yellow-coloured jasper-lined staircase, 
at the bottom of the Panteone," there is 
an octagon, so many feet high and wide, 
with crucifixes, niches, and figures, sculp- 
tured by all manner of Italian artists, 
though not claimed as belonging to any 
especial type of modern, media? 7al, or 
ancient art. The resolution of the young 
king, however, is rather an unsatisfactory 
one at the best. The Escorial is one enor- 
mous gi-ave. It is a place of royal tombs, 
although, notwithstanding the terrible 
legends related concerning old kings and 
queens of Castile, the Pantheon, the 
Sacrista, the Cameria, the Palaces, and the 
many churches, are full of Christian his- 
tory and inspirations, with the rich dark 
stalls of the chapels, the low and the high 
stall, the Titian cloisters, and the Corinthian 
illustration, wrought in several varieties of 
wood, of the victory of San Lepanto — with 
its overshading blues and yellows, colossal 
books, and Syriac emblems of silence. The 
Escorial is, to some extent, an epitome 
mundi, a history of the modern world, on a 
small scale, with all its chronicles of guilt 
and misery; but we have nothing to do 
with that — only, indeed, with the guide- 
maker's information — "Walkthrough the 
royal suite of nioms, which are not very 
royally furnished. First visit Don Carlos's 
with some pictures — a stray piece by 
Ribera — but a fly and a poodle are most 
pointed out. There is some good Madrid 
tapestry of hunting subjects ; some china, 
some fine marqueterie panelling and steel 
hinges inlaid with gold." Amid all this 
wealth of art, we find the Escorial so singu- 
larly rich as to become a wonder that its 
treasures were never appreciated before. It 
was the Christian Alhambra. 

IV/rUCH as the subject of colour in build- 
ing has been studied of late years, 
we fear that, in London at least, the attempt 
to impart colour to external architecture 
will be abortive. We have only to walk 
through Queen Victoria-street, Cheapside, 
or some of oiu' recent thoroughfares, tc 
become convinced of the non-success of the 
practice. Since the remains of Northern 
Italy, Genoa, and Venice have been made 
known to architects, all kinds of essays 
have bejn made in brick, tile, terra cotta, 
and so on, but the result in a few years 
is the same — the colours are sombred down 
to the dull monochrome of a smoke-laden 
atmosphere. Red brick and white stone — 

a combination that Mr. Street has adopted 
in the western front of his law offices, and 
in the very fresh and pleasing chimney 
shafts of that block — does very well for a 
few years at the most, but the colour soon 
becomes subdued, and the work assumes 
the same blackened hue which discolours 
and sombres down all our finest buildings. 
The horizontal handwork of red brick and 
stone in the portion of the Law Courts 
above referred to already begins to lose 
something of its freshness, and in a few 
years the contrast between the materials 
will be lost. But red and white jier se are 
not good colours to hai-monise together. 
Red and black, red and orange or brown, 
red and grey, especially the greenish and 
bluish greys, are far better as a colour 
harmony; architects, however, have yet 
hardly become masters enough of chromatic 
har.nony if we can judge by the exterior 
displays of colour in recent buildings. But 
of distasteful combinations the yellow stock 
and light red brick is the greatest, and we 
are sorry to find so many of our Board 
Schools have adopted the contrast. In 
London and smoky towns the red and 
yellow produce a dirty kind of orange that 
does not wear well, and as the Queen Anne 
admirers have gone in strongly for brick- 
work, we trust for the future a little 
more discretion in blending colours will be 
observed. What looks better than a dark 
red and grey brick, found so frequently in 
the structures of that period ? yet it is 
strange to remark that the imitators of the 
style have not taken into account the 
pleasing and subdued tint of old brick 
buildings. Jlr. Waterhouse, in his Pru- 
dential Offices in Holborn, lately illustrated 
by us, has artistically discarded a mixture 
of colour in the walls, which are entirely of 
a deep red, relieved by dark mortar joints. 
In this building the roof of a pleasing green 
slate has been made to contrast, and aifords 
the proper complement to the red brick. 
In the Natural History Museum, by the 
same architect, the predominant colours of 
the terra cotta are the warm cream tint of 
the natural material, and a bluish grey in 
bands and voussoirs. The efl'ect of the 
combination, as we have lately had occasion 
to remark, is all that can be desired. The 
polychromatists have obviously mistaken 
the scope of colom- in architecture. They 
have insisted upon bright colours, while 
the monochromatists have been endeavour- 
ing to return to stone or brick. We refer 
to existing buildings of the first kind, to 
show that the use of bright-coloured mate- 
rials has been a signal failui-e in London 
and most large towns, and the architects of 
the buildings themselves would be the first 
to acknowledge the fact. In this climate 
a variety of shades of brick or stone would 
be preferable. One of the most recent 
attempts to introduce coloured material 
is the employment of glazed coloured 
stoneware by Messrs. Doulton in their new 
buildings at Lambeth. The general effect 
of these buildings from the river — we are 
1 ow speaking of colour only — is pleasing ; 
the eye only discerns the subdued masses 
of material, but when we come within a 
short distance there is much that is crude 
and distasteful. We believe a more satis- 
factory result would have been achieved if 
the charming shades of grey, brown, and 
blue, which the material naturally assumes in 
the firing, had been employed. Some of the 
cornices, bands, diapers, window dressings, 
and the panelled window siUs look out of 
place, and a strong conviction grows upon 
us that the stoneware decoration has been 
overdone, and forced into positions that 
would have been better occupied by brick. 
On the whole, however, we believe glazed 
stoneware may be employed largely as a 
decorative accessory to brick and stone 
buildings, although its sxiccessful adapta- 
tion has not yet been fully shown. 

Of late we cannot have failed to notice a 
growing taste for stone. In the City, and 
the Poultry especially, several new build- 
ings have been entirely faced with stone 
ashlar. Now here we have an opening for 
colour of a less decided but equally pleas- 
ing kind. When we consider the immense 
variety of Iniilding stones, it is surprising 
that a combination of them to produce 
variety of tint has not been attempted. We 
see here and there the Mansfield and other 
red sandstones introduced, but not in that 
general manner that suggests itself to us. 
The Devonshire marbles, or glass mosaic, 
offer themselves as easily procurable and 
cheap kinds of inlay in panels and friezes. 
Then we have plasters and stuccoes of 
different shades that might be pleasingly 
made to relieve large wall surfaces of white 
or red material. The greenish grey of 
Portland cement may be made to harmonise 
well with warm-coloured stuccoes or cements 
like Roman cement, and with the help of 
coloured sands still stronger contrasts 
might be made. In high roofs much more 
than is generally attempted can be accom- 
plished in selecting a slate or a covering 
that makes a pleasing contrast with the 
walls, and slate or tiled roofs might often 
be much improved by introducing diapers, 
bands, and other ornamentation of a dif- 
ferent colour or darker shade. We note 
the roofs to the New Law Offices, for 
instance. We have confined our re- 
marks to exterior decoration ; but, of course, 
the architect is master of the situation in 
the interior decoration ; and hero the 
Japanese artist, with his charming and re- 
freshing blue porcelain and painted tiles, 
and his inlays of various materials, can 
teach much. We are quite sure that, if 
our external colouring is to become an aid 
to our architecture, we must employ local 
materials that harmonise, rather than those 
that produce discord — shades rather than 
colours— and, secondly, that bright colours, 
if introduced at all, should be confined to 


YYTE have more than once urged the 
' ' importance of hydro-geological sur- 
veys in these pages. In all future schemes 
of drainage and water supply, the assistance 
afforded by a knowledge of the position of 
the water-bearing strata, and the variations 
in the height of the water Hne, must be of 
considerable advantage. In a recent issue 
of the Building News, commenting on the 
proceedings at the last Congress at the 
Society of Arts upon the water supply of 
towns, we referred to a paper read by Mr. 
Joseph Lucas, F.G.S., upon the subject, in 
which that gentleman advocated the value 
of a survey of this kind in relation to the 
question of the water supply of the metro- 
polis, and indicated some important facts 
bearing upon the water-shed basins of the 
metropolitan area. Mr. Lucas has just 
published two maps illustrating these 
views, showing the contour lines of the 
artesian system, and the chalk springs of 
the north-westei-n and south-western dis- 
tricts of the metropolis. One of the sheets 
(numbered 2) before us, comprises Watford 
at the north-west corner, and Enfield on 
the north, embraces the northern half of 
the metropolis, and takes in an area of 
21() square miles in the counties of Middle- 
sex, Hertfordshire, and Essex, and the 
basins of the Colne, the Crane, the Brent, 
and the Lea. In this survey we have the 
areas of outcrop plainly shown by contour 
lines in red and yellow. The chalk water 
system is shown at the left hand top corner 
of the map, and includes Watford, the area 
being hatched a light blue, while dark blue 
lines indicate the minimum water contours. 

* Hydro-Geolosrical Survey. Sheets I. and II. London : 
Printed for the Surrey by Edw. Stanford, Charing-cross. 

Aug. 2, 1878. 



The wells, dug and bored, are also shown 
by blue circles. The greater portion of the 
sheet, however, shows the artesian system. 
The impervious clays are coloured light 
black, the areas of overflow by light and 
dark red and yellow hatchings, indicating 
the chalk and sand springs. The artesian 
contours or planes of the chalk springs are 
defined by wide and narrow red lines, and 
the sand-spring contours by yellow lines ; 
while the wells dug and bored, besides the 
obsolete wells and borings, and sand 
springs, are clearly indicated by red and 
yellow circles. In the metropolitan area 
the contour lines are laid down to represent 
the level of the water on Monday morning 
when of the pumps in London have 
ceased working for 4i> hours. The area in- 
cluded within this map is covered by the 
tertiary strata, except the north-west 
corner, which embraces the outcrop of 
chalk in the Colne Valley — from Watford 
to Radlett. Two water-bearing beds out- 
crop — namely, the chalk and the Bushey | 
sand. The Tlianet sand underlies a con- 
siderable portion of the area, and these two 
beds of sand overlap in one part. Mr. 
Lucas remarks, in explanation of this 
sheet, " the key to the sheet, as regards 
the original planes, is the artesian planes, 
augmented by the elevated area of influx 
in the isolated catchment basin of North 
and South Mimms, and another similar 
point in Ruislip parish, to both of which 
the artesian plane rises in the form of a 
dome, and the focus of the system at 
Ordnance Datum in Woolwich Reach." 
The metropolitan pumpiugs have consider- 
ably depressed the planes. Mr. Lucas ob- 
serves : " The depression from this cause 
below the level of Ordnance Datum occu- 
pies an elongated area, whose major axis 
runs in a north-east and south-west direc- 
tion for 18 miles, having for its foci Reid's 
and Meaux's breweries, and whose minor 
axis is about 8 miles across." 

In Sheet 1 we have •another simOar area 
on the south side of the metropolis, includ- 
ing on the south Croydon, Sutton, Maiden, 
Hersham, and Hounslow, and Ealing on the 
west. In the present sheet (second edition) 
a few yellow lines, denoting the sand springs 
in the south-eastern corner, have been added. 
These two sheets will be found of consider- 
able value to sanitary authorities. 

As Mr. Lucas observes, the qualitative 
stage of analysis must precede the quanti- 
tative. The positions of the underground 
■water-shed ridges, and the basins they 
divide, belong to the first of these stages ; 
in the second or quantitative stage, we 
have to discover the variation of the under- 
ground reservoirs due to the fluctuation of 
the rainfall absorbed. We take, in the 
language of the author, "a dimensional 
siu-vey of an aqueous mass of irregular 
shape in the earth beneath our feet and in 
the hills around us, the wells being our 
telescopes." Of course, the mean quantity 
of rain absorbed establishes the mean 
water line, and it is necessary to observe 
the heights of the water line at iiTegnlar 
intervals over a sufiieiently long period, 
and the mean rainfall during the same 
intervals, compared with the mean for the 
■whole period, will explain the differences of 
the observations. Upon this system Mr. 
Lucas has assigned to each position of the 
■water line in the chalk its appropriate 
quantitative value, which has been pub- 
lished in a paper on the chalk water 
system. The yield of an area, or the 
quantity of water that can be obtained with 
a given depression of water line, has also 
been shown by Mr. Lucas, whose observa- 
tions have been condiicted with much care 
and skill. 

We take these mappings out of the sub- 
teiTanean reservoirs to be a step towards a 
con-ect and scieijtific knowledge of our 
■water resources, and, if Government would 

undertake a complete survey of our water- 
slied areas upon a similar plan, we are 
sure much money would be saved that is 
now spent on fruitless schemes of water 
companies, while future works would be 
imdertaken with a better prospect of success. 
The scale of the maps before lis is Gin. to 
•t miles. One of the most useful features 
in them is the demarcation of the areas 
of overflow which are shown by the lighter 
tints ; and if these only had been recorded 
the maps would have possessed much value 
to all sanitary authorities and hydraulicians. 
But the information they offer of the areas 
of the water basins, and their use in the 
economical distribution of water, is of even 
greater consequence. 




[fkom our own keporter.] 
'T'HE annual meeting of the Koyal Archajo- 
J- logical Institute of Great Britain and 
Ireland is being held in the county town of 
Northampton, the head-quarters being at the 
new Guildhall, erected 14 years since from Mr. 
E. W. Godwin's designs, and illustrated by us 
at the time. In this town is an excellent per- 
manent museum, rich in Roman urns and 
pottery, found at Northampton, Castor, Daven- 
try, Towcester, and other parts of the county, 
earthen vessels, and armour of the middle ages, 
ancient shoes and other specimens of local 
manufactures, portraits, &c. In this room was 
also arranged a temporary exhibition, lent by 
patrons and members of the Institute — these 
including a very fine series of water-colour 
sketches of churches, castles, and monastic 
buildings in the country, numbering over 120, 
about 70 of these being the work of the late 
Rev. Mr. Petit, and the others by Mr. E. P. 
Law, of Northampton. Amongst other exhibits 
were a large collection of prehistoric flint and 
bone implements, from the eastern counties, 
lent by Mr. Sharp ; and Roman and Saxon re- 
mains lately found at Duston ; bronze fibula; 
and buckles, lately found at Irchester Camp, 
and shown by Rev. R. S. Baker; a walrus tusk, 
beautifully carved as a drinking-horn, said to 
be of the eleventh century ; limoge enamel 
plaque and erozier, a staff with open beaten 
silver head, used by Lord Compton as constable 
of the Tower, temp. Charles II., aU lent by the 
Marquis of Northampton ; a Holbein portrait 
of Catherine Parr, and contemporary portraits 
of Lord and Lady Shrewsbury, all painted 
on wood panels, and lent by Mr. Booth, of 
Kettering ; tessera; from the Temple of Diana, 
gilt on face, and other fragments of mosaic 
from Greece and Rome, Roman statuettes, an 
early watch, mediaeval keys and buckles, and 
carved pearl shells, shown by Mr. H. Mulliager, 
of Northampton ; early manuscripts and printed 
books, casts from mediaeval seals relating to 
the county, exhibited by Mr. R. Ready. The 
loan collection was not so large as on many pre- 
vious occasions, but the exhibits were of an 
interesting character. 



of the Institute by the Mayor and Corporation 
of Northampton took place in the CouncU 
Chamber on Tuesday morning. The President 
(Lord Talbot de Malahide) having taken the 
chair, the Town Clerk read an address of wel- 
come, in which it was remarked that " our town 
and neighbourhood exhibit many interesting 
architectural remains, churches, chapels, man- 
sions, and memorials of the past which will 
well repay the investigations of the historian 
and the antiquarian." The Mayor (Mr. 
Thomas Tebbutt) added a few words of wel- 
come, and the President replied, alluding to the 
many associations, historical and constitutional, 
connected with the county and its capital, and 
to the recent loss sustained by the Institute 
by the death of the Rev. A. Hartshorne. Other 
addresses were presented from the archdeacon 
and clergy, and from the N.jrthamptonshire 
and Rutland Architectural Society, reference 
being made in the latter to the restorations 
carried out in many of the churches, and I 

I inviting suggestions as to the treatment o£ 
I those yet unrestored. 

Lord Alwtne Compton then took the char 

and delivered an address in which he dea t 



1 Through the length and breadth of the country 
the ancient buildings had been restored at 
a cost of many thousands of pounds. This 
j work was now called little else than destruction 
I by the Society for the Protection of Ancient 
I Buildings. No doiiljt there was some truth in 
the assertion. Workmen liked a good job, 
with finished and complete work. They prefer 
I spick-and-span novelties to crumbUng stones. 
I Thus rich mouldings are sometimes simplified 
by being cut down, and even where the old 
work is copied much of the beauty is gone and 
its spirit missing. While to the arch.'eologist 
an unrestored church is a special delight, yet 
when it was contended that no improvement 
must be attempted, and nothing added, this is 
felt surely to be a mistake. The suggestion that 
if a church is too small or is inconvenient that 
— instead of adapting, it should be banded and 
tied together and abandoned, and a fresh one 
built by the side, is too preposterous to be 
argued. The difficulties that had arisen in the 
face of legislation to provide for the simple 
loss from cultivation of the few acres of 
ground covered by ancient monuments was 
sullicient to show its impracticability, and that 
no response would come to the appeal to build 
the suggested new churches except from the 
small band of members of this society, and the 
buildings so preserved would soon fall into 
hopeless decay. They had for study during 
these meetings two examples of restoration 
which he thought went far to vindicate restora- 
tion when duly carried out, from the attacks 
made upon it. St. Sepulchre's was one of the few 
circular English churches. It had been restored 
by the late Sir GUbert, then Mr. Scott, work, 
ing with some of the members of the 
County Architectural Society, and the local 
authorities, and the antiquary would find the 
building more worthy attention than before. 
No attempt was made to replace the exact 
circular church of Simon de St. Liz, but many 
features previously concealed were now exhi- 
bited. The other example was in some respects 
more remarkable — that of the Queen's Cross. 
Many of these proofs of Edward I.'s conjugal 
affection had perished from decay. This at 
Northampton remained in consequence of three 
successful restorations. In 1713 it was restored 
by the county magistrates, and again it was re- 
paired in 1762, and lastly at a comparatively 
recent period by Blore, the architect. A more 
crucial example of the good or evil of restora- 
tion could hardly be imagined than this cross. 
The dates of the threefold restorations were 
enough to frighten an antiquary. Queea 
Anne's time, whatever it may have been in 
respect to furniture, was not a Gothic era — 1702 
was a period of taste not yet mastered, and 
Blore's work did not always commend itself to 
the judgment. Yet when Mr. Law, stirred up 
by the bitter words of a paper read at the 
Archa;ological Association 16 years ago, ex. 
amined minutely and carefully the cross, he 
found the restorations had been so carefully 
done that but for the difference in the stones 
it was not easy to distinguish the new work 
from the old, and all the most singular features 
in the design, which had been attributed to 
Blore, existed in the original work. Thanks, 
therefore, to several generations of restorations. 
Queen's Cross remains as it was when first 
erected, nothing being wanted except the 
termination, which, in a true spirit of conserva- 
tive restoration, was left imperfect by Blore. 
These instances, and there were in the county 
many other restorations carried out with equal 
care, he thought a fair answer to the attacks 
on restorers generally. The protection against 
mistakes in restoration could be afforded in a 
twofold way — first in the more accurate taste and 
the greater esteem for old work diffused by this 
and kindred societies, and secondly by the pre- 
servation of records of what existed prior to 
restoration being undertaken. Both these pur- 
poses would, he thought, be furthered if all 
archa^-'logists and architects would work 
together. To this end he suggested the amal- 
gamation of the Arehceological Institute and 
Association, the affiliation to the one great body 



Aug. 2, 1878. 

of all county associations formed for a like 
purpose, and the lakinff of united action with 
the Society of Antiquaries, the Royal Institute 
of British Architects, and other societies. 

Lord Talbot de Malahide proposed a vote 
of thanks to Lord Alwyne Compton for his 
address, which was full of suggestions. 
Although he was a member of the Society for 
the Protection of Ancient Buildings, he would 
admit that restoration was necessary in many 
cases, but the extent to which the process had 
been carried on wag so outrageous in many 
cases as to threaten the destruction of many old 

Mr. J. H. Pakkek, C.B., thought none of 
those who objected to restoration would like to 
retain in our churches the donkey boxes and 
boarded-up windows of the last century. He 
wished the society referred to would carry on 
its duties with more discretion. He had re- 
cently received a letter from the secretary, 
asking if he would complain of the work that 
had been carried out by the Kev. Mr. Jones at 
Bradford-on-Avon. Now Mr. Jones had found 
the ancient church at Bradford 30 or 40 years 
ago divided into three or four cottages; he 
bought these up, and bit by bit cleansed and 
restored it, under the supervision of a strong 
committee, and with an able clerk of works. 
The members were then invited by the Mayor 
to luncheon in the lecture-hall. Gold-street, and 
subsequently visited 

ST. teter's chuech. 
Mr. J. H. Pakkek, C.B., delivered a lecturette 
in the church, describing the edifice as of the 
finest and latest period of Norman, principally 
erected about 1100, just prior to the change in 
style. The narrow north and south arches, 
covered with banded mouldings, were very 
characteristic of the date he assigned. Although 
at first sight easily understood, further in- 
quiry showed several points of dilBculty. The 
chief of these was, that neither the east nor 
west end existed as originally designed. The 
east end was destroyed long since, probably in 
the reign of Henry VIIL, and the last two bays 
were the work of the late Sir Gilbert Scott- 
very good and quiet work of its kind, but not a 
reproduction, for the old church, he tliought, 
ended in an apse. The windows in the side 
walls were of Henry Vril.'s time, inserted into 
the thick Norman w.alls, and the clerestory was 
original ; the exterior of the church was very 
peculiar. Trees existed where a wooden screen 
had divided the church into nave and chancel, 
just where the present pulpit stood, and it 
seemed that a commencement was made in 
Norman tiuies of vaulting the side aisles— a 
work never completed; the nave had then a 
flat roof, and not the present barrel vault. As 
to the west end of the church, beautiful as it 
was, it was a rebuilding, executed, probably, in 
the reign of Henry VIII., the materials being 
taken from the apse, or more likely, as the 
work appeared to be of still later Norman 
character than the main building of an old 
chantry destroyed at the Eefor.,iation. Mr. 
Parker pointed to the windows of bhe south aisle 
wall, cut through by the tower in support, and 
said the deep threc-membered tower arch, rich 
and beautiful as it was, had been evidently 
rebuilt, and that not quite perfectly. 

Considerable discussion followed, Mr. Fair- 
less Barber suggesting that the base of 
tower is original, and that it forms a central 
point in the church as was usual in Norman 
buildings ; in support of this conjecture, he 
pointed out that there was no distinct 
breadth between nave and chancel. Several 
members said the west face of the tower had 
never been built in. Mr. Sharp thought the 
tower-arch was diagonally that at the entrance 
to apsidal chancel. Mr. Micklethwaite con- 
tended that the aisles had never been vaulted, 
for there was no room. Mr. Parker added 
that the capitals of the arcades, adorned with 
interlaced carving, were formerly covered with 
whitewash, but were cleansed by Miss Baker, 
sister of the county historian, who most 
carefully scr.%ped the work with a bone paper- 
knife ; this labour of love occupied the leisure 
of several years, and set an example to ladies 
which might be followed with advantage. The 
members then viewed the extension of the 
church, further discussion taking place as to 
the west tower. It was generally conceded 
that the lower part was a re-biulding (all 

agreed that the upper stage, which is of a 
different and more ruddy stone, was compara. 
tively modern), but the date at which this was 
executed was not agreed upon. The circular 
buttresses at the angles which are tied across 
the face of the tower by string courses of 
mortar mouldings, were considered by Mr. 
Parker and others to be as late as Henry 
VIII. 's time; Messrs. Lane, Fairless Barber, 
and others said there were no authenticated 
examples of such a treatment so recent. The 
richly-ornamented head* over west doorway 
is later than that of the tower-arch ; the 
members of the former may originally, it was 
suggested, have been recessed as the other is, 
but are now on the same plane, and flush with 
wall surface. The carving of the voussoirs and 
caps throughout the church is one of the most 
elaborate examples of Norman work remaining. 

the castle 
wag next visited. It occupies a quadrangular 
raised site, overlooking a branch of the river 
Nene. The remains are very scanty, and are 
confined to a low line of rough masonry 
inclosing the inner valley, and on the side next 
the stream a postern gate, with acutely pointed 
archway of three well-recessed members, and 
curtain on inner side. Mr. E. F. Law exhibited 
photographs of the bastion, and large columns 
uncovered and destroyed for the use of the 
materials in building a few years since. All 
the remains appear to date from the early years 
of the lith century. Kegret was expressed at 
the statement that the site has been sold to the 
London and North-Western Eailway Company, 
who propose to level it and the adjacent ground, 
and to erect thereon a large goods station. 

QUEEN Eleanor's cross. f 
Mr. E. F. Law minutely described the me- 
morial, and pointed out the traces of the three 
restorations, arguing that no material damage 
had been caused by these. The oval enclosure 
on Huntsbury or Himsborough Hill, known as 
Daneg' Camp, was algo inspected, and the valla 
and ditch were traced. St. John's Hospital was 
visited on the return journey. The building is 
a plain stone structure of the Decorated period, 
and consists of the common hall and "dormi- 
tories above it. The chapel is of the latest 
period of Decorated Gotliic, and there are 
several fragments of stained glass of the 15th 
century. It was stated that it was probable 
this, like the castle ruins, is likely to be re- 
moved, to make room for an extension of the 
Midland Railway. 

sectional meetings. 

In the evening a meeting of sections was held 
at the Town Hall. Mr. John Evans delivered 
the opening address of the section of antiqui- 
ties, of which he is president. In this he 
sketched the history and growth of Northamp- 
ton, and passing on to consider the antiquities 
of the county, sviggosted that palseolithic re- 
mains would probably reward the research into 
the gravel distributed on tlie borders of the 
Nene. The Roman occupation of the district 
was referred to, especially with reference to the 
local inintings of coins during that period, and 
some fine pieces of money of late Roman date 
were exhibited. 

The Rev. R. S. Baker read a paper in the his- 
torical section on " The Nene Valley as a Roman 
Frontier." He traced the lines of camps from 
Irchester northwards, at wliich Roman coins or 
otlier relics have been found on the high 
grounds along the line of the river Nene, and 
showed that these occur at intervals of about 
seven miles apart, and urged that the Nene 
was the " Antona " of Tacitus, which Tacitus 
speaks of as one of the lines of defence of 
Osterius from the unsubdued natives on the 
west. The etymology of Northants, the North 
Antone Scire of Domesday, was minutely in- 
vestigated. A discussion followed, in which 
Messrs. M. H. Bloxam and J. T. Burgess con- 
troverted Mr. Baker's theory as to the lines 
protected by the Nene Valley camps, and stated 
tliat they formed part of a much larger scheme 
of defence running throughout the midlands of 

1 the '* Building News 

t Illustrated in the Building News in January last, 
p. 54, Vol. XXXIV. 

The earlier part of the day was devoted to a 
circuit of about a score miles by carriage, 
through an upland district on the north-west 
and north of head-quarters. 

harlestone church. 
Where the first halt was made, has consider- 
able interest, as the dates of the erection of 
nave and chancel are known. The tower is 
square and Early English, and was raised prior 
to 1294. The chancel was re-built, we learn 
from an MS. in the Lansdowne Collection, 
British Museum, by Richard de Hette, then the 
rector, in 1320, who also re-erected the nave in 
1325 — statements confirmed by the inscription 
on De Hette's tomb in the south aisle. The edi- 
fice is large, and executed in the local red oolite. 
It is a good type of a Decorated church, with, 
north and south aisles, vigorous mouldings, 
and reticulated tracery in, and hood mouldings 
to, the windows. The octagonal columns of the 
south aisle are slightly fluted — a peculiarity 
also noticeable at Brington Church, the one 
next visited. Among the 15th century in. 
sertions are some of the south aisle windows 
and a clerestory on either side, and the rich 
sedilia and piscina. The church was restored 
by the late Sir Gilbert Scott, who replaced the 
cnspings to windows from portions built up in 
the walls. Some discussion took place with 
reference to two low windows or " hagioscopes " 
at the angles of chancel and nave, which Mr. 
J. H. Parker regarded as lepers' windows, 
whereas Mr. Bloxam and others considered 
they were simply used for the purpose of giving 
" utter communion." It was elicited that these 
were blocked up (probably since the Reforma- 
tion) till opened out during the recent restora- 
tion. The Eev. Prebendary Venables, of 
Lincoln, raised a protest against the removal 
from the wall of a memorial tablet to an in- 
cumbent who died so recently as 1808, to the 
small crypt beneath chancel, and maintained 
that, however incongruous in style, it should 
not have been hidden from sight. 
althorpe house. 
The seat of the Spencer family, was next seen 
It is an unpretending fabric, U-shaped, and 
cased with white brick, with Classic pilasters, 
at the beginning of the present century. It is 
now closed, and in the hands of the builders 
for alterations, and only one gallery could be 
entered. In this long roum were arranged a 
series of portraits and a selection of books from 
Earl Spencer's library of 33,000 volumes — pro- 
bably the finest private collection in existence. 
The books exhibited to the members are of the 
earliest period of printed works, including 
several works by Caxton and "Wynkyn de 
Worde, a Biblia Paupera, with some of the 
block pictures of which it is composed coloured, 
and the famous block book, " St. Christopher,' 
in which the imprinted date MCCCCXXIIL, 
has been supposed to be an error, as it is much 
anterior to any other. Most of the works 
shown are beautifully bound, some in velvet 
and gold, and several contain well-painted illu- 
minations. Just outside the park is 

great brington church. 
It has a large double-aisled nave and west 
tower, both of the latest type of Early English, 
with some windows and clerestory inserted by 
the first Sir John Spencer, who died 1522, by 
whom the chancel was also rebuilt. It is be- 
lieved that the sixteenth-century works (which 
are extremely good for so late a period) were 
designed by Thomas Heritage, presented to the 
living in KjlS ; he was also chaplain to Henry 
VIII., and surveyor of that King's work at 
Westminster. Henry VII. 's chapel at West- 
minster Abber is attributed to Heritage. In 
the chancel are a series of monuments of the 
Spencers, chiefly of the Late Tudor, Eliza- 
bethan, and Early Renaissance character, and 
much resembling, in their canopies, sup- 
ported on columns, four-post beds, the odd re- 
semblance being heightened by the effigies 
on the comb slabs. The treatment of these 
monuments, and the costumes of the recumbent 
figures, afford an instructive series of dated 
examples of the transition of architectural 
fashion from Gothic to Free Classic. The 
earlier monuments are of marble, decorated in 
colour, and embellished with heavy pendants, 
pyramids, globes, obelisks, and like features. 
Classic allusions being introduced to the later 

Aug. 2, 1878. 



onea. One of the most interestintj examples is 
that of the third Sir John Spencer ( 1500) ; 
it was designed by John Thorpe, and has a lofty 
canopy, with under surface broken into em- 
bossed compartments, and supported upon 
square alabaster piers, and blue marble columns, 
the former covered with incised ornament. 
Although over-elaborated, the work exhibits 
much of the characteristic fancy of Thorpe's 
work, and has some traces of Italian feeling, 
interesting in connection with the tradition of 
its identity with John of Padua. The most 
recent memorials of the Spencers include figures 
executed by Flaxman and NoUekens, and a 
bust by Chantry, and on north side of chancel 
a five-sided ch.apel of Tudor type wa.i thrown 
out by the last earl in 184tj. In the chancel is 
a slab to the memory of Lawrence Washington, 
died 1010, said to be the last English ancestor 
of George Washington ; it shows the family 
arms as three mallets and two bars in chief, 
impaling a chevron between three covered cups. 
In the nave is a brass to Robert, father of the 
above Lawrence Washington, showing the same 
bearings in chief, and it was stated that they 
appeared on George Washington's seal, and so 
suggested the " Stars and Stripes" of the 
United States : if this is not the case, it is cer- 
tainly a remarkable coincidence. The church 
has other features of interest, notably the many 
fragments of 15th and 16th century stained 
glass, the well-carved oak bench heads and ends, 
■some of them like altar raUs, decorated with 
stencilling, while outside is a 1-lth century 
<M,nopied recess, containing a priest's effigy. 
Just outside the churchyard is a shaft of 14th 
•century cross, 12ft. in height, and elevated on 
lofty pedestal and three steps ; the termination 
is modern. 

Passing East Haddon Church, a 14th century 
building recently restored by Mr. Law, of 
IMorthampton, the site of 


was the next halting-place. The house was re- 
tuilt for Chancellor Sir Christopher Hatton, 
from the designs of John Thorpe (see articles 
and illustration in our last vol.), and after- 
wards became a royal palace. In it Charles I. 
became virtually a prisoner for five months in 
164G-7, and from thence he was removed by 
Cornet Joyce to Hinchinbrook, and deprived of 
the last semblance of personal liberty. Hol- 
denby was sold in 1050 to one Baynes, M.P. for 
Leeds, who, anticipating the Restoration, 
prudently demolished the palace for the sake of 
the materials, with the exception of two large 
gateways at the sides of the green court and a 
sunk portion of the offices at the back of the 
■second quadrangle, in which he lived. These 
were re-assumed by the Crown ten years later, 
and now belong to the Clifden family. The 
farmhouse was restored two years since by the 
late Mr. Slater, and now forms the residence of 
the Viscountess Clifden. The spacious gate- 
ways, now quite isolated from other masonry, 
are of red and grey stone from Harlestone and 
Walford, and each has on them the date 1083 
carved in relief in twisted scrollwork. Little 
remains of Thorpe's work in the house, except 
some rough external masonry and a chimney- 
place. The chimneys are arranged in pairs, 
coupled at the top, and are very good examples. 
Mr. Albert Hartshorne has ascertained by 
measurement that the same templates were 
used for the mouldings of chimneys and win- 
dows at both Holdenby and Kirby. The house 
is again filled with paintings, tapestry, and 
china, but these treasures have little connection 
with the history of the older building. In the 
garden is the top of one of " the very high 
pyramids of stone," formerly accounted the 
wonders of Holdenby; these were painted with 
the arms of all the gentry of the county, and 
on this apex can be deciphered those of the 
the t'itzwalters and Bouchers. 


Which cl isely adjoins the house, is chiefly of the 
Late Decorated period, and was restored by Sir 
Gilbert Scott ten years since. The chancel was 
rebuilt upon Sir Henry Dryden's designs in 
1848, and coloured by Mr. Sutton. The most 
interesting feature is the Renaissance screen 
now dividing chancel from nave, which was 
brought from the chapel of Holdenby House. 
It is carved in oak, and is heavy in composition, 
with a superposed arch above the principal one. 

and adorned with a Medusa's head, couchant 
lions, hrtlf-clad Roman warriors, and other in- 
congruous Bub.iects. The south aisle is very 
wide, but the whole church suffers from want of 

In this building, also restored by Sir 6. 
Scott, there is much Transitional Norman work 
in the doorways and arcaded work on the lower 
stages of tower. Above this arcading, which is 
of tiie time of Henry II., another stage and a 
fine broach spire, with open lights, were added 
in the 14th century. The north arcade is of the 
same date as the tower ; that on the south side 
is Decorated. Near a north chantry is an altar 
tomb bearing the elVigy of St. John Swinford, 
died Ki71, executed in Chellaston alabaster, 
and wearing a bassinet chain armour, and the 
SS. collar — the latter said by Mr. A. Hartshorne 
to be the earliest sculptured example in England 
In the churchyard is the octagonal shaft of a 
cross 10ft. in height and 3Sin. in girth at base 


This well-known and oft-illustrated edifice 
was the last one visited. It is chiefly remark- 
able for the great number of thin bricks used 
in its construction, partly as voussoirs to circular 
arches, over nave windows, and over doorways, 
now walled up, and partly as window coursing 
with rubble, and in herring-boning. Mr. 
A. Hartshorne has remarked that there is no 
trace of " long and short work," as in most of 
the reputedly Saxon churches. During the re- 
storations effected by the late vicar, the Eev. 
C. P. Watkins, assisted by Mr. Slater, this use 
of thin bricks was further revealed ; the 
square chancel of Henry VI. 's time, figured in 
Britton's and Rickman's views, was removed, 
and a polygonal apse substituted on the old 
foundations ; several of the western bays on the 
south side and one bay on the north were re- 
built, and the lancet or square-headed windows 
replaced by others of circular form. On the 
west face of the tower is a projecting turret, 
circular in form, containing the belfry stairs ; 
above this tower, which is Late Norman in 
character, has been added a Decorated stage 
and broach spire. A few feet beyond the 
modern apse is a well-like round inclosure of 
masonry forming an ambulatory. Mr. Parker 
expressed the opinion that the bricks in the 
arches were of Roman origin, and of the third 
century, as within the mortar six of them go to 
the foot. He thought that the structure might 
have been built by the Romans, and not as 
had often been stated, by the Saxons, even to 
the clerestory, although the latter was set back 
nearly a foot to allow of the abutment of aisles. 
He directed notice to the extreme thickness of 
the walls, and to the basilioan plan, and sug- 
gested that the tower was added in the 11th 
century, and was built upon a porch with four 
archways, as at Monkwearmouth and Holy 
Trinity, Colchester ; the west turret was 
slightly later. The apse was undoubtedly 
Christian, and not Roman. The vicar 
(the Eev. Mr. Gedge) exhibited a plan of 
the building and of the foundations ; these 
indicate a nave of four bays, 60ft. x 30ft., 
with traces of north and south aisles, Sft. 6in. 
in clear, parallel throughout with this and the 
chancel, 30ft. x 30ft., and at the east end a 
polygonal apse, with circular enclosure beyond. 
He asked whether this might not have been a 
fourth-century Roman basilica, and called 
attention to an eagle sculptured in stone 
found in the walls, and to the Roman bronze 
swords and coins turned up in the immediate 
vicinity and the entrenchments near by. It 
was singular that they were now in a building 
of the exact proportions and size of Solomon's 
Temple, taking the cubit as ISin. Mr. Bloxam 
attributed the building to the eighth century, 
when there evidence to prove it existed as 
a cell to Redehampstead (Peterborough) 
monastery. Messrs. Evans and Micklethwaite 
asked where such a population as could need 
a Roman hall of justice of those dimensions 
could have resided, whereas as a monastic 
chapel its erection was easy to understand. Mr. 
Sharp said both the swords and the pottery 
were British, not Roman. Mr. G. T. Clark, of 
Dowlais, said there was no doubt as to the 
Roman remains ; they had them before their 
eyes in the bricks, and these must have been 
found close by from the quantity of the material 
used. The proportions were not those of any 

basilica — the bnilding was too long and too 
deep, and the narrow apsidal arch would pre- 
vent the judge from seeing or hearing. The 
workmanship was also too rough, and the 
arches did not r.idi.ate properlv. Undoubtedly 
the building was erected for Christian worship 
from Roman materials found near by. This 
appeared to be the generally accepted 
opinion, and the members then examined 
a small reliqjiary of stone, of Early Eng- 
lish period, and the s^-ulptured eagle. The 
several alterations could, Mr. Bloxam said, 
be e.asily detected by the different cla.sse3 
of stone employed, as well as by the minor 
differences in the work. Chief stress was laid 
on the most recent reparation — that effected by 
Mr. Blore, in conjunction with Mr. George Baker, 
the county historian, and Miss Baker — and it sought to be demonstrated by reference to 
the drawings, that for the tracery in the tym- 
panum of the lowest story, and especially for 
the debased ogee member, which had been 
denounced as innovations, there was not only 
authority in other stones built into the cross, 
but also in the south side of the chancel of 
Northflect church, the east window of Stratford 
St. Mary, Suffolk, the Chapter House, Wells 
Cathedral, and other buildings of a con- 
temporary date, now set into the wall by the 
beautiful Norman south door; this figure, 
which measures 18in. by 12in., and represents 
a bird with four expanded wings, was pro- 
nounced by Mr. Bloxam to be Anglo-Saxon, 
and not Roman. 

In the evening a conversazione was held at 
the Town Hall, when Mr. E. F. Law read a 
paper on 


The lecture was illustrated by a series of 
ancient engravings of the memorial, and by 
measured drawings of it, made by Mr. Law 
and his sons, in conjunction with Mr. Irvine, 
formerly one of Sir Gil'oert Scott's clerks of 
works. In his paper Mr. Law defended the 
restorations of 1713, 1762, and 1836, as in the 
main faithful and true. As to the probable 
termination of the cross, Mr. Law said the 
broken shaft now forming the top was added 
by Mr. Blore, in place of a Maltese cross placed 
there in the last century, for which no autho- 
rity could be shown. The building accounts 
showed that the cross was built from the design 
by one John de Bello, and that William de Ire- 
land, " inaugurator," was paid .£6 33. 4d. for 
" five images :" four yet remained in the niches 
surrounding the cross, and there was no other 
place for the fifth than the summit. Glowing 
reference was made to the serenity and purity of 
these conventional representations of Queen 
Eleanor, and Mr. Law expressed his satisfac- 
tion that no attempt had been made to repro- 
duce the crowning figure. 


The annual meeting of the institute was 
held in the morning. 

An excursion by rail was subsequently made 
to Wellingborough, and from thence by road 
to Irchester camp and church, to Rushden 
church, and to Higham Ferrars, where the 
party divided — one section visiting the fine 
churches of Raunds, Stanwick, Irthlingborough, 
and Finedon, and returning to Welling- 
borough ; the other making Thrapston a fresh 
centre for the afternoon, and proceeding thence 
to Islip .and Lowick churches, and to Drayton 

To-day (Friday) sectional meetings are to be 
held in the morning, afterwards the Round 
Church of St. Sepulchre and St. Giles's Church 
will be visited in the course of a general 
perambulation of the town ; and in the after- 
noon the members will proceed by road to 
Earl's Barton church. Castle Ashby, Whiston 
and Cogenhoe churches, returning by rail from 
Rockingham station. The programme for 
Saturday includes an excursion by rail to 
Kettering, and from thence by road to Roth- 
well, Rushton Hall tri.ingular lodge and 
church, Gcddington Cross, Kirby and Rocking- 
ham castle and church — sectional meetings 
being held in the evening. On Monday visits 
will be made to Oundle, Cotterstock, and 
Fotheringhay, where the party will divide — 
Barnack church .and Burghley House being 
visited by one section, and Peterborough by 
the other. The proceedings of the Northamp- 



Aug. 2, 1878. 

ton meetino; will be brought to a close on 
Tuesday next, when, after the sectional meet- 
ings, it is proposed, if the railway be open, to 
visit Canons Ashbj. We shall continue our 
report next week. 


THIS is the euphonious title of a little 
brochure treatincr of the sanitary contri- 
vances of a house. The author, Mr. Thomas 
Morris, architect, of Eegent-street, has written 
and published many books more or less directly 
bearing upon architecture, and the present 
work will be read with interest by many of 
those who are seeking to lift the hydraulics of 
the modern dwelling-house out of the domain 
of empiricism and plumbers' tinkering. Mr. 
Morris begins by referring to the cistern, and 
gives a graphic account of the history of that 
early contrivance. We read that, in " the year 
1237, Gilbert Sanford, at the request of Henry 
the Third, gave permission for the conveyance 
of water from the town of Tyburn by pipes of 
lead into the city. The pipes were 6in. in 
diameter, and terminated at a point near Bow 
Church, Cheapside, where a suitable erection of 
stone, the first of the London conduits, was 
raised." This conduit was made for " the 
profit of the city and good of the whole realm 
thither repairing — to wit, for the poor to drink 
and the rich to dress their meat." Stow 
describes a cistern of lead, "castellated with 
stone," as the first great conduit in West Cheap, 
begun in 1285, fed probably by an extension of 
Sauford's pipes. We read also of the " tonne " 
at Comhill, conduits in Cheapside, Fleet- 
street, Leadenhall, &c., and in connection with 
them we find the pump a remarkable feature 
of old London, giving the names to localities as 
Pump-court. The primitive conduit and pump 
at last became inadequate, and Peter Morris 
invented or introduced the water-mill at Lon- 
don Bridge in 1582, the motive power being the 
tide. Late in the sixteenth century the plan 
of cistern pressure appears to have been intro- 
duced. The author traces the establishment of 
the water companies — the first being the New 
Eiver Company, associated with the name of 
Sir Hugh Myddelton, in 1619, followed by the 
Chelsea, the East London Works, the Grand 
Junction, and other companies, these being 
stimulated no doubt, as llr. Morris intimates, 
by the use of steam power for pumping. So 
great a change has taken place that, as Mr. 
Morris reminds us, chemical softening is now 
added to mechanical refinement, and the daily 
quantity required for the metropolis approaches 
120,000.000 gallons. Indeed, had such a ser- 
vice as we have now existed earlier there might 
not have been a great plague nor a great fire. 

But let us briefly describe Mr. Morris's sug- 
gestions, having a constantsupply in view. The 
author shows that if district and street pipes 
were always at work they might be much 
reduced, and that a Ua. rising main would 
suiBce to supply a house, rendering the con- 
sumer independent of the company, while the 
latter could choose its own rate of delivery. As 
six gallons to the cubic foot is the approximate 
capacity for cisterns, a 4ft. x 3ft. x 2ft. Gin. 
cistern would be suflicient. In Mr. Morris's 
improved form the lid is made dust-proof, with 
a small trap in the centre for cleaning pur- 
poses. At one end, near the tap, is fixed a 
small box or cistern, in which the rising main 
terminates, with a regulating valve, which 
regulator shuts off the supply as soon as the 
large cistern is full. From the small box pro- 
jects an overflow pipe to carry off any waste to 
a visible outlet. Tlie rising main also serves the 
purpose of a down pipe for drawing water by 
means of a valve in the connecting pipe. 
" Companies," says the author, " have objected 
to taps on rising mains, but a one-way valve 
and stop-cock at the foot of the pipe would pre- 
vent the possible return of impure or any water 
to the street pipes." By a simple cylinder of 
porous material fitted into a metal case, and 
forming part of the rising main, the water 
may be filtered before it reaches any story 
of a house, and may be drawn off from 
the outer case by a tap. The author re- 

* Hydrosthetics ot the Cistern, Drain, and Sewer. By 
Thomas IIoeeis, Architect. London : tiimpkin, Marshall, 
and Co, 

ferring to lead, observes of it that lead has been 
found free from all deleterious effects upon pure 
soft water, and is best adapted for substantial 
construction. To prevent the passage of foul 
air from the drain into the cistern, a small 
watertight box is fitted at the bottom of the 
other end of the cistern, fed by a bent pipe or 
siphon, that forms an effectual trap ; a " waste 
preventer " may be inclosed in this box, and an 
air pipe must be fixed from its top. From the 
lower side of the box descends the latrine pipe 
for flushing, which should be IJ-in. bore, and 
other necessary branch pipes. Mr. Morris pro- 
ceeds to treat of the different sorts of valve and 
pan closets, but says little that is new respecting 
the connection of the house drains with the 
sewer. Eegarding ventilation of the soil-pipe, 
we find that the ordinary plan of allowing it to 
run up and terminate with an open outlet is 
recommended, besides a trap at every inlet. 
Our author does not say much about the more 
effectaal plan of disconnection we have so often 
advocated here, though good advice is given in 
the advocacy ot outside soil-pipes. Mr. Morris 
alludes to the Alnwick drainage as a model, 
where the earthenware sewers increase from 
6in. to 18in. bore, and have a fall of l-400th of 
their length, and where the house drains are 
4in. pipes, though Bin. is recommended. We 
note that an inch in 20ft. is suggested for the 
house drain, and that a small cesspool with a 
" dip " is recommended in the area to check 
the passage of sewer gas into the house (pre- 
suming the drain traverses the basement), and 
to admit a current of air through the house 
drains. Apropos of cowls, the author observes 
that the result of experiments on them con- 
ducted at the Kew Observatory, prove that 
" ccetcris paribxis, none of them cause a velocity 
of current exceeding that in an open pipe." 
A chapter on the " sewer " closes the book. 
After sketching the history and system of the 
metropolitan drainage, of which the author 
approvingly speaks, and drawing a comparison 
between Sir Christopher Wren and Sir Joseph 
Bazalgette — the first as the projector, and the 
latter as the engineer, of the sewers and 
Thames Embankment — the author takes the 
view we have before adopted, that if all the 
houses of a town were provided with open 
soil-pipes, the sewer gases might be carried 
away harmlessly. By those interested in sani- 
tary questions Mr. Morris's little treatise wUl 
be read with profit. 


ON Thiirsday week the fifth annual meeting 
of the Association of Municipal and Sani- 
tary Engineers and Surveyors was held in the 
Council Chambers of the Town Hall, Liverpool. 
Mr. Deacon, the Liverpool borough engineer, 
presided, and devoted an able opening address 
to proving, by elaborate calculations as to the 
mortality of Liverpool, that the existing state 
of sanitary engineering in the town was satis- 
factory. The president showed that, notwith- 
standing extraordinary disadvantages — -such as 
the unfavourable character of the soil upon 
which the town was built ; its enormous migra- 
tory populations, which left, in passing through 
it, a large residuum of disease and death ; and 
its abnormal density of population per acre — 
the total death-rate of Liverpool from all 
causes was not exceptional. Moreover, the 
mea \ death-rate during the last two or three 
years, as compared with that of the previous 
five years, showed a diminution of 46 per cent., 
while in tlie corresponding periods the mean 
decrease in the 17 towns with which Liverpool 
is classed in the Eegistrar-General's returns, 
was only 23 per cent. Mr. Deacon considered 
that the important sanitary works of the last 
few years were to be credited with this result. 

A vote of thanks to the president having been 
passed, a paper was read by Mr. Charles Jones, 
embracing some notes on certain municipal 
works executed in Liverpool, and in the even- 
ing the members dined together. 

On Friday the medical officer of the borough 
read a paper on the cellar dwellings of the 
town. Mr. T. Mellard Reade read a paper on 
the "Geology of Liverpool in Relation to 
Engineering Work," which was followed by 
some discussion, and in the afternoon a visit 
was paid to the Bootle pumping station. 

On Saturday Mr. Thomas Hewson read a 
paper on the present system of dealing with 
the Eoehdale excreta, which was followed by 
the usual combat between the advocates of the 
wet and dry sewage systems. A carefully 
compiled paper on the " VentUation of Sewers," 
by Mr. Ellice-Clark, was also read, but the 
views of the author scarcely seemed to find 
much favour with the rest of the members. 
We give an abstract of the paper, as it deals 
with a subject of interest to many readers, and 
towards the elucidation of which any weU-con- 
sidered effort is welcome. 

Mr. Ellice-Clark said one of the chief 
objects of the municipal engineer was to con- 
struct conduits for the conveyance ot refuse 
from dwellings in such a manner as to increase 
the chances of the healthy occupation of cities. 
It was now an almost universally admitted 
sanitary canon with those who had dismissed 
prejudice from their minds, that water was the 
agent which best removed filth from their dwell- 
ings ; though there were stiU those who, from 
want of education, prejudice, or some other 
cause, would not admit this, and continued to 
exercise their influence over municipal authori- 
ties in a contrary direction. The time, how- 
ever, was approaching when this law would not 
only be admitted, but universally acted on. 
Too frequently sewers constructed for hygienic 
purposes had been so ill-designed and con- 
structed that disease, instead of being stayed 
by their agency, had become epidemic. And 
however careful the engineer had been to see 
his work properly executed, it had been found 
a difficulty of no small magnitude to render 
the carriers of fUth innoxious. Some might say 
the difficulty never had been overcome. How 
sewers had been the means of spreading disease 
they were too painfully aware, and the con- 
tamination of air and water by modern systems 
had gone a great w.ay to foster that opposition 
to water carriage which was so apparent in the 
sanitary authorities in the northern counties. 
The object of the paper was to show how the 
air was contaminated by sewer gas, what was 
the nature of the change taking place in 
the sewers, and in what direction search should 
be made for a means of preventing air-pollution 
so as to be dangerous. Not many weeks ago a 
paper was read before one of the engineering 
societies of London, where the diffusion of sewer 
air into the exterior atmosphere was cha- 
racterised as absurd, the author of the paper 
declaring his belief that air should be im- 
prisoned in the sewers by so-called traps. Here 
was such a lamentable want of knowledge as to 
be barely credible. To prevent heated air of 
a light specific gravity ascending through a 
heavier atmosphere was as much opposed to the 
laws of nature as to prevent heavy bodies 
falling through space by gravity. Again, their 
late president informed them that the sewers of 
Bristol were not ventilated ; and, furthermore, 
that, having designed the system for that great 
city, had he to begin his work de novo means of 
ventilation would not be provided. This most 
remarkable conclusion showed that engineers 
were by no means unanimous, not only on the 
means to be adopted by which to accomplish 
ventilation, but as to whether they should or 
should not be ventilated at all. Engineers and 
sanitary authorities were apt to form opinions 
on this subject from approximate and mislead- 
ing data — the one standard with them being- 
the death rate, which had been arbitrarily fixed 
at something like 17 in 1,000. It would be a 
bold statement, but very close to the facts, to 
say that the death rate of any given town 
formed but a very rough index to the health of 
the inhabitants; therefore, because the death 
rate of Bristol was comparatively low as 
compared with other cities, and the sewers were 
unventilated, it was not a seqnitur that sewers 
did not require ventilation. Sewers must be 
ventilated. Scientific medical men, who had 
devoted years of labour to the question called 
on the engineer to accomplish the work. The 
methods that had been proposed to effect the 
ventilation of sewers had ranged from having- 
cast-iron cylinders over the sewers with furnaces 
therein, feeding exclusively on the gases, the 
flames from which were to act for street illumi- 
nation in lieu of gas, to the manufacture of 
oxygen within the sewers themselves, many of 
them highly ingenious, but showing an entire 
absence of chemical knowledge. None of them 

Aug. 2, 1878. 



had held ground after the experimental stage, 
except the attempts to neutralise the air by 
placing charcoal between the sewer and the 
point of exit at the ventilator. But this so- 
called system of ventilation had been almost 
entirely aViandoned. Charcoal, by impeding 
the entrance of atmospheric air into the sewers, 
practically sealed them, and brought about all 
the conditions found in sewers entirely without 
ventilation. So that after nearly 40 years' dis- 
cussion they came back to open ventilation as 
the best-known practicable means of rendering 
sewer air innoxious, or of assimilating it to the 
air of the surrounding atmosphere. The dis- 
posal of sewer air by carrying pipes up the 
aides of houses was a mistake, as it impeded the 
free action of the currents, unless they were of 
such large diameters as practically could not be 
obtained. Sewer ventUation by rain-water or 
■other pipes of small diameter could not be 
accomplished. To. pass sewer air up such 
columns there must be either pressure from 
below or an induced current, and the action of 
ventilators constructed for the latter purpose 
had recently been proved .abortive. The best 
method of ventilating sewers, if practicable, 
was to have them open. If all sewers could be 
open impervious conduits no such gases as were 
now found would exist, the air in the sewers 
being brought to a similar condition to that of 
the surrounding atmosphere, and the requisite 
changes to produce organic matter would be 
absent. If engineers saw their way to have open 
sewers practicable, the question ended, and, 
when designing them, the nearer they attained 
this the nearer had they solved the problem. 

Mr. AsH5iEAD (Bristol), the ex-president, said 
he thought Mr. Clark had proved too much. 
He had proved that no method of ventilation had 
succeeded, and that the only thing that should 
be done now was to have open sewers. Con- 
sequently no ventilation would be required. 
He was not there to advocate the non-ventila- 
tion of sewers, but the Bristol sewers had been 
in operation ten and twenty, and some thirty 
years, without any complaint of the want of 
ventilation, and their medical officer was so 
satisfied tliat they did not require ventilation 
that he believed that in less than ten years all 
municipal and sanitary engineers would come 
to the same opinion. He might state that after 
the meeting at Bristol Mr. Kawlinson sent down 
Major Tulloch, who, having been taken over the 
works, and had some of the sewers opened for 
his inspection, expressed himself perfectly 
satisfied that ventilation was not required. 
Under those circumstances he (Mr. Ashmead) 
should be very wrong to recommend his board 
to spend £10,000 or .£12,000 in putting ventila- 
tors in the streets. 

Mr. Lemon (Southampton) said he did not 
think Mr. Clark intended to say that no method 
of ventilation had succeeded. He merely 
showed that if they could get open sewers it 
would be the very best thing to do, as an illus- 
tration of the reason why they should get as 
much ventilation as possible. In other words 
they should provide, not only ample means of 
letting out the impure air, but also ample 
means of letting pure air in, so as to provide for 
the proper diffusion of the gases. He had made 
a subterranean survey, and measured up a large 
amount of ihe Metropolitan sewer system, and 
he might say that he never enjoyed better 
health in his life. This was due to the very 
excellent way in which the sewers were venti- 
lated — to the large volume of air in them in 
proportion to the amount of sewage matter 
flowing through them. He was thoroughly 
convinced that sewers must be ventilated as 
much as possible, and he thought that attempts 
on the -part of engineers to bottle up stinks was 
a mere farce. They could not prevent the 
escape of gases. What were called sewer traps 
were mere delusions and snares. In nine cases 
out of ten they were siphons, and not traps at 
all ; and the very best thing they could do was 
to make sewers and house drains as open and 
free as possible. He thought he could support 
Mr. Ashmead in one particular, and that was 
that there was not that necessity for the venti- 
lation of sewers if the sewers were properly de- 
signed for their work ; and he would say this of 
the Bristol sewers, that they were very excellent 
and well devised, and proportioned to the work 
they had to do. They had all excellent fall 

deposit at all, and as gases were only generated 
by the decomposition of f iBCal matter, there was 
very little need for ventilation with a proper 
fall and a proper supply of water. He agreed 
with Mr. Clark that the death-rate in towns 
was in a great measure delusive. It did not 
follow that because the death-rate of a town 
was low the town was a healthy one. They 
should rather take what was called the disease 
rate. He knew that in his own town there was 
a very low death-rate, wliilst the returns fur- 
nished by the medical officer showed that there 
was a very great amount of disease. They ought 
to ventilate their sewers, and they ought to 
ventilate their house drains. 

After remarks from several other members in 
favour of open ventilation, 

Mr. AsHHKAu said his opinion was that the 
thing to be done was to ventilate the house- 
drains and cut them off from the main sewers. 

Mr. Ellice- Clark having replied, thanks 
were voted to him and to Mr. Hewson for their 
papers. Thanks were also voted to the presi- 
dent for the able manner in which he had eon- 
ducted the proceedings, and the meeting termi- 

Tarantelli, Teramo, Italy ; and — Kedard, 
Fribourg, Switzerland ; and MM. I'ottier, 
Villers Cotterets, Aisne ; Hachst, St. Quentin, 
Aisne (secretaries), and Derivrif, Noyou, Oise 
(treasurer and editor of the Journal des Geo. 

The proceedings of the congress terminated 
with a vote of thanks to M. Lefi'-vro de Lucy 
(the president), proposed by Mr. Bydo, and 
carried by acclamation. After the conclusion 
of the business, the foreign delegates were 
entertained by the French committee at a 
"banquet confraternel " at the French res- 
taurant in the grounds of the Exhibition, and 
about l.'JO members assembled. Tlie English, 
deputation were placed on the right, the 
Italian on the left of the president. After 
dinner, M. Lef^vre was presented by tlie sur- 
veyors of France with a gold commemorative 
medal. The utmost cordiality marked the 
whole proceedings, and the objects for which 
this interesting congress took place were in 
every respect achieved. 

On the Monday the various representatives 
attended at the Tuileries to confirm and sign 
the minutes of the congress. 


AN International Congress of Surveyors, 
convened by the Central Committee of 
the Surveyors of France, was held at Paris on 
the 18th, ioth, and 20th July, and formed one 
of the series of congresses held at the Palais 
du Trocadero by authorisation of the Minister 
of Agriculture and Commerce. 

Representatives from England, Italy, Ger- 
many, Belgium, Spain, and Switzerland took 
part in the proceedings. In response to an in- 
vitation from the president of the Societe des 
Geometres of France the Institution of Sur- 
veyors of London sent three delegates — -viz., 
Mr. E. Ryde (vice-president), Mr. Charles J. 
Sboppee (member of council), Mr. J. W. Pen- 
fold (honorary secretary), together with Mr. 
J. C. Rogers (acting secretary). 

At the first day's sitting the congress was 
constituted under the presidency of M. Lefevre 
de Lucy, President of the Central Committee of 
the Surveyors of France. An executive com- 
mittee was next appointed, composed of vice- 
presidents — one nominated by each nationality 
— Mr. Ryde being the English representative. 
M. Lefiivre was then chosen, by acclamation, 
president of an international committee for the 
permanent supervision of the objects of the 

The second and third days were occupied in 
considering the various questions proposed for 
discussion by the French committee. These 
related, first, to the adoption of some guarantee 
of professional competency; secondly, to the 
comparative merits of the cadastral survey of 
the various countries represented at the con- 
gress, to the improvement of the methods of 
property registration as practised on the Con- 
tinent, and to the best form for the public 
maps, plans, descriptions, and valuations of 
the various kinds of landed and house pro- 
perty as a basis for the equalisation of taxa- 

The English delegation laid before the con- 
gress a statement descriptive of the positions 
and functions of the various branches of the 
profession in England. 

In the course of the discussion the ordnance 
survey of England was described, as also the 
English system of valuation for the purposes 
of local and imperial taxation. English ord- 
nance maps on the various scales were pre- 
sented to the French central committee, 
together with copies of the published volumes 
of the " Transactions of the Institution of 

The articles of discussion prepared by the 
French committee were (with certain modifica- 
tions) accepted in the form of resolutions. 
The establishment of a permanent international 
congress, with the following representatives 
as a provisional committee, with power to add 
to their number, was agreed to : — President, 
M. Lefevre de Lucy, France ; vice-presidents, 
MM. BucaUle, Havre, France; Edward Ryde, 
England ; Dr. W. Jordan, Carlsrhue, Ger- 
many ; Paul de Jaer, Bruxelles, Belgium ; 


Alrewas and Wichnor. — The members of 
the North Staffordshire Field Club, and the 
Burton Natural History Society, visited Alrewas 
and Wichnor on the 20th July. In the church- 
yard of the former village Mr. Scrivener read 
an historical paper, and pointed out remains of 
the Norman church, and fine Early Enghsh of 
lower part of chancel. In the 16th century a 
complete clerestory was put up all round the 
church at one time— an unusual circumstance. 
There is in the church a quantity of beautiful 
carved wood word of the latter part of the 15th 
century. Some of this has been used to embel- 
lish the stalls, and many fragments are pre- 
served in an antique chest, which is in itself 
one of the curiosities of the place. The nave 
and south aisle were carefully restored in 1851 
by Mr. Christian, and the chancel in 1877 by 
Mr. Basil Champneys. From Alrewas the 
party walked to Wichnor Hall, where were seen 
a number of curiosities, and in the hall a fuLl- 
sized model of a flitch of bacon now hangs, with 
an old inscription underneath relating the par- 
ticulars of the presentation of a flitch on like 
terms to that at Dunmow. Wichnor Church 
was also visited, and was described by Mr. 

and the result was that there vas very little [ Dionisio Casanal, Saragossa, Spain; Raphael applications, 

On Saturclay week Holy Trinity Chnrcb, Clee, was 
re-opened after restoration. Mr. Fowler was the 
architect. The alterations have been extensive, 
the transept, porch, buttresses, eastern tower, and 
a number of seats being entirely new. In addition 
several new pinnacles h.avc been added to the old 
tower, ami a new slated roof over the nave, &c. 
The entire cost will be nearly £2,000. The church 
is Early Norman. 

A new United Methoilist Free Church and school- 
rooms have been lately op»ned at Gannislake, near 
Tavistock. The style" is Gothic, and the building 
is of Cornish granite, and blue and white vitrified 
brick from the neighbourhood, and will seat 360 
persons. The cost, includlnpr land, is about £1,100. 
The architect is Messrs. L. Knight and Sons, 
Gnnnslakc; the contractor, Mr. Isaac Rosekilly, 
Albaston, Calstock. On its completion the trustees 
presented the contractor with a handsome tUver 

The Wadham-street Baptist Chapel, Weston- 
super-Mare, was re-openfd on Sunday week after 
having been enlarged and renovated. The largest 
mak6''ot Howorth's patent ventilntor has been fixed 
in the centre of the main roof. The work has been 
performed by Mr. S. Tajlor Harvey, of Weslou- 
snper-Mare. The plans were furnished by Messrs. 
Hans Price and Wooler, architects, of tbe same 
town. The cost of the whole will be £1,200. 

The contract for the carving of the cathedral of 
St. Finn Bavre, Cork, has been undertaken at a 
cost of £8,300. The amended designs, by Mr. W. 
Barges, for the sculpture, were submitted to thi 
committee some time since, and were approved of. 
It is hoped that tlia west front of this fine ftructuro 
will be finished at an early date, as the two towers 
are now erected, and Uttle, save the carving, re- 
maiuB to be done. 

The Thornton-with-FIeetwood School Board, at a 
board meeting held on Thursday, the 25th nit., 
appointed Mr. J. A. Seward, of Preston, as their 
architect for the new schools. There were nmety 



Aug. 2, 1878. 


The Escorial 

Coloured Buildinp Materials 

A Hydro-Geolo[»ical Survey 

Royal Archreolopical Institute 

HydrostheticB of the Cistern, Drain, and Sewer 
The Municipal and Sanit iry Engineers and Surveyors 

International Congress of Surveyors 


Our Lithograph 'o Illustrations 

o nipetitions 

Architectural and Areha^ologioal Societies 

Building Intelligence 




Water Supply and Sanitary Matters 

Statues, Memorials, &c 

Legal Intelligence 

Our Ofhce Table 

Trade News 





Our Lithographic Illustrations. 


The drawings we illustrate this week were 
submitted by Mr. John Kelly (Messrs. Adams 
and Kelly, architects, Leeds) in the recent 
competition. The style is Italian Eenaissance. 
The plan consists of nave, sanctuary, and 
transepts, 50ft. wide, cruciform on plan, with 
dome at the crossing, chapels of varied size and 
plan each side of nave, side entrance and 
entrance from surrounding corridor to west 
side of nave. The organ and choir occupy two 
bays of nave on east side. Large chapel on 
east side of sanctuary, a wide corridor round 
back of sanctuary, giving communication from 
east and west side of church, and to sacristies 
and house. The chief sacristy, 50ft. x 30ft. 
(arranged with separate robing press for each 
altar in the church), with altar in recess. The 
interior of the nave, sanctuary, and transepts is 
designed with pilasters and entablature of the 
Corinthian order, having attic with semicircular 
coffered ceiling. The chapels east and west 
side are entered from arches resting on enta- 
blature and pilasters of the Composite order, 
which order is carried round the chapels at the 
same level, and from which spring the coffered 
semicircular ceilings of chapels and the arches 
and pendentives of the domes and lunettes of 
tie chapels. It was intended to replace the 
material with which the pilasters, walls, &c., 
were faced with marble of various colours, as 
the funds would permit, as also to fill the coffers 
of ceilings and domes with figure subjects in 
mosaic, as well as the panels round semicircular 
ends and the sides of sanctuary. The exterior 
is designed in two orders, superimposed Corin- 
thian and Composite, with balustrading and 
statues, and niches, itc, for statuary. The 
principal entrances are from three doorways 
into the south front, deeply recessed, to serve 
as porches, with double doors. Next week we 
shall illustrate Mr. Clutton's design. 


The Church of St. Mary, North Petherton, is a 
fine example of late fifteenth-century work, with 
a chancel the foundation of which is of earlier 
date ; the only remaining portions of this style 
are the shafts of presumably stone groining of 
the roof, and the earlier pitch of the chancel 
roof. But the whole fabric must have been so 
entirely "restored" by the later additions that 
it can only now be classed as one of the late 
fifteenth-century churches so well known in 
Somersetshire. The general scheme includes 
new roof to chancel, restoration of the existing 
nave and aisle roofs, re-seating the nave, choir 
stalls for chancel, but very little exterior work 
being contemplated. It is proposed to carry 
out the works as funds permit, and in separate 
contracts ; but the estimate given by Messrs. 
Wall and Hook, the builders, is about ^£.3,000 
for the whole scheme. One of the principal 
features in the church is the wonderfully 
elaborate tower, which, with perhaps the ex. 
ception of Huish Episcopi, in the same county, 
is one of the finest examples of the late 
fifteenth-century tower, common to this part of 
the county. The works will commence with 

the flooring and raising the sanctuary floor, and 
it is then hoped to commence the seating, and 
in the plans care has been taken to preserve all 
the Jacobean seats, which are of interesting 
design, and to place them lower by removing a 
huge sill, which is an idea of the early part cf 
this century. The aim of the architect has 
been to preserve every portion of the old work 
that has not entirely fallen into decay, and the 
greatest care will be taken that no " new work" 
will be inserted where it is possible to retain 
the old. Mr. William Scott Champion is the 
architect, and Messrs. Wall and Hooke, of 
Briuscombe, the builders. 


This building is one of the earliest examples 
of the revival of the Jacobean and Queen Anne 
styles in London, having been erected in 
18G0-70. The premises were built for Mr. 
Joseph Ashton, and have been let ever since 
to Messrs. Speaight and Sons, the well-known 
printers. 7^o meet the growing demands of 
their business a new story has recently been 
added in the curb roof shown in our illustra- 
tion. It will be seen that the design is espe- 
cially adapted to afford the utmost amount of 
light to the compositors. Mr. Gundry is the 


This design, by Mr. A. J. Adams, for the new 
buildings of the Diocesan Seminary of the 
Roman Catholic diocese of Southwark, gained 
the second prize in a liuiited competition of 
six architects. The building provides accom- 
modation for eighty inmates, students and 
professors. The plan is arranged so as to pre- 
serve some fine trees at present on the site, and 
to give views to the living-rooms over the 
gardens. The estimated cost was je24,CK)0. 
The style is English Gothic of a collegiate 



Antwerp. — An important competition at 
Antwerp, for the erection of a new palace of 
the Fine Arts, has just been decided by a jury 
named partly by the Belgian Government and 
partly by the town of Antwerp. The jury 
unanimously placed first the design marked 
" Kunst brengt Gunst," submitted by M. Jean 
Jacques Winders, of Antwerp, architect of the 
town hall of Gilly, and of numerous other 
buildings in Belgium ; 2, " Eubens ter cere," 
author, M. Blomuie, architect, of Antwerp; 3, 
"Antwerpen," author M. Van der Hegge, 
architect, of Brussels; 4 (bracketted together 
as of equal merit), " Die Treppe der Kunst sind 
schwer zir Steigen." author, M. Jean de Coster, 
architect, of Antwerp, and " Heart in a Circle," 
author, M. Joseph Schadde, architect, of the 
same town ; 5, " Kunst veredelt let wolk," 
author, M. Ernest Dieltiens, architect, of 
Antwerp. With regard to the execution of the 
work it has been decided by the municipality 
of Antwerp that the authors of the five selected 
designs having all exceeded the sum named for 
the erection of the building, they will be 
invited to remodel their plans in accordance 
with the conditions of the competition and a 
final decision will then be arrired at. 

AsHFORD, Kent. — The board received 29 
designs from various architects in competition 
for the new board schools. The designs were 
exhibited to the public at the Assembly Rooms, 
Ashford, on the 10th inst. The board had 
several meetings to consider the designs, and on 
the 22nd instant they decided that the design 
bearing the motto "Abccodaire" should be 
selected for the premium of £20, and that the 
author thereof, whose name and address 
appeared, on opening the sealed paper, to be Mr. 
J. T. Hanson, architect, of 5, York-buildings, 
Adelphi, W.C., and of Dover, be appointed the 
architect to carry out the designs. The board 
also decided to select the design bearing the 
motto " Tuition " for the premium of ^£10, the 
author of which is Mr. W. R. King, architect, 
Hardinge-road, Ashford. 

BowDON. — The designs submitted by Messrs. 
0. Edwards and W. Owen, of Manchester and 
Rhyl, North Wales, have been selected in 
limited competition for a new Baptist chapel 
and shools, to be erected at Bowdon, Cheshire. 
The chapel is to seat 500 persons and to cost 

about iE2,000, and will be built in the Italian 

style of architecture. 

Leek Fever Hospital. — At the meeting of 
the Leek (Staff.) Improvements Commissioners 
on Tuesday week, the sanitary committee pre- 
sented a report in which they stated that 
having further considered the selected plans 
for the proposed fever hospital, they recom- 
mended those bearing the undermentioned 
mottoes, in the following order of merit : — 1st, 
"Epidemiology;" 2nd, "Cave Pestem ;" 3rd, 
"Health;" 4th, " Esperance." This subject 
gave rise to a long and somewhat angry dis. 
cussion. Mr. Challinor, chairman of the com- 
mittee, said that, in making the iinal selection 
of the four plans which they considered the 
best, the committee obtained the advice of the 
surveyor, the medical officer of health, and the 
sanitary inspector, and were unanimous in 
placing the plan marked " Epidemiology " 
first. Mr. Critchlow considered that the con. 
ditions submitted to the seventeen competing 
architects were extremely vague and unsatisfac- 
tory. He minutely criticised the plan marked 
"Epidemiology," and complained that infor- 
mation had been given to the author of that 
plan which had not been afforded to the other 
competitors. The surveyor (Mr. Frost) said 
that he had estimated the cost of the four plans 
respectively to be — No. 1, .£1,700; No. 2, 
£2,031; No. 3, £2,156; No. 4, £1,743. Mr. 
Watson said that some unpleasant reports 
were going about the town to the effect that 
although the plans had been sent in with 
mottoes, it was known by whom a certain 
plan had been drawn up. He wished to .ask if 
it were true that it was known by any gentle- 
man at the board or any officer connected with 
the board who had sent in certain plans. He 
thought they might fairly assume that No. i 
plan belonged to Mr. Taylor. The chairman 
said this was the first time he had heard of 
it. Mr. Watson said that no doubt the 
Commissioners were aware that Mr. Taylor had 
sent in a bill of £40 for work previously done 
for the board, and that it had been rejected by 
the finance committee. It had been stated in- 
the town that it was two to one, if Mr. Taylos 
won the day, this £40 would be thrown in. That 
was the current report, and if that were so it 
was a great shame that gentlemen should have 
been invited to send in plans which were worth 
at least £200. i'or the honour of the board it 
.should be made public whether or no any one 
knew that a particular plan belonged to Mr. 
Taylor. It had also been stated that a plan 
from the Local Government Board had been 
shown to Mr. Taylor which had not been sub. 
mitted to the other competitors. It appeared 
to him, looking at the fact of this £40 bill 
staring them in the face, that this was some- 
thing like bribery and intimidation. Two 
members protested that the committee had no 
knowledge of the author of any particular 
plan, and eventually Mr. Watson's amend- 
ment, that the four plans selected be submitted 
to the Local Government Inspector to advise 
the Commissioners which were the first and; 
second best plans, was carried. 

A memorial wiodow, designed by Mr. W. Barges, 
architect, has been trected in St. Canice's Cathedral, 
Kilkenny. It ba3 been placed in the we^t end of 
tbe north aisle, and represents two scenes from the 
life of Our Blessed Saviour. In one he is repre^ 
sented calming the storm, " Peace, be etill," and in 
the other speaking the words, *' Consider the lilies 
of the field." 

The new Catholic church of SS. Peter and Panl, 
Kilmallock, co. Limerick, is progressing rapidly, 
from the designs and under the superintendence of 
Mr. J. J. McCarthy, R.H.A. 

Alterations and repairs are about to be made to 
St. M.ark's Church, Dublin, from drawings, &a., 
prepared by J. P. Fuller, F.S.A. 

A new church (Roman Catholic) is in course of 
erection at Inchicore, co. Dublin, for the Fathers of 
the Order of Mary Immaculate. It consists of nave, 
aisles, and chancel, with four side chapels. When 
finished, it will have cost about £11,000. Mr. 
G. C- Ashlin, 90, St. Stephen's-green, ia the 

The foundation stones of a new Conservative Clnb 
were laid at Higher Ardwick on Saturday last. The 
estimated cost of the new building is a little over 
£3,000. The architects are Messrs. Slater and 
Kendal, of Manchester, and the contractors Messrs. and Todd, Lower Broughton. 

The Building Rews, Aug 2. 1^7^. 

TtL'Hrri y H • OF • f THcf^tj 



I ■ I " I I I M I U 

^c<ae . qfj^y^Kt^ 

Jra,sAiirmm.6,Qu..D Sooire.WC 

The Building Rews Aug 2 IZ7Z 

Scott •Chatiipiori 


Pho»oLitho)^ra|ih«dMVinl»^ by Joa)*sAkeiiD«i.6, Queen Squ*r«,W C 


IrJ fciK A » - *, *i 4: 


Aucx. 2, 1878. 



Bristol and CiLorrKsTERsiiiRE Arch.ko- 
LooicAL Society. — The third annual nieetin},' 
of this society was opened on Tuesday at 
Brist<jl. On Wednesday an excursion was made 
to Westbury, llenbury, and Almoudsbury ; and 
an evening,' meetinfj was held at the Bristol 
Mu-^eum, when Alderman Fox read a paper on 
the "Ancient Guilds of Bristol." This was 
followed by several papers.purely archaeological, 
and dealing for the most part with local 
matters, and, in conclusion, Mr. J. T. Irvine 
read a paper on the Roman remains at Berke- 
ley, and some relics at Cirencester. He first 
referred to some bases of columns of Roman 
work that were found worked up into a sort 
of box of bricks and stone at Berkeley. The 
box itself was not very old, but the stones of 
which it was made were exceedingly old Roman 
work. Sketches of these and some old nionu- 
tuental slabs in the church were exhibited 
tot^ether with sketches of a remarkablesidetabli 
and stand found at Cirencester ; also part of the 
cornice of a temple that must have been finer 
than any at liath, and apparently earlier 
date and of purer style. Mr. Irvine believed 
that a person residing at Cirencester mijjht 
readily reconstruct the cornice from the frag- 
ments in the Cirencester Museum. 

Kent A'.-ch.eological Society. — The 
annual meeting- of this society was held on 
Wednesday at Bromley. Earl Amherst, who 
has for many years been the president, was re- 
elected, a considerable number of new members 
were admitted, and a prosperous balance-sheet 
was exhibited. The members then proceeded 
to Chislehurst Church, wh'ch has been restored. 
The chief object of attraction was the monu- 
ment to the murdered Bonars, with the curious 
inscription which Mr. Gladstone once referred 
to in the House of Commons, in which it is 
stated that the husband and wife had long 
wished to die at the same moment, and that this 
wish was accomplished unexpectedly by the 
murderous hand of one of their domestics, who 
was duly executed for the crime, and whose 
skeleton long remained in Dr. Ilott's surgery 
at Bromley. The archsEologists next drove 
through Scadbury park to Frognal, the seat of 
Earl Sydney, where Queen Elizabeth visited 
Walsingham, her famous secretary. Having 
inspected the collection of historic pictures and 
medallions, the archajologists partook of 
luncheon. Progress was next made to King 
John's Palace, at Elthaui, of which, however, 
nothing remains but the ancient hall. Mr. 
Wolhiston pointed out its beauties and pecu- 
liarities, and also narrated its past history. 
The bridge across the moat was acknowledged 
as a splendid specimen of mediaeval construction. 
The Leicestershire Architectural and 
Arch.eological Society. — The summer meet- 
ing of this society was held at Cambridge, on 
the 10th and 17th ult. The members and 
friends assembled at the University Arms 
Hotel on the morning of the lOth, and first 
visited the various collections of pictures, 
statuary, engravings, mediaeval illuminations, 
Greek coins, and local Romano-British anti- 
quities in the FitzwiUiam Museum, throughout 
which they were conducted by the director. 
Professor Colvin. After luncheon they were 
escorted through the chapel, hall, library, & 

attended evensong in the chapel of Henry VI., 
and afterwards inspected the curious passage 
between the ceiling and the roof. 'I'he next day 
began with a visit to Gonville and Caius College, 
where Mr. Ben.sly, fellow and librarian, com- 
mented upon the portraits and other treasures 
of the hall, combination-room, and library. 
Similar attention was received from Mr. Atkin- 
son at Trinity Hall, where the original method 
of securing books to the library desks was 
shown and explained. After a few minutes 
under Dr. Luard's guidance in Great St. Mary's 
Church, Mr. Bradahaw (University librarian) 
exhibited and commented upon some of the most 
notable manuscripts and early printed books in 
the University library, and after a few moments 
in the Senate House, the party proceeded to 
Trinity College, where they were received by 
Mr. Cobb, senior fellow, and the Rev. R. .Sinker, 
librarian of the college. Full justice was done 
to the noble series of portraits which adorned 
the chapel, and to the wondrous tones of the 
organ. The Rev. Professor Mayer and Professor 
C. C. Babington gave a lucid history of the 
architecture of St. John's College in its various 
stages, and especially of the new chapel by Sir 
Gilbert Scott, and of its predecessor. Early 
college plat* and service books were also shown. 
After luncheon Mr. Pattrick exhibited and ex- 
plained the most notable books and engravings 
in the Pepysian library, whence, after viewing 
some traces of old Camboritum and the later 
fortifications of Castle-hill, the visitors in- 
spected the very early Norman Church of St. 
Peter, and its modern neighbour, that of St. 
Giles, and concluded their afternoon with the 
School of Pythagoras and a glance at Milton's 
mulberry tree in the gardens of Christ's College. 

of Peterhouse, where the stained glass of the 
fifteenth . century east window commanded 
general attention, as did likewise the painted 
window recently added from the designs of 
Professor Ainmitller, of Munich. At the adja- 
cent church of St. Mary the Less the vicar 
was in readiness, and pointed out the architec- 
tural features. The next point made was 
Queen's, the college of Erasmus, where Mr. 
Clark and the Rev. A. Wright guided through 
the gardens, chapel hall, and library of their 
Old House, which bears a striking resemblance 
to Haddon Hall, both in its ground-plan and its 
internal arrangement. In the library, amongst 
other treasures, there was shown a noble folio 
manuscript of St. Augustine, and a very in- 
teresting tr.ansitinnal Prayer-book issued in the 
reign of Henry VIH. Thence passing through 
the quadrangle of St. Katherine's College, the 
visitors entered the library of Corpus Christi 
College, passed through the ninth-century 
tower and restored church of St. Benedict, 

A glebe-house is beinpr bnllt at Killesk, according 
to the plans of Mr. J. F. Fuller, F.S.A., who also 
designed the new church adjoining. 

The Rev. Canon Finlayaon is at prespnt prepar- 
ing a book for pre!>s on " The Ancient Monuments 
in Christ Cbnrch " (Dublin), which, it is 
expected, will possess much interesting matter from 
an antiquarian point of view. 

The works in connection with the " Chri.stian 
Union Buildings," Lower Abbey-street, Dublin, 
are being hurried on to completion with all possible 
pted, so that they may he completed within the 
ime specified in the contract. Messrs. M. Guhan 
and Sons, Harcourt-street, are the contractors for 
the work ; Mr. Alfred Jones being the architect. 

A vicarage house is in coarse ff erection for the 
benefice of Kirby Moorside, near York, at a cost of 
^2,000, from the designs, and under the superin- 
tendence, of Mr. J. Mitchell Bottomley, of the firm 
of Messrs. Armfield and Bottomley, architects, of 
Middlesbro'-on-Teea and Whitby ; the contractor is 
Mr. Thomas Wood, of Pickering. 

A new swimming balh was opened at Bridgnorth 1 
on Tuetday week. It has been built from drawings 
supplied by Mr. George Fletcher, of Bridgnorth, 
who has superintended its construction. Tho bath 
is 40ft. by 17ft., with a depth varying from 2ft (5in. 
to 4ft. 6in., having platforms arranged to allow 
access to the open river. It is built upon pontoons 
extending the full length. 

The death is announced of Mr. Thomas Oldham, 
LL.D. (Dublin), F.R S., the well-ki-own geologist. 
From 1646 to 1851 Professor Oldham was chief of 
the geological survey in Ireland, and from 1851 to 
187(5 he held a similar appointment in India, and 
was also director of the Geological Museum of 

On Friday the new wing was opened of the eon 
vent of Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul 
Carlisle-place, Westminster. The new wing is built 
from the designs of Mr. Henry Chitton, of five 
stories, with large basement. It contains large 
work-room, a chapel some 20ft. longer than the 
present one, end two large dormitories extending 
the whole length of the building, providing accom- 
modation for 5U additional inmates. These rooms 
are light, lofty, and well ventilated. 

A BOW Congrcsational chapel is about to be built 
near the Roth'T-market, Stratford-oa-Avon. The 
designs are Gothic, and were prepared by BIr. 
H. J. Paull, of London and Manchester. The 
tender of Messrs. Roberta and Son. of Stratford, 
has been accepted at i;2,y70, and ^274 for lecture' 
hall, and the work will be commenced at once. The 
chapel will seat 400. 

The new church of All Saints, Middlesbrough, 
recently erected from designs by Mr. Street, R A., 
was consecrated by the Archbishop of York on 

A new church is about to be built at Eastthe- 
Water, near Bideford, from the designs of Mr. Bry- 
den, at an estimated cost of ^61,500. 

Builliiug Inttlliscucc. 

ALViiiNaTON. — The parish church of 
Alphington, South Devon, was re-opened on 
Thursday week, after restoration by Messrs. 
Stephens and Son, of Exeter, under the direc- 
tion of Messrs. Hay ward and Son, architects, at 
a cost of i4,5UO. "The walls of the south aisle 
have been almost entirely rebuilt, the chancel 
has been lengthened, and the piers and arches 
have been restored to the perpendicular. The 
roofs of the church are entirely new, the old 
floor has been taken up, the vaults filled in, and 
a bed of concrete laid under the new floor to 
prevent the rise of exhalations from the human 
remains beneath. The old gallery, which ex. 
tended across the whole width of the church, 
has been removed, and the tower arch opened 
to view. The other alteration made is the 
erection of a vestry on the south side, with a 
loft over it for a large organ. The steps in the 
sacrarium are of Devonshire marble, the floor 
being laid with Godwin's tiles. The upper part 
of the porch had to be rebuilt, and as there 
were evident traces of the existence of a former 
niche, it was determined to build a new one, 
which has been filled by a statue of the patron 
saint, executed by Mr. Harry Hems. The wood 
and stone carving, except the statue of St. 
Michael, has been done by Mr. Sendell, o£ 

Ashton-dndeeLtne. — The new church of 
the Holy Trinity, Ashton-under-Lyne, was con- 
secrated on Wednesday week. The church has) 
been designed and superintended by Messrs. 
Medland and Henry Taylor, of Manchester, and 
the works have been carried out by Messrs 
William Storrs and Co., Staly bridge. The cost, 
Xll.OOO to .£12,000, includes the boundary 
fencing to church, vicarage, and schools. The 
church will seat 700. The plan presents somo 
unusual features. The aisles are continued 
right round the chancel, which is apsidal, with 
nine arches between the chancel or choir and 
the surrounding aisle. The church consists of 
a broad nave, 20tt. across, with north and south 
aisles, each about 15ft. wide, also a western 
lean-to aisle (or narthex), divided into three 
parts — viz.. a north west and a south-wes^ 
porch, and between them a baptistery, with 
windows on the north and south sides looking 
into the porches. There are three narrow 
arches at the western end of the nave, resting 
on four granite pillars ; an arch, of the same 
width as the three at the west end, on each 
side of the nave, forms the first and short bay. 
There are, on each side of the nave, four other 
larger and loftier arches opening into the 
aisles. The style is Early Pointed, and the 
material red brick, with stone dressings. The 
chancel paving was supplied by Mr. W. Godwin, 
of Withington, and all the painted windows 
are by Messrs. Heaton, Butler, and Bayne. 

BoLsovER. — The re-opening of the parish 
church of Bolsover took place on Tuesday, 
July 16th. The church, which was in a very 
deplorable state, has been thoroughly restored. 
The additions made consist of a large north 
aisle and arcade, and entire new roofs through- 
out (the architect was anxious to preserve 
the low 15th century roof over the nave, but it 
was found to be in such a state of decay that 
it was impossible to do so), re-building the 
chancel arch, adding an organ chapel, and the 
complete renovation of the chancel, which is 
fitted with oak stalls, stone credence table and 
sedilia, and a reredos of Bath stone, with 
crccketted canopies. The floor is laid with 
tiles of simple design. The whole of the seats 
are of deal, stained. The roof is covered with 
red Staffordshire tiling. The work has been 
well carried out by Messrs. Shillitoe and 
Morgan, of Campsall, near Doncaster, under 
the superintendence of the architect, Mr. J. D. 
Mitchell-Withers, of Sheffield. The total cost 
is expected to be about X0,000. 

CnE.sTER. — On Thursday week a new Nist 
Prius Court wag opened at Chester. Mr. T. M. 
Lockwood, of Chester, is the architect. The 
style adopted is the Doric, which precludes side 
windows ; pilasters of that order divide the 
walls info compartments. Along the top of the 
pillars runs an entablature, above which are a 
series of semicircular arches forming recessed 



Attg. 2, 1878, 

panels in tlie wall, and from above these the 
roof is carried. The builder is Mr. Samuel 
Warbnrton, of Manchester. The court affords 
accommodation for 250 persons engaged in the 
business of the court, and 200 spectators. The 
cost is about X12,000. 

Haughley, Suffolk. — The completion of 
restoration of the interior of the parish church 
of St. Mary was celebrated on Thursday week. 
The church is chiefly Early English, and con- 
sists of chancel, nave, and south aisle, with 
tower at the west end of the aisle. The fine oak 
roof of the nave was restored 8 years since, the 
sum then expended being i£400, and this has 
been followed by the entire restoration of the 
chancel, where are new benches and reading 
desks as well as a new oak roof. This work 
has cost jE-iOO. In the nave the ugly old pews, 
which faced in all directions, have been re- 
moved, and their place taken by oaken benches. 
A new vestry chamber has been buUt, the floors 
of both nave and chancel laid with Minton's 
tiles, and the communion table — of oak — is 
new. The cost approaches XI, 200, and the work 
has been carried out by Messrs. Ludkin and 
Sons, Banham, Norfolk, the architect being Mr. 
Frere, of London. 

Incokporated Church Building Society. 
— The Incorporated Society for Promoting the 
Enlargement, Building, and Eepairing of 
Churches and Chapels held its last meeting for 
the present session on Monday, July 15th. 
Grants of money were made in aid of — Re- 
building the churches at Eadstock, near Bath ; 
Upton Noble, St. Mary, near Bath. Enlarging 
or otherwise improving the accommodation in 
the churches at Ampney, St. Peter, near Cir- 
encester ; Avebury, St. James, near Calne, 
"Wilts ; Ilchester, near Taunton ; Kenfig, near 
Bridgend, Glamorgan ; Rodney Stoke, near 
Weston-super-Mare ; and Wells, St. Cuthbert, 
Somerset. Under urgent circumstances the 
grants formerly made towards the enlarging 
and restoring the churches at Huish, near 
Marlborough, Wilts, and South Normanton, 
near Alfreton, Derby, were each increased. 
During the session thus concluded, the sum 
TOted by the society in aid of the various works 
brought before them has been ^£12,471. 

Kensal.oreen. — St. Jude's, Queen's Park, 
to be opened to-morrow, forms the chief 
feature of a group of buildings to be hereafter 
completed by the addition of a parsonage- 
bouse. It is in the Early English style ; stock 
bricks, with red bands and arches, being used 
throughout, and the whole covered with a tile 
roof, 50ft. high at the apex. All the sittings in 
the church are placed in the nave under a roof 
of 40ft. span, the nave being separated from 
the aisle passages by a well-proportioned 
arcade, thus affording to every member of the 
congregation a view of the pulpit and reading- 
desk. The building is lighted principally by a 
clerestory and aisle windows, with a large four- 
light window at the west end. The church 
contains 800 sittings, and has been erected at 
a total cost of .£0,000, inclusive of tower and 
spire, but exclusive of boundary wall and font, 
by Mr. Wheeler, of Highgate, under the per- 
sonal superintendence of Mr. John T. Lee, of 
15, Great James-street, Bedford-row, W.C. 
The pulpit is executed in Calne stone, with 
marble columns, selected from various quarries, 
and has been given by the widow of the late 
Mr. Benjamin Shaw. 

Metropolitan Board or Works. — At the 
weekly meeting of this board, on Friday, the 
tender of Messrs. Eastou and Anderson was 
accepted for additional pumps at Crossness and 
the Effra and Falcon-brook outlets at £7,700, 
and a schedule of prices for ironwork. For the 
formation of a sewer and carriage and footways 
in the line of the improvement from Shoreditch 
High-street and Gibraltar-gardens, Messrs. 
NoweU and Robson's tender at dei9,490 was 
accepted. This was the lowest tender but one 
of eight received. It was agreed to erect ten 
ventilating pipes, with cowls, in Lower-road 
and High-street, Deptford, in order to obviate 
the nuisance caused by effluvia from the low- 
level sewers. The works committee submitted 
a lengthy report, of which the following is the 
ofBcial abstract printed on the agenda paper : 
— " From the facts and circumstances which 
have come to the knowledge of the committee, 
relative to the past and present interested con- 

nection of Mr. Joseph Storey, the representative 
at this board of the parish of St. Luke, with 
property in that parish, required for the board's 
improvement scheme in Whiteoross-street, 
under the Artisans' Dwellings Act, and for the 
local improvement in Golden-lane, now being 
carried out by the same vestry, and to the cost 
of which the board have agreed to contribute a 
moiety ; and from the fact that a claim is now 
before the committee, signed by Mr. Storey 
and his co-adventurers, demanding a sum of no 
less than £47,052, in respect of property in 
which he is largely interested, the committee 
are of opinion that Mr. Storey's duties, as a 
member of the Metropolitan Board of Works, 
are in complete conflict with the private 
interests of himself and of his co-adventurers, 
and that his conduct in relation to the proper- 
ties in question is calculated to reflect discredit 
upon local self-government." A memorial was 
presented, signed by 31 out of 48 members of 
St. Luke's vestry, expressing confidence in Mr. 
Storey's integrity, and sympathy with him 
under the attack of a covert enemy. Mr. 
Storey entered at great length into the circum- 
stances connected with his purchase of small 
properties in St. Luke's, and urged that he had 
done nothing to enhance the value of his 
houses since an oflicial representation had been 
made with reference to some of them, and that 
it would be unfair to prevent him from dealing 
in property because he had been elected chair- 
man of the improvements committee of the 
vestry. He should decline to withdraw from 
the board if the resolution were passed. Mr. 
Richardson stated that the facts embodied in 
the report were all taken from Mr. Storey in 
his explanations, and urged the desirability of 
passing the resolution, although the board had 
no power to compel Mr. Storey to withdraw. 
Mr. Freeman said the fact was, Mr. Storey was 
f a syndicate of three members of St. 

Luke's vestry, who had been buying and tranS' 
ferring property which it was proposed to 
acquire for public purposes; that being so, 
unless the Metropolitan Board took action in 
the matter, the public might regard it as not 
above suspicion. The resolution was carried by 
the assent of 28 out of 32 members present — 
the other four (including Mr. Storey) not 
voting. An application on behalf of the Sun- 
day School Union for the appropriation of a 
site on the Victoria Embankment for the pur- 
pose of erecting thereon a statue to the 
memory of Robert Raikes, the founder of Sun- 
day schools, was referred to the works commit- 
tee. In consequence of the retirement of Mr. 
W. Newall, Mr. C. W. White was appointed 
principal clerk in the superintending architect's 
department ; Mr. G. J. Thomas being appointed 
to discharge the duties heretofore performed by 
Mr. White in the dangerous structures ofEce ; 
and Mr. A. J. Bailey to take Mr. Thomas's 

OsBALDVPiCK. — The parish church of Osbald- 
wick, near York, was re-opened last week after 
restoration, under the care of Mr. Jno. O. 
Scott. The internal fittings, which were of the 
most inconvenient description, have been 
entirely removed, and the nave is now provided 
with open seats of oak. A new font of Caen 
stone, plain and Norman in character, has been 
fixed at tlie north end of the nave. The ceil- 
ing is lofty and waggon-headed, the rafters, 
which are stained and varnished, being so fixed 
as to foi Ji panelling, the spaces between which 
are of plaster work. The root has been 
strengthened by iron beams which extend from 
wall to wall. A new porch has been erected 
at the south side of the nave ; and on the north 
side of the chancel a new vestry has been built. 
The roof is covered in with red Staffordshire 
tiles, and there is a cresting of the same 
material. The west wall of the nave has been 
surmounted with a bell turret, extending to the 
height of 12tt. above the cresting of the roof, 
and in this are a couple of bells. The esti- 
mated cost of the restoration is £1,400. 

South Bebmondsey. — On Saturday last the 
Bishop of Rochester consecrated the chancel 
and two bays of the nave of St. Augustine's 
Church, Lynton-road, Bermondsey. The por- 
tion already completed covers an area of about 
80ft. long by 60ft. wide. It consists of chancel 
of three bays, and two bays of the nave, with 
north and south aisles ; the chancel in addition 

an ambulatory at the eastern end. The style is 
13th century Gothic of English character, the 
chancel having a square termination with three 
arches opening into the ambulatory, and three 
windows above — that in the centre being of 
three lights — the sides being of two lights. 
Owing to the ground on which the church is 
built being considerably below the level of the 
road along the north side, and the soil being 
peat for some depth, it was thought desirable 
to form a crypt under the whole of the build- 
in o-. A groined ceiling has been constructed 
of cement concrete at a height of 14ft. from 
the crypt, which forms the floor for the church. 
The chancel is 40ft. deep and 27ft. wide ; it is 
vaulted with red brick to a height of 46ft. ; 
the portions adjoining the western bays of the 
chancel on the north and south sides are 13tt. 
wide, in which seats are placed. The organ, 
built by Messrs. Bevington, is on the north 
side under the tower ; the seat for the organist 
is in a balcony under the arch opening into 
the chancel. The vestries, which are not yet 
built, wUl be on the north side of the chancel ; 
that for the clergy will adjoin the chancel aisle ; 
that for the choir wiU be in the crypt below, 
reached by the turret stair, which has concrete 
steps. The nave will be 77ft. long, in five bays, 
35ft. high to the waU plate, with a narthex 17ft. 
wide, and a large porch facing the road. The 
font, which is of red Dumfries stone, will stand 
in an octagonal baptistery at the south side of 
the narthex. The walls are faced with red 
Ijricks, with masonry of Bath stone, and Dum- 
fries stone piers. The nave will be the same 
height, and width, as the chancel, aisles 13ft., 
wide and 13ft. high to the wall plate. The 
benches, which, at present, accommodate 460 
persons, are of deal, stained black. The church 
will seat, when finished, about 1,000 adults, 
and all the sittings will be free. Messrs. 
Henry Jarvis and Sou, of Trinity -square, South- 
wark, are the architects. 

Whitley. — The new buildings of the Prud- 
hoe Memorial Convalescent Home, at Whitley, 
were opened last week. The home was origin- 
ally planned to accommodate about 70 patients; 
but the architect (Mr. Thomas Oliver, of New- 
castle), made provision in the administrative 
department for the effective working of the 
institution, should more accommodation at any 
time be added. Additions have been made to 
the building, by which accommodation is pro- 
vided for nearly 50 patients, and now about 
120 patients can be admitted. The works have 
been carried out in stone throughout, and har- 
monise with the existing buildings. The whole 
cost has been about £3,000. The new roomys 
are warmed by Messrs. Barnard and Bishop's 
patent slow combustion ventilating stoves. Mr. 
Yates has acted as clerk of the works. 

Winterton, Norfolk. — This church was 
re-opened on the 0th instant, by the Lord 
Bishop of the diocese. The nave and chancel 
have been restored at a cost of about £3,000 ; a 
further sum of £1,500 is still required to com- 
plete the restoration of the fine Transition 
Decorated and Perpendicular tower and porch. 
The work has been carried out from designs 
and under the superintendence of Mr. Herbert 
J. Green, the architect, of Lincoln's Inn-fields, 
London, W.C. ; the builder being Mr. Hubbard, 
of East Dereham. 

to wide aisles on the north and south sides has ' incumbent. 

A memorial has been presented to the Earl of 
Beaconsfield by a number of gentlemen profession- 
ally interesterl in the pi-omotion of higher education 
in London and its vicinity, representing their strong 
conviction of the importance of giving increased 
prominence to the study of ancient art as a branch 
of classical training, and asking the Premier's assent 
to the proposal to estabhsh a museum of oa'its from 
the antique, with provision for the deUvery of lectures 
upon the history of Greek sculpture, to be illustrated 
from the casts and from the coUectioas in the British 
Museum. , t v 

An altar to Our Lady with a reredos have been 
erected in the lady chapel of St. Peter's R.G. Church, 
Scarborough. The work is elaborately sculptured in 
Caen stone with alabaster columns, and has been 
executed by Mr. Earp, of London, from the designs 
of Mr. Goldie, the architect of the church. Messrs. 
Hart, Son, Peard, and Co. have just completed new 
chancel gates, in brass and u:on, also from Mr. 
Goldie's designs. 

The chancel of Brewood Church, Staffordshire, is 
about to be restored, and the east window filled 
with stained glass as a memorial to the late 

Aug. 2, 1878. 



Moro than Fifty Thousand Bepliea and 

Letton on su'jt-ctrt of Untv^rnal Inti'i«iit have sppc^in-d tlurlm; 
the Uutt len v«ai-« In the ENGLI8U UKCUA.NK; AND WORLD 
OF SCrENCE, moat of lh«m from the poim of the Iwidlnir 
- - ■ - - ■--' .-..-—...- of the day. Tli<iu«»lidit "f 

, and countluoii roc*lpta and 


rbracing ulraoitt eTory nubjci 

tlnn respMtlwfi all now 
BCientlfl*; dlscov.-rlc* and mechnnlciil Invention" U to b« found In 
Its pui;---'. "nd it(( lar^ elrculutton rondorn It the be«t niodium 
(or ftll advertlsern who wl«h their onnounotmMHii to bo brought 
nder the uoiico of manufacturers, m«c); 

, JcntlQoworker*, 

Twopence, of all btwkscUon* and now*- 
Post-free Sjd. Offlca : 31. TavUiock-BirMt, CoreuU 

[Wo do not hold oureelvpa responsible for the opinions ot 

our correspondents. The Editor respectfully requiwlrf 

that all oommimicationa should be drawn up vis briofty 

as possible, as there are many claimants upon the space 

allotted to correapondoni'e.] 

AU letters should be addressed to the EDITOR, 31» 

To Our Reapers.— We shall feel oblitred to any of our 
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sure on our space, caused by the proceedings of the 
Roval Archaeological Institute. 

PcriL. (No.) _^ 


To the Editor of the Building News. 
SiK, — A pjvragraph appearinfj in your 
columns last week in reference to the proposed 
restoration of Eye Churcli, I may, perhaps, be 
allowed a small space (as a Churchman, and one 
who was bom and bred in the town, and is still 
deeply attached to the church of his baptism, 
&c.), to say a word or two. 

I cannot help feeling, with many other art- 
lovers, that this restoration mania, though 
healthy in itself, is often of too sweeping a 
character to command the respect which it 
otherwise should ; and a case in point, amount- 
ing to rebuilding, now going on at Baxhill 
(within 20 miles of Eye) cannot tend to allay 
the worst fears of those who have any feeling 
for their fine old parish church. 

However, in the " master" hands of an artist 
like Mr. Street, we may place more confidence 
than in many another well-known restorer, and 
trust to his having that veneration for ancient 
work which will prevent him pulling down a 
single stone merely to rebuild. 

In the case of Eye it would only seem neces- 
sary (as regards the fabric) to replace all ugly 
wooden windows with characteristic stonework, 
&c., as a';so all doors, &c., and leave all string- 
courses and other masonry, though partially 
time-worn or defaced, to tell their own tale — 
merely replacing such work as is absolutely re- 
quisite for the stability of the structure. 

As regards the interior, a similar treatment, 
including the removal of all unsightly hoard- 
ings and barriers, witli the ugly and unseemly 
" pens" and " three-decker," and the substitu- 
tion of more appropriate fittings, and the get- 
ting rid of every vestige of whitewash, and the 
careful restoration of paving, and substitution [ 

of open roofs for flat ceilings, with the opening 
up and proper treatment of all disused or 
abused chancel aisles, Ac; and. of course, 
.attending to any " making good" after the 
removal of these barbarous appendages, would 
seem to include all that is necessary in the 
opinion of others besides Abchitecton. 


Sib, — In reply to a letter inserted in the 
BniLDiNa News of July 20th, I beg to state 
(as the successful competitor in the above com- 
petition) that my drawings were sent in at the 
time fixed, but were unfinished. 

Sliortly after delivering them I was kindly 
informed by the honorary secretary of a certain 
extension of time, allowed, I understood, to all 
the students — at any rate, to the competitor who 
claims " Injustice." Seeing that the time 
allowed was the same for both, I fail to see but 
one difference between us — namely, that I made 
the best possible use of the valuable time thus 
offered, whereas " Injustice," according to his 
letter " found the time simply useless to him," 
and sent his drawings back again in a few 
days. Then he tells us why the extension of 
time was useless, and the answer he gives is, 
" because his drawings were already complete " 
— i.e., finished. I suppose — so perfectly, indeed, 
that no other finishing touches were necessary. 

Where, and on what foundation, then, does 
he claim " Injustice ?" 

I may say in conclusion, that I have not had 
the pleasure of closely examining his drawings. 
— I am, &c., J. Nixon Horspield. 

Florence, Italy, July 27, 1878. 

Sib, — It is very easy to understand that an 
unsuccessful competitor feels some disappoint- 
ment at his non-success, but I regret that Mr. 
Holden imagines that it was this that prompted 
my letter. I could bear pure disappointment 
patiently, but when a competition is conducted, 
to say the least, in a most loose manner — as Mr. 
Holden's remarkable statement respecting 
extension of time proves — it is equally easy to 
understand that the result must create dis- 
satisfaction. This is my grievance. 

I do not for a moment dispute the actual 
correctness of the award, although had all the 
competitors had equal advantages it is pos- 
sible the result might have been different ; but 
I do dispute the right of a committee to deal 
with so little consideration to competitors. 

An architectural body above all others should 
be explicit and decisive in their conditions. If 
an extension of time was intended, it should 
have been officially and simultaneously notified 
to every competitor. 

I feel sure that if Mr. Holden will calmly 
consider the matter, and apply the circum- 
stance to himself, he will perfectly understand, 
if not appreciate, my annoyance. 

As to an apology, his letter has done any- 
thing but convince me that one is due from me, 
but rather I think it should come from the 
other side. 

In conclusion, I trust that, should there be 
another coaipetition next year, the conditions 
will be more carefully prepared. — I am, &c., 

Manchester, July 30. Frank L. Elton. 

Sir.— TheSoathport Corporation have advortiaed 
in the Loudon professional newspapers for an 
nsaistant in the borouKh survej-or's office, who must 
be au experienced surveyor and leveller, at a salary 
of i;i20 per annum : but in consequence of the very 
larue nnmber of applications for this situation, they 
have actually aurain ro-ndvortised the berth at 40s. per 
week wages. TakinK advantaeo of hard times m thiB 
fashion ia quite a new and strange one, and I sincerely 
hope that all of my brethren are in a position, like 
niytolf, to hold out a little longer, and at once with- 
draw his letter of application.— I am. &c.. 

One wuo Applied. 

Sib, — Perhaps " An Outsider " will kindly 
explain the following discrepancies between the 
conditions and the accepted plan : — 

Conditions. Accepted plan. 

Engine-room under hall. 

Hall being, as in no other 
plan, by means of exca- 
vation, on ground floor. 
No engine-room under. 
mo enRine-room pro- 
vided by plan at all. 

A hall, with a justices' Justices' room retiring 
room retiring there- from council chamber, 
from. Entirely cut off from 


Offices for town clerk. Only one office provided, 
and that quite inade- 
If this is the best plan, why is it contem- 
plated to alter it ? I have it on good authority 
that the five minutes' inspection was carried on 
with closed doors. — I am, &c., 

A Compeiitok. 


Dr. Eaaon Wilkinson, a well-known Manchester 
medical man ond sanitarian, died on Friday last. 

On Monday week the mpmorial stone ot a new 
Baptist chap.l was laid at Denton. The new build- 
ing will be of brick, with stone dressings, and B 
plinth of blue bricks. The aeota, which will be 
open, will accommodate 1.50 persons. The plans 
were prepared by Mr. J. In-man, Hazlewond road, 
Northampton, and the builders, Messrs. Robinaon 
and White, Denton, have cnntracted to build the 
chapel in twenty weeks for the sum of .£387. 

Monseigneur Dupanloup has issued a stirring 
appeal for subscriptioas to illustrate Joan of 
Arc's career by ten painted windows in the Orleans 
Cothedral, and to restore the old expiatory monu- 
ment, in which he saya : " To us Joan of Arc is a 
warrior, a victim, and likewise a saint : but as it 
oppertaina to the Church alone to adjudge her this 
grand title of saint, twelve of my venerated 
colleagues and I a few ycnra ago addressed the re- 
quest to the Holy See. We then opened at Orleans 
the preliminary investigation recinirad by the Canon 
Laws ; the Court of Rome has now that investigation 
in its hands, and we await with confidence its 
decision." A jury will choose the heat plan, and 
the cost is estimated at 150,000f. 

A young men's institute was opened at Stoke, 
Ipswich, on Thur-day week. It is of brick, heated 
by stoves ; the chief room, 37ft. by 20tt. Mr. Gir- 
ling, ot Ipswich, erected tha buildiag, at a cost of 
about .£300. 

A new Wesleyan chapel is about to be erected at 
Aoomb, near York, at a coat of i;l,600. The build- 
ing, which will be in the Gothic style, with pressed 
brick fronts and stone dressings, will accommodate 
upwards of 300. The interior dimensions will be .lOft. 
by 30ft. A school-room, 29ft. 6in. by 22ft., with 
two clasa-rooms, will be attached. Mr. Anderson, ot 
Londal, York, ia the architect ; Messrs. Keswick and 
Son will do the brick and atone work ; and Mr. E. 
Gray, the joiaery. 

The Edinburgh School Board, on Thursday week, 
appointed Mr. Wilson, their superintendent of works, 
as architect to the board, at the present salary of 
.£150, and a commision of 3 per cent, on new worka. 

A new coffee and cocoa-house was opened in 
Regent-street, Leamington, on Wednesday week. 
The alterationa have been carried out by Mr. Fell, 

A party of about a dozen members of Parliament 
visited the A B C Sew!^e Company's worka at 
Aylesbury, on the 13th ult., to see the process ot 
precipitation at work. Experiments wree exhibited 
by Mr. C. Rawaon, managing director, ahowing: 
the rapidity of the clarification of aewage by the 
admixture of blood, charcoal, and clay, aad aubae- 
quently with alum ; and then the party were shown 
the tanks where the deposition ot the sewage matter 
goes on, previous to its being pumped up, and pressed 
dry into cakes for manurial purposes. 

The parishioners ot Coddenham, Ipswich, 
.£100, for repairing and rehanging the peal ot eight 
have accepted the eatimate of Mr. Diiy, of Eye, of 
bells (including the recasting of two) iii the pariah 
church. When reatored it wdl be the lightest eight- 
bell peal in Suffolk. 

A new Primitive Methodist chapel has been 
opened at Frodsham. Mr. T. Davis was the sole 

The Liverpool School Board have accepted the 
tender of Messrs. Brown and Backhouse for the 
erection ot schools for 1,000 children ia Clint-road. 
The schools are from the designs of the architect t» 
the Board, Mr. T. Mellard Reade, C E., F.R.I.B.A. 
They jonsist of tour departments, the infanta and 
mixed juniors being on the ground floor, and the 
senior boys' and senior girls' on the first-floor. Tho 
principal facade is to the north, the plan being ot a 
X-torm. A plunge bath is provided in the base- 
ment, the playgrounds are apacioHS, being the 
largest of any of the Liverpool Board Schools. Ten 
and a half auperflcial feet per child is allowed for 
floor space. The contract amounts to .£9,090, or 
JUS Us. Gd. per head. 

The first new schools erected by the Cardiff School 
Board were opened on Wednesday last. Messrs. 
James, Seward, and Thomas, ot Cardiff, are the 
architects. The buildings are situated in Eleanor- 
street, and are ia a Gothic style ot architecture. 



Aug. 2, 1878. 



[5156.]— Cross at Houen,— When in Eonen last 
Wfiek I noticed, on a small open space between the 
Museum of Antiquities and the School o£ Medicine 
and Pharmacy, a lar^e memorial cross, much re- 
sembliag: the well-known Eleanor crosses at North- 
ampton and Walthara. It is of freestone, about 
lOtt. in height, and dirided into three well-markcl 
stages with vacant canopied niches on each of four 
sides, the whole finished by a palpably incongruous 
cross. The style of carving somewhat resembles 
that of the Edwardian English period, but the work 
is roughly executed. I made inquiries in theneigh- 
ioourhood, and was told the monument had been 
removed from the Place St. Hilaire. Can any 
reader give the history of this structure ?— E. W. P. 

[.5457.]— Worm in Hed Deal.— Can any of your 
readers inform me of the best or any method to be 
adopted to stay the progress of the worm in red 
deal flooring? The floor in question is in a large 
drawing-room that had remained unfinished for a 
period of 35 years, and during that time the flooring 
was cut down and laid on the joist fac3 downwards. 
Some 12 months since the board was turned over 
and laid, and the floor finished, as the boarding had 
become blackened, and was laid before it was 
planed : it was not noticed the worm had attacked 
the edges of it. Can your readers suggest anything 
that would destroy the worm, and so prevent the 
necessity of taking up the floor, which would be very 
inconvenient ?— Nemo. 

[.54.58.]— Waterproof Covering. — I have some 
cellars covered with flags laid on joists, the flags 
being open to the weather ; I want to make this 
covering entirely waterproof. Can any one recom- 
mend anything with which to fill the joints which 
may be depended upon, or any substance which can 
be put on in a thin layer which will wear and be 
waterproof ? Some of the London streets are laid 
with a kind of asphalte, or similar substance, in 
layers of from lin. to 2in. thick — would that 
answer ? If so, what is the substance ? Any opinions 
will oblige— Jink. 

[.5159.]— Old Brasses in the Chapels of tho 
Tnns of Court.- Will any one kindly inform me 
if there are any old brasses in the Temple Church, 
or in any of the chapels belonging to the Inns ? — 
F. I. 0. 

[5460,]— Heel-ball Stains.— Can any one tell me 
the best way to take out the stain of heel-ball in a 
rubbing, where it has gone over the outline t — 
Q. E. D. 

[5461. J— Stamped Agreements.— If the agree- 
ments are stamped with a sixpenny stamp to each 
contract, what should the plana and conditions 
have ?-T. S. 

[.5462.]— Copying Mouldings.— Will any prac- 
tical reader kindly say what is the most reliable and 
<-orrect method of obtaining the profile of a mould- 
iag without the use of the cymagraph f This ques- 
tion has been asked several times in these columns, 
but, I believe, never satisfactorily answered. —Ctm A. 

[.5463.]— Light.— A client of mine. A, gets light to 
a sitting-room by a window overlooking B's yard, 
said window being used for certainly 20 years. B, 
in enlarging his house, has built round the window, 
which now gets light only from a well-hole 4ft. by 
2ft. B's new walls at present are as high as top of 
window, and apparently will be carried up another 
atory. Has A any redress ?— Architect. 

[5464.]— Grey Bricks.— Is there a composition 
which will have the effect of making bricks burn 
grey after being dipped into it, or after it has been 
applied to them f If so, I shall be glad if some of 
your readers will kindly favour me with particulars. 
I want to burn bricks grey on the ends and one side, 
but the clay I have to make them from will not burn 
grey in its natural state.— C. M. 

[5465.]— Construction of Hoof.- 1 have a roof 
to construct for a public room, the span of which is 
about 20ft. Will some of your readers kindly favour 
me with their opinion as to the strongest and 
cheapest plan to construct it ? The roof must be 
open to the purlins, and I wish to avoid the expense 
of curved ribs, and the use of tie-beams.- A Young 


[5380.]— Paris and the Exhibition.— I have not 
the least sympathy with any young unmarried man 
who says he " should exceedingly like to go abroad, 
but really't afford it," The "can't" means 
'won't." Many working men get married young, 
and quickly find a little family grow np around 
i u V*"'^ *'"'"*'' "^ "*' '"''"' ''™ fathers, and happen 
to be blessed with a numerous progeny, know only 
too well how tightly the shoe pinches when one's 
stipend is not an unlimited one. But with young 
men it is diiierent, and there is no mason, joiner, 
painter, or plumber in Great Britain living ia 
single blessedness" who may not readily, with 
great advantage to himself, take a week or a fort, 
night s holiday in Paris this year, if he be so in- 
clined. I speak quite confidently upon this matter. 
1 remember that when I was first constrained to 
take a. trip to the Continent my income was excep- 
tionally limited. I was then an apprentice lad down 

in Yorkshire, and all the money in the world I had 
at my command was the modest weekly wage of one 
shilling. By dint of perseverance, I contrived to save 
a couple of pounds or so out of this, and then went 
off, all by myself, for a week's walking tour in the 
north of France. When I landed at Boulogne I 
certainly had not more than eighteen shillings at 
m,v command, but, by studying econom.v, these not 
only pked out seven or eight days very well, but 
enough was left to purchase and carry home a little 
present for my mother. Again, I remember, as a 
.young man of two or three and twenty, finding myself 
in fair Florence with less than five shillings in my 
pocket, and not a friend I could look to in all Italy 
for a single helping centesaimi. And on that sum— 
and what I picked up on the road — I walked with my 
face homeward right through to Paris— five hun- 
dred miles as the crow flies, and about twice that 
distance as the tramp walks. With a heavy kit of 
tools on my back, but with a light heart within 
me, I crossed, alone and in mid-winter, Mont Cenis — 
a feat, it is said, few people have cared to do. And 
when I recollect how I waded for miles in snow 
nearly up to my middle, uncertain whether I was 
going to be benighted on the summit or not, I am 
not quite sure that I should care, under similar cir- 
cumstances, to do it again. Now, all this goes to 
to prove that one need not necessarily spend a deal 
of money when abroad, and that it is quite within 
the p9wer of most people to make themselves 
acquainted with much of the Continent at a mode- 
rate cost, if they are desirous of doing so. There is 
no doubt hut that, at the present time, Paris is 
dear ; but if intpuding visitors will keep away from 
the English and fashionable quarters, and use ordi- 
nary prudence, they need not spend more than they 
would do in London. I have a pupil at the Exhibi- 
tion. He is a sharp good little chap, 17 years of age. 
He pays 7 francs a week (53. lOd.) for a bedroom 
near the building, and has all his meals out. He 
breakfasts, dines, and sups at one of the five thou- 
sand and odd restaurants, and other places open for 
the support of the inner man. that exist in the imme- 
diate neighbourhood, at a cost of about 2 francs 
(Is. 8d,) a day; so that his expenses, all told, are a 
trifle under a pound a week. It should be borne in 
mind, too, that until I sent him over last March he 
had never been out of England, that he did not 
speak a word of French, and went over quite by 
himself ; so what he has done others may do readily 
enouah. Working men who find themselves in Paris 
for the first time this summer cannot do better than 
make straight for the Exhibition. They must be 
careful, however, if they possess a portmanteau 
or carriet-bag, not to take eit'-ier in, for, although 
the ofticiftis at tho gates will allow anything to pass 
in, they will permit nothing to go out again nntil 
the final closinsj- of the show. <Jnce in the place, let 
the visitor find his way into the British section, and 
there strike np an acquaintance with the first good- 
natured-looking English assistant he may come 
across. In due course the pair will adjourn to the 
nearest buffet, and the stranger will find that, whilst 
drinking a friendly glass of "bitter," his accli- 
mated fellow-countryman will give him more prac. 
tical advice as to where to sleep, where to eat, what 
to see, and how to see it, than he would find out for 
himself in a month. It may be useful to numerous 
readers who have friends abroad to know that the 
postage for each number of the Buildino News is 
2d. for all places upon the Continent, the Colonies, 
or America, where the penny newspaper rate is in 
force. Thanks to the many excellent plates this 
publication contains, it -uniformly weighs more than 
4oz.— the limit for the penny post — so that, if in- 
sufficiently prepaid, the journal, instead of going as 
its sender intends, gets into the Dead Office — a 
bourne from which no paper returns. — H. Hem.s, 

[.5424,]— Emigration.- 1 see that there is one 
more assistant who wishes to know the prospects of 
emigration. As regards Australia and Canada, I 
can tell him, by experience, they are overstocked 
already. If in sufficient health, " O. Lane." might 
try Bombay or Calcutta with good prospects. With 
kindly wishes to tlie Building News, the best of 
papers architecturally. — Toronto. 

[5450.]— Copying Apparatus. — There are two 
or three recent inventions for making ten or twenty 
copies or fac-similes of written documents ; espe- 
cially B; ford's fac-simile process, and Zuccato's 
papyrogrsph. Specially prepared paper, and ink, 
and an ordinai'y screw copying-press are required. 
Order through a stationer. — Kilburn. 

Mr. Aird has been elected borough surveyor of St. 
Albans out of 29 candidates. 

On Tuesday afternoon the memorial stones of a 
new Baptist chapel, now in course of erection at 
Walsall, were laid. The building is from the 
designs of Mr. W. F. Markwick, Walsall, and 
combines the Classic and Italian styles. It will be 
78ft. long, including an orchestra 44ft. wide and 
30ft. high, and, exclusive of the orchestra, will pro- 
vide accommodation for 680 worshippers. Bi-st 
rod pressed bricks are to be used in the front and 
two side elevations, with dressings of Hollington 
stone throughout, and will be enriched with 
moulded and carved caps, arches, and cornices. 
The building, including site, will co«t about ,£40,000. 
The builders are Messrs. Rowley, jun., and Lynex, 
of Walsall. 


London Water Supply. — On Tuesday a depu- 
tation from the Vestry of Bermondsey waited upon 
Mr. Sclater-Booth on the subject of the inadequate 
supply of water rendered by the Southwark and 
Vauxhall Water Company to the inhabitants o£ 
Bermondsey, numbering about 100,000 persons. 
What was supplied was both deficient in quality and 
quantity. The company had gone to great expense 
in the construction of a reservoir at Nunhead 
capable of holding 18 million gallons, but it had 
never been charged with water. They urged that a 
constant supply should be given which would insure 
greater purity. They prayed Mr. Sclater-Booth to 
compel the company to provide a constant supply. 
In every instance the company had been apprised of 
the complaints made, but no remedy was applied. 
Mr. Sclater-Booth pointed out that their first pro- 
ceeding, it they wanted a constant supply of water, 
was to apply to the company, as prescribed by the 
Act, and in the event of their refusing, he had power 
to direct an inquiry with the view to make it com- 
pulsory on the company to give it. He thought that 
bad supplies were often due to defective fittings, and 
in snch cases the company was not to blame ; that 
was so in some of the wealthiest West-end institu- 
tions, he regretted to say. He would bring their 
complaint to the company's notice and let them know 
in writing the reply made. If they desired he would, 
on receiving the necessary complaints, make a 
formal inquiry as prescribed by the 9th section of 
the Act, 1S59. 


Edinbueoh —A bronze statue of Dr. Chalmers 
was unveiled at Edinburgh on Saturday. The 
sculptor is Sir John Steell, The statue, which has 
been executed on the scale of 12ft., is placed on a 
pedestal of red granite designed by Mr. W. Steell, 
architect (son of the sculptor), in a plain and mas- 
sive style, intended to harmonise with the prevail- 
ing style of the monument. This structure baa 
been erected by Messrs. Macdonald, Field, and Co., 


Bricks of Varying Thickness.— Walsall 
County Court, July 25th. — New Trial of Caddick v. 
Barton. — On the previous hearing the plaintiffs, 
Messrs. Caddick and Sons, brickmakers, Bloxwich, 
obtained a verdict of .£5 (including ^3 paid into 
court), against defendant, Mr. Robert Barton, 
builder, Hednesford, in respect of some best red 
pressed bricks, which the plaintiffs had supplied to 
the defendant. Evidence was now adduced to show 
that the bricks were not of the quality contracted 
for, inasmuch as they varied in breadth from 3^- to 
3|in., instead of being of a uniform size within one- 
eighth of an inch. After a great deal of evidence had 
been given, his Honour (Mr. Griffith-) reversed the 
previous decision and found for the defendant, hold- 
ing that owing to the irregularities already named, 
the bricks were not what they professed to be — viz., 
best bricks of the description specified. In the 
course of the case it was stated that in selecting the 
bricks at the plaintiff's yard, a large quantity were 
rejected and set aside on account of these irregu- 
larities, and his Honour suggested that some of 
these were sent out by mistake. 

Memorial stones of a Methodist New Connection 
chapel and schools. Upper Gornal, were laid on 
Monday week. The building will consist of a ch.apel, 
00ft. by 40tt., with school underneath, 44ft. Sin. by 
40ft., and 14ft. high, and two class-rooms. The 
chapel will accommodate 350, and the school room 
220, without the class-rooms. The contract is =£1,420. 

The committee for the erection of a monument to 
Spinoza at the Hague has awarded the first prize to 
the sculptor Hesamer, of Paris, and the second 
prize to the sculptor Tushaus, of Dusseldorf. 

We understand that two or three places yet re- 
main to be filled up to make the required number 
for the Architectural Association excursion to York- 
shire, which commences on the 12th inat. Intend, 
ing excursionists should apply to the secretary 
without delay. We are assured that the visit will 
be unusually interesting. 

New tramways belonging to a private company 
have been commenced in Lancaster-road, Preston 
under a local Act which received the Koyal assent in 
May last. Mr. Garlick is superintending the con- 
struction for the Corporation. 

The corner-stone of tho new church of St. 
Matthias, Sheifield, was laid on Tuesday. The 
edifice will accommodate seven hundred and twenty 
worshippers. It is to be of the Early English style, 
and the interior arrangements comprise a nave, 
north and south aisles, a chancel, a chamber for the 
organ, the choir, and clergy, and vestries. Tbere is 
to be neither tower nor spire, but simply a bell 
turret. Mr. J. D. Webster is the architect ; and 
the cost is to be under £5M0. 

Avcr. 2, 1R78. 



©uv ^f&tt Cablt 

The proposal of the restoration committee 
to place a liigh-pitched roof on the nave of 
St. Alban's Cathedral, extending from tlie 
western porch to the tower, and a correapond- 
ing gable at the west front, has evoked a re- 
monstrance from Lord Carnarvon, as the Presi- 
dent of the Society of Antiquaries, which 
deserves serious consideration. It is quite true, 
as Lord Carnarvon points out, that a high- 
pitched roof at St. Alban's would not be a 
novelty, and to a superficial mind the restora- 
tion of .a feature which was removed in the 
fifteenth century might seem desirable. But 
when it is remembered what magnificence the 
accidental substitution of flat roofs throughout 
lias given to the appearance of the tower, very 
few who really appreciate the exterior of St. 
Alban's would hazard the proposed alteration. 
It is hardly probable that any gain can accrue 
to the interior of the cathedral unless, indeed, 
the restoration committee propose to alter the 
present flat ceiling, which is scarcely likely. 
The matter, doubtless, is not yet finally decided ; 
we feel sure that reconsideration is desirable, 
and that it would be well to submit the matter 
to the Institute Council, as the chief represen- 
tative body of the prof ession, for advice there- 

De. Heintzel, in Dingler's Journal, thiaks 
that the influence of light upon cement has not 
hitherto been sufficiently considered. He in- 
stituted some experiments upon a quantity of 
cement, which he divided into three parcels, 
exposing parcel A to the air and full light, B to 
the air and diffused light, and secluding C in 
darkness from the air. After six months he 
found th.xt A made a weak mortar, by absorbing 
33 per cent, of its weight in water, and it had 
become crumbly ; B, with 33} per cent, of 
water, made a mortar which was too adhesive 
to the trowel, and it yielded up none of its 
water; C, with 33 J per cent, of water, made an 
excellent mortar, easily stirred and flowing, and 
it relinquished some of its water. After setting 
for 28 days the relative strength was : A, 3 ; 
8,379; C, 44-6. 

The conclusion of the Anglo-Turkish Con- 
vention, giving the British Government pro- 
tective rights over Asiatic Turkey, had greatly 
aroused the hopes of archaeologists, who trusted 
that now full powers would be given to the 
British Museum authorities to carry out syste- 
matic and continued excavations on the sites 
of Nineveh, Babylon, and other cities of the 
ancient world. The Treasury, however, take a 
different view, and have withdrawn any further 
grant to the British Museum for these purposes. 
Private enterprise is already stirring itself in 
the formation of an organisation whose agents 
shall have equal claims on the antiquary and 
the merchant, and it is said that an expedition 
will leave this country next spring for Cyprus, 
which, besides fulfilling the functions of an 
archaeological expedition proper, will also report 
as to the best mode of developing the resources 
of the island. 

Although, as intimated in our article last 
week, the ancient Cypriots do not appear to 
have excelled in art, the names of some artists 
are preserved, and Mr. J. J. Lake, whose know- 
ledge of the island is embodied in a pamphlet 
just published, thinks it probable that further 
researches will discover others. One sculptor 
named Styppax is known as a contemporary of 
Pericles. Another, a native of Salamis, was 
Simos ; and another native artist of Salamis 
was Onasiphon, as proved by an inscription at 
Ehodes, where also occurs the name of Epi- 
charmos, of Soli. One Zenodotos is mentioned 
in a tablet at Xew Paphos. Embroidery ap- 
pears to have been carried almost to the position 
of a fine art. It is called Assyrian work by 



(Patented In England, France, and Germany), 

EJfect a Great Saving in Charging and Discharging^ and 
bO per cent.'of Fuel. 

Apply to ROBERT LANCASTER, Leeda Brickmaklng Company 
(Limited), Armley, Leeds. 


At a mcetinp heW ut LoiiKton, N'orlh Stiiffonl 
shire, on the 19th July, it was decideil to restore 
the parish church, aud to ask Mr. Charles Lyuam 
to unil.'rtake the work. 

The North Eastern Railway Company is erectinf; 
an >>stpnsiou briilge over the Queen-street croasiusj 
in York city. Mr. Copperthwaite, enaineer for the 
southern division, baa had the superintendcnco of 
the bridpe. which is a substantial structure of seven 
nrehes, and the contractor is Mr. Cameron, of Leedf. 
The work is nearly completed. 

On Tuesday week, the new schools erected in 
Market-street, Fenton, by the Stoke-on-Trent 
School Board, were opened. The building has a 
frontage to the street of about 90 feet, and is of two 
stories. The bovs' school consists of a main room 
70ft. long and 2211. wiie, with two large cliuss.roonis, 
the ncconiniodation being for 320 scholars. Tbe 
girls* school has a main room and two class-rooms 
for "2 to children. The school for infants consists of 
a main room to accommodate 120, and two class- 
rooms 9.5 children each. The cost, inclusive of tbc 
site, was 0,410, giving an expenditure o£ XG lOs. 

The North Staffordshire Sanitary Officers' Asso- 
ciation met on Thursday week at Eudyavd, when 
Mr. Robert Farrow, sanitary inspector of Leek, in 
an opening address reviewed the various sanitary 
questions connected with the office of inspector. A 
discussion followed in which the sewer ventilation, 
the water carriage system, and irrigation, advocated 
by the chairman, were generally approved of. 

On Tuesday Mr. G. E. Street, E .4., was in 
Aberdeen conferring with the committee having 
charge of tbe renovation and decoi'.ation of Old 
Maohar Catliedral. Mr. Street went over the 
cathedral along with the committee, and intimated 
that he would give a report on the whole subject 
within a few days. 

Another nnsuccessful attempt was made on 
Tuesday to sell Sadler's Wells Theitre. 



Have REMOVED tl\clr SAFE and LOCK BUSINESS to new 

and extensive Premises, 


illustrated Price Lists gratis and post-frte. 
Makers to the Queen. H.R.H. the Prin-ce of Wales, 

i Bank of England. 


Patent Ventilator or Air-Propeller, for 
the int-oduction of Cold or Warm Air into Dwell- 
ings, &c. 

The Machine may be seen in action at their Show- 
rooms, 127, Regent-street, London, W. 

The apparatus consists of a drum with a donble 
set of fans, which are worked by a fly-wheel placed 
in the centre, and on the same axle as fans. The 
motive for this fly-wheel is arrived at by a small jet 
of water being directed on to it, causing both the 
wheel and fans to revolve with great velocity, the 
air passing through the machine at a rate equal to 
2,500 feet per minute, if desired, according to size of 

N.B. — The above Machine may be used either as 
an exhauster or injector, as may be preferred, or 
both objects combined. 

Also Patentees of the Fireclay Burners for Gas 
Fires and Cooking Purposes, and Patentees of the 
Tubular Gas Boiler for Baths and Conservatories, &e. 

Designers and Manufacturers of Lamps and 

Office and Works, 155, Qneen's-road, Bays- 
water, W. __ [Advt.] 



.■in be found of 
lid dur.-vbilitv all 
Tliey would direct special attention to their 
-Drvlnff VarnL'*he3 foi chnrch seats, and se;t3 of 

To Destroy Blackbeetles, Fleas. Bues. and 

ING POWDER, which Is soli in Tin Boies 6d. And is. each, 
posr free for 8 or 1* stamps 'r( 
VESPKR. 421-:,. Coramerci 
VE3"ER ll 
genuine.— [A 

i G. aud T. 

Ijamplough's Pyretic Saline is refreshinit, 

most acreenblo. and the preventive of FEVEn.'^. BILIOUSNESS, 
SMALL POX. SKI.N DIS-EASES, and many other spring and summer 
ailments. Sold by chemlstu throughout the world, and tbe 
Uaker lU, Holborn HilL f.« no «»».lilute.— [ADVT.l 

Helliwell's Patent System 

OUT PUTTY, and without exposing any ontside 
woodwork to paint, and NEW SYSTEM of COVER- 

The fasteners are brass or copper. The peculiar 
arrangement of the glass covers the wholo of the 
woodwork, and only the small fastener is visible ; 
therefore the roof is inilestructiblc, and ontside 
painting nancccssary. The squares of glass can be 
easily removed, and the whole taken out aud cleaned 
by any incxperieuced person. Breakage is impossi- 
ble except through carelessness or accident. 

The glazing is mora air-tight than the old patty 
system, yet any amount of ventilation can be given. 

Old roofs may be re.glazed on this principle, and 
roofs are covered with slates or zinc on this system. 

Extract from Building News :" Mr. T.W. Helli- 
well, of Brighouse, has recently patented and intro- 
duced a new system of glazing and covering roofs, 
which is certainly superior to anything of the kind 
we have seen before .... and it will, in our 
opinion, snpersedo any other system before the 

Important references and all particulars from the 
patentee, T. W. HELLIWELL, Brighouse, Y'ork- 
shire ; and 10, Parliament.street, London.— [Advt.] 


Bristol.— A strike of plasterers commenced on 
Monday in Bristol. Several months ago they 
demanded a rise of a halfpenny an hour. Some of 
tbe employers have conceded the advance, but most 
of the masters refuse to give it, and declare that if 
tbe men strike they shall not come in again except 
at a reduction of a halfpenny an hour. 

Carnarvonshire.— On Wednesday notices were 
posted at two of the principal slate quarries at 
Xantlle, in Carnarvonshire, notifying that owing 
to the continued dnlness of the slate trade the work- 
ings would be at once stopped. This will cause some 
thousands of men to be thrown out of employment, 
and it is probable that many other quarries will sooa 
adopt a similar course, the slate trade being worse 
now than has been known for many years. 

Edinburgh.— The Edinburgh plasterers are still 
on strike, and last week increased the allowance 
by 2s. ^..^v,^^ 


These SLATES are st a grey-^een tint, i 

^*^v, «.- -. -p.-^ o . and made in 

_. larije stock available for immediate delivery. For 
r particulars (withalistofi --_- i--..i.Ji -^i 


Hollo-way'fl Pills bave many competitors, thdugh 

no equult', for Hupplvine the young and deliCAt« with a simple 
- ugthening and punfj-lni^ aperu^nt. Pills composed of 

^ ^-, — purticularly adapted for all complaints 

--' serviceable at the critical 

pt:i.;uii.ii uO female.^ 
periods of early and 

females, and i 


Betbnal Geeen.— Forthe formation of sewer carnage, 
and footways in connection therewitli, in the line ot the 
Betlinal Green improvemeHt, new street between High- 
street, Shorediteb, and Gibraltar-gardens, for the Metro- 
politau Board of Works. Sir J. W. Bazalgette, engineer 
to the Board : — „ ^ 

Ford and Norris £25,000 

Cook and Co 21,763 6 

Stephens and Co 21.300 

Webster 19.970 

Cro"''in 19,900 

MowremandCo 19,500 

NoweU and Robson (accepted) ... 19,460 

earless ... 18.S39 6 

BoRLEY.— For erection of a mixed school and mistress's 
house at Borley, Es.scs, for the Borley and Lyston School 
Board. Mr. Samuel Knight, 24, Cornhill, K.C., architect 
to the Board :— 

Grimwood and Sons (accepted) i.<95 

BcnsLEM.— For additions to Albert-street works, 
Burslem. Mr. A. R. Wood, architect; quantities sup- 
plied : — 

Estimates for carpentry and labour only : 

Rogers £252 13 

Cooke 1S5 10 

Yorke 174 10 

Bowden (accepted) 167 

Lancaster.— For new Centenary Church, Lancaster. 
Messrs. Hetberiugton and Oliver, architects, Carlisle ; 
quantities by Mr. G. Connell : — 

Bri"<^ and Lancivster (mason, ic.)... £2,310 

Wright, R. S. (joiner) 1,193 6 

Hartley, Henry (slater & plasterer) 215 13 
Calvert & Ueald (plumber k glazier) 257 4 

Meadowcroft, E. (painter) 120 II 

The trustees of the late Edmund 
Sharpe (smith and ironfounder)... 140 

£4,236 11 



Aug. 2, 1878. 

Camberwell.— For tho erection of pantechnicon and 
two houses in the Stiition-road, for W. Harris, Esq, Mr. 
John Farrer, architect and surveyor, Albion-chambers, 
Moorgate, E.G. :— 

Ennor, T., Julian, and Co £4,400 

Nettle, W. and E 4,400 

Tavlor, J 4,393 

Thompson, J 4,334 

Conder, R 4.297 

Holliday, J., iun 4,265 

City.— For erection of new premises. No. 112, Fleet- 
street, E.G., for Messrs. Brentini. Mr. Samuel Knight, 
architect, 24, Cornnhill, City ; quantities by Mr. G. Fleet- 
wood, 15, Furnival's-inH, E.G. : — 

Colls and Son £3,470 

Patman and Fotberingham ,.. 3,190 

Niffhtingale, B. E 3,177 

Shepherd 3,175 

Downs and Co 3,140 

Roberts, R. and Co. (accepted) 2,979 

CoDFORD St. Mary, Wiltshire.— For additions and re- 
pairs to parish ctiurch : — 

Hopkins and Sons £1,123 10 

Giles 1,109 

Coleman Bros 1,077 

Stephens and Bastow 1,075 

... 1,013 11 

999 12 


... 978 13 



Balcombe (accepted) , 

Derby.— For restorations, Osmaston Church. Mr. 
Fredk. A. Dovey, architect :— 

Wood, J £623 15 

Wood, E 560 

LilleyandSon 551 

Bullockand Barton 385 

Derbyshire.— For the erection fo a house and other 
buildiuijs at Padley HaU sewage farm for the Ripley 
Local Board .— 

Oldershaw, W., Heanor £f>80 

Warren, J., Codnor 470 

Fletcher, J., Ripley 450 

Welton, W., Ripley 440 

Clover, W., Ripley 412 

Jackson, G., Ripley 400 

Wyld, J., Ripley (accepted) 383 

Lea BitiDGE. — For the erection of entrine, meter, and 
boiler houses, smiths' shop, chimney shaft, &c., for the 
Directors of the Lea Bridgre District Gas Company. Mr. 
Edward H. Thorman, engineer :— 

Bangs £1,987 

Wood, F. F. and J 1,9S3 

Reed 1,928 

Falkner 1,837 

Crabb (accepted) 1,750 

London.— For painting? and other repairs at the 
Homerton Small Pos Hospital, for the Managers of the 
Metropolitan Asylum Board. Messrs. A. and 0. Harston, 
ai'chitects, 15, Leadenhall-strcet ; no quantities: — 

Vigor, F. G. and R., Poplar £1,257 

Bishop, Boston 1,250 

Wythe, Dalstou (accepted) 870 

Cook and Co 663 

[Architects' estimate, £1,000.] 

London.— For cleaning and painting works at Christ's 
Hospital, Newgate-street, E.G. Mr. H. S. Legg, architect . 

Harrison and Wood £973 

Patman and Fotberingham 823 

Pitman and Guthbortson 720 

Morbyand Co 6S7 

Hajward and San (accepted) 670 

London.— For proriding additional pumps at Crossness 
and the EtTra and Falcon brook outlets, for the Metro- 
politan Board of Works. Sir J.W. Bazalgette, engineer to 
the Board ;— 

Crossness. Effra. Falcon. Total. 
Webster, Wm. ... £6,237 ... £1,189 ... £1,678 ... £9,104 
Easton & Anderson 

(ace. in toto) ... 6,000 ... 900 ... 800 ... 7,700 

Newcastle-under-Lyme, — For the works in alterations 
to shop premises, Hassall-street, for Mr. William Dale. 
Mr. Ambrose Wood, architect. Regent House, Haaley ; 
quantities supplied : — 

Wallworth, J., Congleton £178 15 

Sutton, W., Newcastle 171 

Beardmore, G., Newcastle 150 

Grosvenor, J., Tunstall 145 12 

Oornes, G., Hanley 145 

Bennett, J., Newcastle (accepted) ... 141 10 

North Woolwich.— Contract No. 1. For the erection 
of proposed new soap factory at North Woolwich, for 
Messrs. John Knight and Sous, consisting of stabling for 
40 horses, foremen's cottages, fat and packing houses, 
chimney shaft, roads, paving and concrete foundations. 
Messrs. Tunley and Boyle, 14, Clement's-lane, Lombard- 
street, E.G., surveyors; quantities supplied : — 

Cooke, B., and Co £22,037 13 8 

SabeyandSon 20,584 

CuUum, William 19,995 

Merritt and Ashby 19,333 

Baker, George, and Son 19,331 

Sawyer. J. W 18.500 

Hook and Oldvey 18,350 

Crockett, William 18,317 

Aitchison and Walker 18.256 

Brass, WiUiam 18,241 

Kirk and Randall 17,690 

Dickinson. Charles 17,563 

Cowland Bros 17,486 

Martin, J. W 17.480 

French, W.E 17,450 

Skeffield and Prebble 16,873 

Front, William 16,546 

Perry and Co 16,400 

Vernon and Ewena 16,272 

Brealy, Robert (withdraw) 16,200 

PoRTSEA. — For new warehouse for Messrs. Wendover 
and Co., Hanover-street, Portsea. Mr. E. Wendover, 
architect : — 

Burbidge (accepted) £2,000 

Roehampton. — For erection of three model cottages at 
Roehampton, Surrey, for E. A. Hambro, Esq., built of 
cement concrete, faced with red Broomhall tiles. Mr. 
Samuel Knight, architect, 24, Corn hill. City:- 

Sutton, Putney (accepted) £1,000 

SwALLOWFiELD. — For a house and offices at Farley 
Hill, Swallowfield, Berks, for William Simonds, E.-iq. 
Mr. W. Ravenscroft, architect, Reading ; quantities by 
Messrs. Cooper and Son, Maidenhead :— 

cost of using Deduction for 
brown Port- using part 
land instead of deal instead of 
Bath stone in oak in joinery., 

Wheeler Bros. £8,724 ... ... 

Higgs ... 8.686 ... £405 ... £t98 10 

Rider & Son* 8.578 ... 580 ... 1,000 
Woodroffe ... 8,558 ... 480 ... 576 3 
Filewood ... 8,390 ... 395 ... 727 
[_• Accepted, using part deal instead of oak in joinery, 
&c., with Bath stone dressings.] 

Sthatford-on-Avon. — For the erection of a Congrega- 
tional chapel, seating 400 persons, and lecturo-hall, in 
Rother Market, Stratford-on-Avon. Mr. H. J. Paull, 
F.R.I. B.A., of London and Manchester, architect :— 

Chapel. Lecture-hall. 
Gascoyno, Leamington ... £3,173 ... £217 
Smallwood, Wootton Waven 3,150 ... 200 
Roberts & Sou, Stratford-on- 
Avoa (accepted) 2,970 ... 274 

Wallington.— For erecting two villas on the Woodcote 
Estate, Wallington, Surrey, for the Messrs. Parker and 
the freeholders. Mr. E. P. Loftus Brock, architect :— 

Eunor, Julian, and Co. £3,650 

Brass 3,500 

Potterton 3,390 

Lose 3.320 

Jarrett 3,030 

Mattock Bros 2.993 

Bish 2.800 

Howe and White 2,350 

Thorpe, Essex. — Maltings for Messrs. Free and Hollie 
Mr. G. Gard Pye, architect, Colchester;— 

Inclusive of 
iron roof. 

Everitt and Son 

Saunders and Son 

Brown, James 

Dobaou, George (accepted) 

. 3,638 
. 3,600 
. 3,248 

Tdnstall. — For Co-operative stores, Tunstall. Mr. 
A. R. Wood, architect; quantities supplied ;— 






Cope and Goodwin 

... £1,450 

... 1,330 

... 1,300 

... 1,273 17 

... 1,260 

... 1,105 

... 1,098 

Tunstall. — For house and stabling at Tunstall, Mr, 
A. R. Wood, architect ; quantities supplied : — 

Estimates not including brickwork : 

Hancock £335 

Yorke 309 

Walker and Bainbridge (accepted) 282 

Tunstall.— For Congregational church,| Tunstall. 
Mr. A. R. Wood, architect ; quantities supplied :— 


Yorke (accepted) 

... £1,260 
... 1,2U) 
... 1,200 

Whitby.— For the erection of schools to accommodatD 
267 children, for the Whitby School Board, as computed 
by the Educational Department. Messrs. Armfield and 
Bottomley, architects, 1, Zetland-road, Middles bro'-on- 
Tees, and at Whitby : — 

Lord, Joseph, Middlesbro' £1,935 18 6 

LanKdale.Wm,, and Sons, Whitby... 1,497 

Baston, Wm., Whitby 1,280 10 

Gladstone, James, Whitby* 1,165 

[• Accepted, with the addition of £105 for a dado of 
glazed bricks in schools and class-rooms. Coat per child 
of school buildings, playgrounds, and boundary walls, 
£4 15a. lid.] 

WoLSTANTON.— For villa at Wolstanton. Mr. A. R. 
Wood, architect, Tunstall ; quantities supplied :— 



Yorke (accepted) 

... £1.850 
... 1,790 
... 1,750 

Wolstanton.— For Primitive Methodist chapel, Wol- 
stanton. Mr. A. R. Wood, architect; quantities sup- 
plied : — 

Cooke £2,024 

Bennett 1,960 

Yorke 1,948 

Proctor (accepted) 1,850 

Erratum. — In our list of tenders last week for three 
blocks of semi-detached cottages at " Welle," Somerset, 
for Messrs. James Fussell, Sons, and Co.. the name oS 
the town should have been " Molls," not *' Wells." 




Quarrymeu and Stone Merchants. 

Bath Stosb Office, CORSHAM. WILTS. tADVT.) 






P. E. CHAPPUIS, Patentee. Factory, 69, Fleet-street, London. E.G. 

Atjg. 9, 1878. 






TN Lord Alwyne Compton's woU-timed 
-*- and rtonsitjlo address, delivered last week 
before the Royal Areho'ologicul Institute, 
at Northampton, and fully reported in our 
last number, the question of Restoration 
was reasonably dealt with. We turn from 
the shrieking solicitude of the anti-restorers 
to the remarks of Lord Alwyne Compton 
with considerable relief. Lord Alwyne 
Compton did not assert that all restoration 
had been conducted with discreet modera- 
tion, but he contended that it was 
thoroughly honest for the time — an allega- 
tion distinctly disputed by theanti-restora- 
tionists — and, lastly, that it was preferable 
to a bigoted destruction. He might have put 
the matter even more strongly. He might 
have asked what would have been the con- 
dition of our cathedrals and old churches 
at the present time if the " do-nothing " 
policy had prevailed throughout the present 
century. We have always considered that 
the large amount of restoration effected 
has exercised no small influence for good. 
The activity created by the movement has 
given birth to a school of artists and art 
workmen of which England may well feel 
proud, in spite of the sneers of those who 
have learned from them the little they know 
of art ; and this spread of art education did 
much to dispel the apathetic desolation 
which previously existed. Lord Alwyne 
Compton rightly enough instanced the 
difficulties which had arisen in the face of 
legislation to provide for the simple loss 
from cultivation of the few acres of ground 
covered by ancient monuments, and pointed 
out that no response could be looked for to 
the suggested appeal to build new churches 
(side by side with the old), except from 
the small band of anti-restorers ; and, even 
were it otherwise, the older buildings so 
" preserved would soon fall into hopeless 
decay." The two cases of restoration 
instanced by the speaker well illustrated 
his argument. Lord Alwyne Compton re- 
ferred, first, to the circular church of St. 
Sepulchre, Northampton — one of a few 
English examples — :md mentioned the 
recent restoration of the building by Sir 
Gilbert Scott as a case in point. In this 
instance no doubtful features were repro- 
duced, while many concealed beauties have 
been brought to light. What, we may ask, 
would the anti-restoration society have 
done ? They would have let it remain in 
the hopeless condition in which it was 
found — the half-discernible features of 
Simon de Liz's church would have been left 
to further decay under the specious pretext 
of preservation, while the hidden details of 
the l"2tk century would still have remained 
concealed by the hideous additions of later 
times. The other example — that of the 
Queen's Cross — supplies a still more cogent 
protest against the proposition that preser- 
vation is not restoration, and Lord Comp- 
ton's narration of facts completes the 
reductio c.d nbsurdum. It was proved be- 
yond the shadow of a doubt that the 
Queen's Cross exists in consequence of three 
successful restorations in 1713, in 1762, and 
last in 1836. Mr. Law's recital of these 
restorations, read the other day, indeed 
confirms the admitted fact that we owe to 
these successful reparations the very exis- 
tence of the cross. Even Blore, that enfant 
terrible of Gothicists, did not venture to 
reproduce the crowning figure, which was, 
consequently, left imperfect by him. The 
case cited by Mr. J. H. Parker — namely, the 
restoration of Bradford-on-Avon Church — 

was another strong instance. We concur 
in the suggestion made by Lord Compton, 
that judicious and careful restorations can 
only be made with the assistance of societies 
like the Archa?ological Institute ; and that, 
to further this object, an amalgamation of 
the Institute and county 
associations, eombin(Mi with the united 
action of the Royal Institute of British 
Architects and the Society of Antiquaries, 
is most iidvisable, if not positively essential. 
Wedecidedlythiuk, and the opinion has been 
expressed more than once in these pages, 
that all restorations should, where possible, 
be confided to the joint care of archn;olo- 
gists and architects. If those who have 
devoted their studies to the acquisition of 
the history and peculiarities of different 
periods and styles of architecture cannot 
be entrusted with the reparation of our 
ancient buildings, we may be pardoned for 
hesitating to commit them into the hands 
of a few individuals who have, with more 
presumption than discretion, set themselves 
up as the public censors of restoration, and 
as the professed champions of everything 
ancient. We hope the archaiological 
societies which meet at this season will take 
up the suggestion thrown out by Lord 
Compton — organise a committee with the 
object of securing united action with our 
leading architectural societies, and so 
attain, in the only effectual manner, the 
intelligent and careful restoration of our 
ancient edifices, and thus relieve the Society 
for the Preservation of Ancient Buildings 
of an anxiety which is wearing away the 
souls of its supporters. 

Lord Alwyne Compton's speech may well 
be considered together with another proposal 
referred to last week — namely, that of the 
Restoration Committee of St. Alban's Cathe- 
dral, to place a high-pitched roof on the 
nave of the abbey, and a corresponding 
gable at the west front. Lord Carnarvon, 
the President of the Society of Antiquaries, 
has protested against the scheme, pointing 
out that, though the substitution of a high- 
pitched roof, such as that originally 
intended from the remains of the 
weatherings in the tower, may seem 
desirable, it is certainly not called 
for J and that, if carried out, it. would 
involve the sacrifice of the accidental 
charm attached to the later 15th-century 
flat roof which now covers the nave 
of the abbey, and the Archaeological Insti- 
tute at its annual meeting passed a resolu- 
tion of similar tenor to that of the Society 
of Antiquaries. Earl Cowper, on the 
ground of unnecessary restoration, agrees 
with Lord Carnarvon, while Mr. Beresford 
Hope, in a sensible letter to the Times, 
wisely steers clear of -what he calls " de- 
structive restoration " and " unintelligent 
preservation," and maintains that, " where 
there is absolute material evidence of the 
existence of any former feature of a 
building — evidence sufficient to make 
its restoration mathematically certain — 
and where the reason for the original 
existence of that feature is equally 
certain, and is sxich as abstractly to approve 
itself to our reason, then its restoration 
must be safe." Applying these tests to St. 
Alban's, the original angle and weatherings 
of the roof remain, and may be seen on 
the tower, against which the nave roof 
abutted, or was intended to abut. As re- 
gards the second test, Mr. Hope observes, 
with candour, it is inferentiaL He 
rightly remarks, the mediaeval architect 
intended the steep roof for a practical use, 
and not for an artistic purpose, though we 
have no evidence, on the other hand, why 
the architects of the 15th century saw fit 
to substitute a flat roof and ceiling. Archso- 
logically, again, there is something to 
urge for the retention of a substitution, if 
on no other adducible ground. The flat roof 
has, we must confess, an accidental charm. 

It is cert-iinly pirturesque, and its lon^ 
association with St. Alljan's Abbey make 
us, as we hinted last week, hesitate 
to hazard the change. But there is anotttcr 
point — th(! flat painted ceiling, which cajioot 
judiciously be interfered with — that, t<j oar 
minds, should, so far, dispose of the reasons 
given by Mr. Hope, who, himself, thinks it 
is entirely independent, and should be re- 
tained as a relic of old art, which it 
would be s;icrilegiou8 to disturb. To retaia 
the flat painted ceiling, and to heighten th« 
external roof, would be inconsistent and 
indefensible on architectural grcjumls. We 
do not know the reasons which induced the 
old builders to adopt the flat ceiling. It was 
probably because it improved the acoustics, 
or appeared more in character with the 
Early style ; but, for whichever reason, or 
even if economy was the motive, there it is, 
and to tamper with it would be, to say the 
least, hazardous for several reasons. We 
look upon this particular matter as having 
an important bearing upon the question of 
restoration, and as showing the value of 
architectural aid in arriving at a dcciaioa. 
We counsel, therefore, the restoration com- 
mittee to pause, to reconsider their proposal, 
and, as we urged last week, to submit the 
question to the Institute Council fi>r advice. 
There may be much to say on the part of 
the advocates of the high pitched roof — that 
there is more than we had thought is evi- 
dent enough from Sir Edmund Beckett'e 
letter in yesterday's Times, and from Prof. 
Donaldson's more scholarly if less vigorous 
communication which appeared with it. 
No harm, however, but every good, caa 
result from a dispassionate reconsideratioa 
of the matter, aided by the best professional 
knowledge it is possible to command. 
The suggestion carries with it the wider 
one we have above mentioned — the absolute 
necessity for united action on the part of 
the Archajological and Architectural So- 
cieties in this most important matter of 
restoration. There is no architect worth the 
name who would not eagerly avail himself 
of the assistance and counsel of such a com- 
bination as Lord Alwyne Compton sug- 
gested, or who would not gratefully contrast 
it with the hysterical objurgations of those 
gentlemen who propose to transfer our 
ancient buildings to the custody of the 


THE visitor to Brighton will mark mamy 
additions to the architecture of that 
favourite watering-place which have hfem. 
made within the last two or three years. 
Beyond the western boundary of the 
borough, indeed, the new neighbourhood of 
Cliftonville is rapidly extending its rows of 
"neat villas" to the westward, but several 
improvements in the town itself claim 
notice as well. Besides the new churches 
of St. Bartholomew, Ann-street, St. Mar- 
tin, in the Lewes- road, and St. James's 
Chapel, already noticed by us, Mr. Emerson 
is engaged in the erection of a new church 
in St. James'-street, the interior of which 
we shall probably illustrate, and a few of the 
streets display architectural improvemeute. 
Near the railway station, a large hotjl is ia 
progress by Mr. J. Hall, builder, in a kind 
of focal Classic — its interest chiefly con- 
sisting in its stuccoed fronts, and its 
peculiarly small pavilion roofs that are in- 
tended probably for ornaments, though they 
are really disfigurements. The corner ic 
treated in a very flat and insipid manner, 
the mouldings and enrichments are espe- 
cially commonplace, and the scrolls over 
the angle window look more fit for a paste- 
board model than for anything bearing 
the purpose of window dressings. From 
the proportions of the windows and details, 
the most friendly interpretation we can. 
put upon it is, that the architect's desiga 



Aug. 9, 1878. 

has been mercilessly emasculated, and we 
cannot help thinking a valuable opportunity 
has been lost. 

In North-street, two blocks of white 
brick shops and dwellings are being erected 
by Mr. Chappell, of Pimbco and Brighton, 
displaying afree use of moulded brickwork 
in the jambs and arches — stone being in- 
troduced in di-essings, and in circular cor- 
belled balconettea over some of the windows. 
The style is scarcely an improvement on 
the Brightonian Vernacular ; the corbelled 
Bt.ops to cornice and the ai-ches above the 
upper tier of windows are not pleasing 
features, and a certain clumsiness of detail 
is apparent. Stamped diapered brick is 
used for horizontal bands between the 
windows — a feature that may have some 
merit in a clear atmosphere such as 
Brighton possesses, but which is by no 
means to be commended in London, or in 
large smoky towns. A corner building in 
stucco is being completed in the same 
street of more sober character; and, wc may 
incidentally remark here, that stucco and 
white brick seem to be the prevailing 
materials employed in the new buildings of 
London- apon-Sea. The Queen Anne style 
has certainly made its appearance ; we see 
it in one or two of the Board Schools, but 
it has been introduced with considerable 
reserve. Thus, in the buildings in North- 
street, we find plaster-coved cornices, i-e- 
lieved by incised patterns ; the effect is not 
unpleasing, if rather far-fetched. In the 
King's-road, at the corner of Ship-street, 
we observe a pleasingly-treated front, faced 
with cement in a Classical style, in which 
the bay window, forming one vertical bay 
of the fi'ont, has been effectively managed. 
The angle pilasters, the enriched pilaster 
caps, and details, are designed upon correct 
piinciples, and the ornamentation is devoid 
of the tertium quid or chimerical character 
met with in other instances. An attempt 
has been made at the corner of West- 
street to combine coloured decoration with 
stucco, but the success of the combination 
has been injured by the tawdry design. AVe 
refer to Messrs. Feltoe and Son's new 
corner front, in which red and black brick 
are introduced as dressings in a stuccoed 
front. The shop-front and mezzanine 
above is enclosed within a steep-pointed 
arch, in which the voussoirs are of red and 
black brick. The other windows are 
similarly treated, but the most objection- 
able feature is a zinc roof with corner 
pinnacles perched upon the top of the front, 
with the avowed object of giving height to 
the facade. A little examination shows this 
roof to be but a counterfeit expedient— a 
kind of sham — and the elevation strongly 
suggests the devices of the scene-painter. 
The Chapel Royal, in North- street, which 
has lately undergone remodelling from the 
designs of Mi-. A. Blomfield, of Loudon, is 
now completed. By those who knew it be- 
fore the alteration, the transformation will 
be deemed a dtcided improvement. The 
end gallery has been taken away, and the 
walls decorated in low-toned colours as a 
reredos to the altar, the flat ceiling has been 
removed, and a square-shaped domed 
lantern is carried up, the plastered sur- 
faces being ornamented by panels and 
devices in a brown colour. Surrounding 
the interior, and forming the aisles and 
supports to ihe side galleries, is a light 
arcade of woodwork, stained in a brown 
tint ; the caps to the pillars are gilt and 
picked out in blue,, and the spandrels are 
framed in a light and pleasing manner. 
The colouring of the glass is very eifective, 
and the interior is an instance of what can 
be done t(3 render a forbidding and cold- 
looking structure architectural if not eccle- 
siastical. Mr. Emerson's new church in St. 
James'-street is worth a passing note on 
account of certain peculiarities both of plan 
and design. It consists of a wide nave and 

two aisles of three bays, short transept, and 
organ recess, with an apsidal chancel. The 
aisles are not lean-to, but cross gabled, each 
bay being roofed as a cross vault, its inner 
end abutting against the nave. The arcades 
have lofty pillars in clusters of engaged 
shafts of stone, the capitals are carved 
bells of a rich Early French or semi- 
Romanesque character. The apse, groined 
in red brick with radiating stone ribs, 
has been managed also very effectively ; 
detached angle pillars carry each compart- 
ment of the vault, and their caps have been 
very artistically executed. The transepts 
and choir are also vaulted in brick and 
stone, and the nave is covered with a 
wooden waggon-headed roof. At the south 
or enti-ance end, towards the street, the 
architect has contrived to give a piquant 
effect by an apsidal end, or kind of narthex, 
which opens from an arch of wide span to 
the nave. This arch carries the gabled end, 
and the roof, we presume, wiU be hipped 
from the angles of the polygon. A square 
tower attached to the south-west angle 
groups well with this feature, and has a 
wide-arched doorway, well recessed, under 
which are two entrances. The filling-in, and 
the jambs and arches, are in a red sandstone 
(Mansfield). We must not forget to men. 
tion that the walls are faced on both sides 
with red brick, and are filled in with cement 
concrete. The vaults of aisles have also 
concrete cores, and, we are told, no settle- 
ment or fracture of any kind has occurred. 
We shall probably refer to this structure 

We, must look, however, in the direction 
of Hove to estimate the real progress that 
has been made of late. Recently we had 
occasion to refer to building in the west 
end of Brighton, and we then remarked on 
the exceeding want of variety and architec- 
tural effort displayed in the new neighbour- 
hood known as the West Brighton Estate. 
We must mention, as exceptional, a few blocks 
of houses, facing the sea, in progress of 
erection on the extreme west of the Stan- 
ford Estate, known as King's-gardens, and 
situated between the 4th and 5th avenues. 
Mr. Chappell, of Pimlico and Brighton, is 
the builder of these, and Mr. Thomas, of 
London, we believe, is the architect. We 
had the curiosity to inspect one of the 
corner houses of a block of seven. Entering 
a spacious hall, we find a morning- room, 
about 20ft. by 17ft., in front towards the 
sea, and a dining-room, about 26ft. by 16ft., 
behind ; in the rear we find a gentleman's 
room, butler's pantry, &c. On the first 
floor the drawing-room extends over the 
morning- room and hall in front, and over 
a considerable portion of the dining-room ; 
it thus takes an irregular shape These 
rooms have Portland-cement skirtings, 
pitch-pine floors, laid on Jin. yellow deal, 
pedimented door dressings, and the drawing- 
room is divided by pilasters and entablatures 
of Parian cement. Enriched coved coi-nices 
and handsome marble chimney-pieces adorn 
the rooms, which are left to the decorative 
taste of purchasers. Bath-rooms, water- 
closets, and twelve bedrooms in all 
are provided. There are five floors, or 
stories, in front, and fom- behind ; and, from 
the upper rooms in the Mansard roof, the 
sea- view is very extensive. A conservatory 
opens from the back rooms of some of the 
houses, and every convenience appears to 
have been studied. In the external treat- 
ment white Suffolk brick, relieved by stone, 
has been employed, and the fronts of the 
houses have bays of three stories, the case- 
ments of the windows to the principal floor 
opening upon covered balconies, which form 
a feature in the elevation towards the sea. 
These balconies, of light wooden uprights, 
are supported on stone cantilevers, which 
are relieved by carving on their faces ; the 
window-jambs are of moulded brick, and 
relief is obtained in bands and friezes of 

carved stone. The curb roofs, dormers, and 
details are designed with care and taste, 
and there is nothing affected or pompous in 
the style. Other blocks of a similar kind 
are, we believe, proposed to be built along 
the cliff. The mansions are freehold, and 
are, we understand, all for sale. It is hard to 
say why large houses in flats have not been 
built upon this estate ; no more eligible 
opportunity could be afforded to investors 
than rows or blocks of residences in flats 
facing the sea, in which families of varying 
means could be accommodated with all the 
conveniences of a self-contained house or 
set of apartments, and we hope Mr. Chap- 
pell, who has done so much for this subxijrb, 
will not overlook the special qualifications 
of Brighton for this class of residence. In 
an architectural aspect much more might 
be done than has been realised ; Mr. Gals- 
worthy Davie has indicated how the exterior 
of suburban villas may be rendered pleasing 
by the introduction of a feature of use and 
beauty in a recently-built house noticed 
before in the Building News ; there is cer- 
tainly an opportunity here for the architect 
to exhibit his ingenuity in the adaptation of 
the balcony or the bay window to a sea-side 
residence. There is no reason why the 
residences of Piccadilly or Pimlico should 
be reproduced ad nauseam at Brighton, 
for, though the former may have something 
in common with the Marine-parade, we have 
all the difference of climate and locality, 
and a sea prospect instead of a park. 

The Brighton Spring Exhibition of 
drawings and pictures at the Pavilion, 
by the way, maintains its interest. 
This year there are some clever water- 
colour sketches, contributed by the 
local " Sketching Club." We note Nos. 
178, 190, 191, 175, 181, and 182, as exhibiting 
a more than usual perception of aerial 
effect, though a few must be pronounced 
travesties of Turner's later sketches, if not 
daubs. There are a few capital water colours 
by P. F. Poole, R.A. ; some admirable bits 
by Jules Lessore, as Nos. 13-1, 133, HI, and 
146; studies of marine and street effects, 
and a few well-painted pieces in oil, by P. 
R. Morris; the "Last Load," by G. Cole 
a rich sunset piece, " Early Spring," by H. 
Priis, and one or two capital sea-scapes by 
C. P. Lorensen. The Willett collection of 
English pottery is also interesting. Pastoral 
and Bacchanalian pieces abound, some very 
curious, the " puzzle jugs " (17th century), 
in a brown glazed ware, are quaint; and 
the delft-ware and painted porcelain con- 
tain a few unique specimens of the art. 




[feom ouk own kepoeter.] 

THE distinctive feature by which the North- 
ampton meeting of the Eoyal ArchiEO- 
logical Institute will be recalled to mind in 
future years will probably be the excursions to 
churches and manor-houses. The ecclesiastical 
buUdings visited during the eight days afford 
typical examples of every phase of English 
architecture, from the most remote period to the 
advent of the Reformation. They may be 
roughly divided into two groups — the rude and 
early structures at Brixworth, Earl's Barton, 
and Barnack, and the highly elaborated edi- 
iices thickly sprinkled on the banks of aad 
hill-sides overlooking the K'ene. The three 
churches included in the first series are the 
best known of the reputed Saxon remains. In 
each the tower — square, massive, and un- 
buttressed — is the characteristic feature, and 
from the elevated sites on which they stand, 
the thickness of walls and narrowness of open- 
ings, it is very likely that they were often used 
for mUitary purposes, especially as places of 
refuge, although this might not have been the 
ruling idea in the design. The use of un- 
doubtedly Eoman materials at Brixworth sug- 
gested that it was originally a basiUca, but the 

Aug. 9, 1878. 



theory left unsolved tlie problem where the 
EoiBiin population dwelt who iisod so larffe 
a hall of justice, and must be ab;indoned by any 
one who notes the inaccuracy with which the 
archea are struck, and the general roughness of 
wallin^j construction. The long and short 
work and free use of crooked stones dovetailed 
into one another in the two other examples, 
appears, as was long ago pi-opounded liy 
Parker and others, to indicate the wooden 
origin of the stylo. The examples of Late 
Norman architecture examined during the week 
were numerous, and peculiarly elaborate. This 
chiefly applies to doorways, the archivolts of 
which are divided into many members and 
profusely ornauiented ; hut many of the win- 
dows are notable, and the blank arcading in 
the chancel at U.iihwell, and grotesque caps at 
St. Peter's, Northampton, should not be for- 
gotten. The Hound Church at Northampton 
did not receive the careful examination it 
deserves, possibly because it was so near to 
headquarters. Thirteenth century work was 
but poorly represented. The tympanum of 
the west portal at Higham Ferrers, Barnack 
south porch and spire, the foliaged and floriated 
capitals at the latter church, and the deep bcU- 
mouldings in the nave arcades at Kothwell, are 
the only details worthy special mention. It is in 
the work of the succeeding century and a half 
that church architecture is best exemplified, 
and a vivid impression will be left of 
the exquisitely - tapered spires on the 
bajiks of tl\e Nene. These are generally 
of broach form, with remarkably narrow 
squinches at the change from the square to the 
octagon, and with plain arrises ; but several of 
the later examples are richly crocketted, and 
spring from within the tower parapet, the 
junction being marked by small eight-sided 
turrets at the angles, and flying buttresses. 
Many of the parapetted spires have since needed 
partial rebuilding. All the best examples of 
either chss have three tiers of alternated spire 
lights. The mode in which a swelling is given 
at these points, so as to giveagood entasis to the 
general outline, deserves careful study, for the 
difficulty of effectually treating the projecting 
gablets is not often successfully grappled with 
in modern work. The way in which strainer 
arches across transepted naves are pierced and 
decorated so as to add beauty and even mystery, 
as at Pinedon and Rushden, is interesting to those 
having to deal with wide naves, although the 
expedient will rarely be imitated at the present 
price of iron tie rods. The windows of these 
Decorated churches are generally filled with 
reticulated tracery, often approaching a flam- 
boyant character. Often a square head is used, 
which would, at first sight, indicate a later date 
than can fairly be assigned to it. Tlie wood- 
work of these and the Perpendicular churches 
is generally of high merit. In several in- 
stances octagonal stages have been added to 
square towers in the 15th century, but the effect 
is rarely satisfactory, the outlines as seen from 
the ground being confused. Good Jacobean 
pulpits of carved woodwork were seen at 
Irchester and Castle Ashby. The screen at 
Holdenby, of about the same date, is heavy 
and incongruous, although the work itself 
is well executed. The effigies, brasses, and 
other memorials seen were very numerous, 
and fully merited the eulogiums expressed in 
Mr. Bloxam's paper; the priest's brass at 
Higham Ferrers gave rise to a warm discussion, 
and, although the idea that the tomb was 
erected for John of Gaunt must he given up, it 
was almost conclusively established that the 
tomb is that of Laurence Seymour. An in- 
teresting point was that a number of the Late 
churches visited are dated, in one case the 
actual contract for erection being extant. 

The mansions visited were cliietiy buildings 
of the Elizabethan period, the original plan 
consisting of a centre and projecting wings. In 
most instances the quadrangle was completed 
in the seventeenth century, very often with a 
low screen. The principal rooms are en suiic, 
and look not upon the quadrangle, but out- 
wards. All the houses visited, with two excep- 
tions, are set in low, and probably damp, 
situations, and too little attention seems to 
have been paid to selecting the best aspect for 
the principal front ; the chief rooms at Drayton 
look to the north. The grouping of turrets and 
chimneys is often extremely picturesque. The 

treasures of furniture, paintings, china, and 
books with which they are stored could not be 
seen to advantage as the houses are at this 
seiwon in course of refurbishing. 

While the meeting has shown the appro- 
priateness of the boast that Northants is a 
" county of spires and squires," there have been 
a few other objects of interest scanned more 
or less cursorily. Several examples of de- 
fensive earthworks were seen. A fine Roman 
camp was viewed at Irchester, but it would 
almost have required ten hours instead of 
as many minutes to have properly mas- 
tered the arrangements and examined the 
remains. The mediioval castles were but frag- 
mentary — llockingham being the most im- 
portant ; those of Northampton and Fother- 
inghay are little more than mounds and 
foundations. Mention should also be made of 
the Eleanor memorials, of the very complete 
collegiate buildings at Uigham Ferrers, and of 
Tresliam's eccentricities at Kathwell and 

As usual, the town in which the meeting was 
held was almost neglected for more distant 
excursions. How many members visited the 
quaint heavily-timbered house, dated 15!I5, 
which stands at the north-east angle of the 
market-place, and challenges attention by the 
Welsh inscription over the door ? or so much as 
saw the gabled home of the Hazelrigge's in 
Marefair ? or searched for traces of St. James's 
Abbey in the walls beyond West-gate ? The 
chief interest lay in the excursions ; these were 
confined to the county limits, and the heavy 
programme was almost completely carried out. 
The papers read at the sectional meetings were 
more numerous than usual; but they were nearly 
all historical, topographical, or genealogical in 
character, only in a few cases touching on 
matters architectural. The local president. 
Lord Alwyne Compton, struck the right key- 
note in the restoration controversy in his open- 
ing address (it is critically treated in another 
column). Restored buildings were, as a conse- 
quence, scanned with unusual vigilance 
throughout the week, and the incumbents of 
churclies as yet adorned with the plaster, 
pews, and " properties" of the last century were 
offered advice gratis and without stint. 

But we must resume our journal of the week's 


The annual meeting of the Institute was 
held in the morning at the Town Hall, when 
the report was adopted, and a resolution 
passed, expressing the regret of the members at 
the proposal to restore a high-pitched roof to 
St. Alban's Abbey. 

An excursion was then made to the noble 
cluster of spired churches on the hills on either 
side of the Nene, and near the eastern border of 
the county. Wellingborough being reached by 
train, carriages here took the party to the site 
of the Roman camp at Irchester, which has 
recently been excavated by the Rev. R. S. Baker 
and a committee. 


Occupies the summit of a knoU overlooking the 
Nene valley, and extends over an area of 22 
acres. It is surrounded by earthen walls and 
ditch. Mr. Baker said there is every reason to 
believe it was formed about 48 a.d., by Osterius, 
for the defence of the southern part of the 
kingdom against the savage and unsubdued 
northern peoples. The earliest mention of the 
encampment is, however, that by Dr. Morton, 
the county historian of Queen Anne's time, who 
gives the measurements of the walls, none of 
which are now above the ground level. The 
sit-e had then, and has ever since, served as a 
quarry for building stones. The present exca- 
vations have been carried on at the boundaries 
of the site, and have exposed a circular bastion 
at the south angle, and at the north-west end 
the foundations of parts of the guard-houses on 
either side of the gate, and at intervals all round 
the area walling of about Oft. in thickness. 
The masonry is chiefly of thin laminae of local 
stone, disposed herring-bone or flat, and here 
and there a tile of about Sin. in thickness; at 
the angles and gates large stones pierced with 
" lewis holes" for lifting them are used. In the 
course of the excavations a few coins of the 
later emperors, and bushels of broken pottery 
have been found, and are preserved at 

Irchester vicarage, the cleaning out of two 
wells and some cisterns having yicldi.'d many 
Roman relics. In the Roman ceiu.t.Ty, 5uO 
yards away, wore found souie stone coffins. The 
visitors made the circuit of the walls, entering 
some of the excavations, and a few went to the 
vicarage to examine tl>e treasures there col- 
lected. A vote of thanks was passed to the 
landlord and tenant of the camp site, who have 
furthered the work of discovery. Mr. Fairless 
Barber suggested that the Roman works were 
covered by mounds for defence at a subsequent 
period, as at Templeborough, and described the 
recent discoveries at that station. 

Ibchestek Church, next visited, has a 
slender and lofty broach spire, connected by 
very narrow squinches with the tower, with 
small spire lights, and is a type of many others 
seen in the course of the day. Red and grey 
stone are alternated in patches and broad 
stripes on the external waUs of these churches 
with good effect. The chancel is nearly all 
Early English, with later sedilia and piscina. 
The font is of Transitional character, and has 
upon the round part four figures, with nimbed 
heads. The church is one of the few yet 
unrestored, and the rector asked for sugges- 
tions as to the process. It was suggested 
that the south chancel wall, now blocked 
up, should be buttressed, and the late thir- 
teenth century windows re-opened ; that the 
slightly later parclose to chantry chapel, with 
its lace-like carved upper members, should be 
left intact, together with the Jacobean pulpit, 
the handrail of which is the upper portion of 
the old rood screen (and the north base was 
found to be built into a pew) ; that the few 
high pews should be replaced by benches 
resembling the old ones in the west end of 
nive, similar elaborated carving being, if pos- 
sible, introduced into the backs; and that the 
whitewash be removed from walls. 


Has a magnificent tower and spire, the handsom- 
est and best proportioned in the district. The 
lower part of the steeple is E irly English, but 
to the narrow west entrance have been added 
peculiar flying buttresses. AU above this porch 
is Late Decorated. The spire is set into a 
parapet, and has flying buttresses at the 
angles ; it is ornamented at the angles with 
large bracket- shaped crockets, and the taper 
form swells at the insertion of each of three tiers 
of spire lights. Over the south porch is a cham- 
ber, which, prior to the passing of the Poor- 
Law Act, was allotted by the parochial 
authorities as the residence of an old woman, 
who had to clamber up and down by a ladder — 
the ancient staircase being blocked up. The 
plan of the church is unusually broad; the 
nave and chancel are wide, and have north 
and south aisles, whils flat transepts project a 
short distance. It was restored three years 
since by Mr. Gordon Hill, who has wisely 
allowed all broken carvings, mouldings, and 
ornaments to tell their own tale uncompleted. 
The exterior of the church is battlemented all 
round. The north transept is the earliest por- 
tion, and may be assigned to 12G0. The east 
end of the north aisle is walled off internally as 
a sacristy, and marked externally by circular 
turret. Just outside this is an altar tomb — an 
unusual position for such a memorial. On 
entering the church the most noticeable feature 
is a strainer arch of the latest Decorated period, 
with pierced panelling and a reversed arch 
above, spanning the nave at the western side 
of transepts. The effect of this constructional 
feature, rendered necessary by the LnsufBcient 
strength of walls for width of roof-span, is very 
fine. Between the south aisle and transept is 
a Perpendicular arch, with singular mouldings 
of a class in use at an earlier period, and sup- 
ported by angels. Carved on the voussoirs is 
the statement : " Yis arche made hue bochar 
and Julian hise wyf of whos sowlvs God have 
merci upon — amen." A beautiful parclose of 
the same period crosses the arch and incloses 
the south transept, and other screens cross 
chancel arch and north aisle. 


Tlie chief interest here was around the group 
of buildings raised by Archbishop Cliichely in 
the town of his birth (the church, beautified by 
tlie prelate, refectory, bede-house. cross, and 
college). Of the last-named institution nothing 



Aug. 9, 1878. 

%«* s mined shell, now put to the meanest uses, 
jrenmins in the main street of the town. The 
church, formerly collegiate, is the finest 
is this district of fine churches, and the 
zsterior, with its great west tower, ter- 
minating in crocketted spire, and long ranges 
af !»aildmgs, with low roofs and uniformly- 
batHemented parapets is very striking. The 
baiS'diEg has two naves and chancels of equal 
3fimgth and width, and an additional north 
aisil* ; thus showing three ranges of piers in- 
ternally. The peculiarity in plan was caused by 
the building of a very large aisle and lady 
chapel about the middle of the 11th century, 
to the north of the original nave, chancel, and 
west tower, the second north aisle being still 
later. The lower part of the tower is of very 
Eajly English character ; the west portal has 
a double entrance, divided by a shaft, while 
above is a typanum filled with circles contain- 
ing sculpture of events in our Lord's life, with 
d^pered work between. These carvings are 
executed in a free bold manner in Late Tran- 
aitional style, and show signs of having been 
painted. The tympanum subjects were 
minutely examined and raised some contro- 
Tersy. The tower and spire are much like 
those at Eushden, but it appears, from an in- 
scription on the former, fell down and were 
rebuilt in 1631-2. Richard Atkins, of Northamp- 
ton, the workman, seems to have copied and re- 
j>3aced the old spire very successfully. Inter- 
Billy the church appears very wide and lofty 
in proportion ; it was restored some time since 
by the late Mr. Slater. The south arcade is 
Early English, the central one Decorated, and 
the northern one somewhat later. The win- 
dows are large, many of them being square- 
headed, as is usual in this locality. The screen 
is of Late Perpendicular character, and was 
ps^bably erected, and the twenty stalls with 
their varied misereres added, by Chichely in 
1415, when he founded the college. Between 
the lady chapel and chancel is an altar tomb, 
en which are carved the three lions of England 
und other arms. The upper part consists of a 
ziarble slab, on which is a very large and well- 
executed brass, showing a priest in eucharistic 
Testments, with emblems and figures of 
apostles, and other devices. The arch above 
the tomb has been stencilled with large butter. 
Sies. A sharp debate arose as to the tomb and 
brass, concerning which, the tradition is that 
the former was built for John of Gaunt, but 
aot being finished when he died, the great Earl 
e{ Lancaster was buried elsewhere, and the 
tomb appropriated for the then rector, Lau- 
rence St. Maur, who died in 1283. Lord 
Alwyne Compton called attention to the tiles 
in the chancel, which were in the best type 
of Decorated; the patterns have been worn 
out, but can be traced as they were incised. 
To the west of the church is Chichely's col- 
lege refectory, now used as a schoolroom (the 
leading pulpit, approached by a staircase, is 
still perfect), and to the south the bede house. 
The latter was formerly divided by plaster 
partitions into 14 cells, inhabited during the 
last century by as many paupers. The place 
hecame too ruinous to house them, and fell 
into decay till recently almost rebuilt by the 
townspeople. It contains some good fragments 
of stained glass. Between this building and 
tie refectory — both fair specimens of their 
period — is the rectory, much modernised. In 
Iront of refectory, is the diapered stem of a cross 
»et on steps, and in the main street is another, 
the base of the latter being bricked round, and 
the upper part hung with irons supporting a 
lamp. At Higham Ferrers, rich enough in 
buildings to have profitably occupied the day's 
study, the party divided — one section going on 
by rail to Thrapston, and thence to Islip, 
Ijowict, and Drayton ; the other staying to 
examine the grand group of churches close by 
— Eaunds, Finedon, and Irthlingborough. 

Islip Church is a well-proportioned build- 
ing, with tower and crocketted spire, and large 
and lofty windows, and is throughout of one 
period — ^transitional Decorated and Perpen- 
dicular. It was restored in 18G4 by the late 
Mr. Slater. Mr. Parker remarked upon the 
south arcade that it showed local and peculiar 
treatment — a narrow pier projects north and 
sooth, with attached columns on the sides 
carrying the caps to arches. 

liowici Cbukch is of yet later type of Per- 

pendicular. Into the pinnacled and battle- 
mented tower is set an octagonal lantern, with 
other pinnacles at each angle ; the composition, 
as a whole, is heavy, and compares unfavour- 
ably with a somewhat similar lantern at St, 
Dunstan's in the West, Strand. In the north 
aisle are windows containing deep-toned stained 
glass, all (with an exception) of one period, and 
that somewhat anterior to the church as it now 
stands. The figures are prophets and kings, 
and in the heads saints, no canopies being repre- 
sented. There is in the church a series of costly 
memorials — bra3ses,eSigies, and classical figures 
of the successive owners of Drayton House and 
Manor during the past five and a-half cen- 
turies. This series commences with recumbent 
figures of one Ealph Greene and Catherine, his 
wife, executed, we learn, by an indenture yet 
extant, by Thos. Prentys and Eobert Sutton, 
" kervers, of Chellaston, in Derby," for the sum 
of iE40 ; the last is a marble allegorical group 
upon the tomb of Charles Sackville, fifth and 
last Duke of Dorset, died 1843. 


Affords one of the best representations of the 
English country seat of Queen Anne's time. Set 
in a well-wooded and extensive park, the man- 
sion, " all towers and turrets," as Horace Wal- 
pole pithily describes it, is surrounded by a 
trim and close-cropped garden. The house was 
rebuilt, as appears by a date on a chimney, in 
1584, with the exception of the Edwardian 
screen which forms the chief front; but various 
additions were made in William III.'s time, in- 
cluding the capping of the Elizabethan turrets 
with lofty cupolas, and the inclosure of the 
grand courtyard in front with lofty wrought- 
iron gates of a good pattern. After seeing the 
formal gardens the visitors were shown the 
many treasures — eighteenth-century paintings 
and furniture, old books and china collected in 
the mansion, which retains much of the Italian 
decoration with which it was ornamented prior 
to a visit by William III., and were afrerwards 
offered refreshments in the great hall by the 
hospitable owner, Mrs. Stopford Sackville. 

Radnds Church, visited by the second sec- 
tion, has a highly-decorated and massive Early 
English tower, with a singular pedimental set- 
off. Above is a tall spire, rebuilt in 1826. The 
chancel and its aisles are of the same period ; 
the narth and south aisles are Decorated, with 
later features introduced. The east window is 
fine Early English ; indeed, all the work here 
of this period is good. The Decorated chancel 
arch, which has been inserted into earlier work, 
is very singular, and has hollow mouldings on 
the east face and the ball flower on the west. 
The church is one of Sir GUbert Scott's restora- 

Stanwick Chuech has a unique Early 
English octagonal lantern of great beauty, 
with a fourteenth-century spire. The body of 
the church is of the same date as the tower, 
but both this and the south aisle have been 
greatly altered in Perpendicular times. 

Ikthlingbokouqh Church, — This, says Mr. 
Hartshorne, hon sec. of the Institute, in his 
accurate and well-written " Notes," is a most 
curious and interesting church, its peculiarities 
arising mainly from the use made of the Nor- 
man foundations for the thirteenth-century 
church, from the enlarged building that was 
required when the college was founded in the 
time of Edward III. (1376), by John Pyel, and 
from the domestic buildings then added, which 
do not exactly tell their story. The most re- 
markable feature is the ponderous tower, a 
partly domestic structure, with its lofty lantern. 
This is attached to the main body of the church 
by the western porch, and has vaulted cham- 
bers and other domestic features connected 
with it. They were probably offices of the 
college. It is evident that an Early English 
church was erected on Norman foundations, and 
that Pyel's alterations and additions include 
the tower and the domestic buildings is proved 
by his arms on the western doorway. The 
chancel contains the return stalls of Pyel's 
foundation. There are effigies of Pyel and 
his wife, and Elizabeth Cheyne, all mutilated, 
and a good canopied tomb in Purbeck marble, 
late fifteenth century. 

Finedon Church is of great size and 
beauty, with transepts. The whole building, 
with the exception of the tower and spire. 

which are rich Perpendicular, is Early Deco- 
rated work. The details throughout are of the 
best kind. The chancel screen is of stone, an 
unusual feature in Northants. A strainer arch 
(more elaborate in carving than the one of 
similar class seen at Rushden earlier in the 
day) takes the thrust of the western walla 
of the transept. lu the room over the porch 
is a library with a curious collection of divinity 
and valuable editions of the Fathers. 


Sectional meetings were held at the Town 
Hall in the morning. 


Mr. J. Evans presided over the antiquities 
section. Mr. M. H. Bloxam read a paper on 
•• The Sepulchral Effigies, both Sculptured and 
of Brass Incised, of Northamptonshire." The 
county was, he observed, so wealthy in eccle- 
siastical, military, and civil memorials that a 
history of the costumes of the past five centuries 
could be fully illustrated by examples to be 
found within Northants. A discussion took 
place as to the person represented by a brass 
upon an altar tomb under the Easter sepulchre 
in the chancel of Higham Ferrers Church. 
Lord Alwyne Compton read a paper in which 
he urged that it was, as generally regarded, 
that of Laurence de St. Maur (or Seymour), 
who held the living in 1283. 'The brass un- 
doubtedly depicted a priest, and the arms were 
those of the Earls of Lancaster (the patrons of 
the living), the three lions paramount of 
England and those of Grendon and St. Maur, 
the latter being like those borne by a Laurence 
de St. Maur, three generations earlier. Mr. 
Stephen Tucker (" Rouge Croix") doubted the 
identification of the shields. Mr. Bloxam was 
disposed to date the costume and style of the 
monument eighty years later than St. Maur's 
death. The Chairman adduced reasons for 
disbelieving the tradition that the monument 
was originally intended tor John of Gaunt. 


Mr. S. Sharp read a paper upon the piles of 
bones in the crypt beneath the south aisle of 
Rothwell Church. These have been vulgarly 
computed to represent 30,000 to 40,000 men 
who fell in some great battle, doubts being felt 
as to whether this was fought between Britons 
and Romans or between Parliamentarians and 
Royalists. The lecturer showed that the bones 
only occupy a cubic space of 1,275ft., and that 
although skulls and thigh bones predominate, 
they only represent a maximum of 4,000 human 
beings. They were probably piled there as 
an ossuary in the 17th century. In the discus- 
sion which followed other instances of these 
charnel-houses were named, and Mr. Sharp' 
conclusions were admitted. In the historical 
section Lord Henley read a paper on " The 
History of the States d'Etat of France." A 
hasty visit was afterwards made to several 
buildings in the town, the well-known 


Being the chief attraction. The whole church 
was restored by Sir Gilbert Scott. The plan is 
the usual one to this small class of buildings — 
a circular nave, long choir, and presbytery, but 
to this have been added a 15th-century western 
porch, tower, and broach spire, of heavy cha- 
racter, a Transitional Norman north aisle, and 
two south aisles of Decorated character, and 
recently, by Scott, an apse and eastern extension 
to aisles. The eastern piers and voussoirs 
above in nave and choir are banded with red 
and white stone. The circular portion is formed 
by eight massive circular columns of red sand- 
stone with varied Transitional caps and bases. 
These shafts carry pointed arches inclosing an 
octagonal vault now filled with woodwork and 
covered externally by a steep leaded roof. In 
the centre is a highly-carved modern font, with 
cover hanging by chains from above. This 
round portion is lighted by 14th-century 
windows, except those on north and south, 

A road excursion to Earl's Barton and Castle 
Ashby took place in the afternoon. On the road 
the fine Transitional tower of Weston Favell 
Church was looked for, with the more interest 
because James Hervey, author of the " Medita- 
tions Among the Tombs," was its rector, and 
lies buried here. 

Aug. 9, 1878. 




Tte rude square western tower, built of long 
strips of stone crossed by shorter ones, and the 
spaces between filled in with rubble, is the 
chief attraction in this well-known church. It 
is of three stages, battered on face, and 
without buttresses ; above the ancient portion 
being a much later stage and an embattle- 
zuented parapet. The western entrance is 
through a plain round-headed door, with deep 
scroll mouldings and ornamented imposts. On 
each side are round-headed panels, carried as 
arcading round the north and south sides. The 
windows in the tower are mere alits through the 
massive walls, and are flanked and divided by 
several different classes of uiouldings; tliree of 
these occurring on the lower stages liave arrow 
or triangular heads, the others are rectangular. 
The plaster has recently been removed from 
the older portion of the tower, thus expos- 
ing the rubble work, which is seen to be 
of the rudest and roughest description, and 
now seamed by extensive fissures, especially on 
the south face. The body of the ehurch is later 
than the tower, and has been in course of 
restoration during the past seven years under 
tlie care of Mr. K. U. Carpenter — the total sum 
expended having been about i! -1,000. The south 
door is late Norman, and of three highly- 
enriched orders ; the long and narrow chancel 
is chiefly of the same period, and seems, from a 
projecting jamb remaining on north side, to 
have originally terminated in an apse. The 
chancel w.alls are covered internally with zig- 
Eag arches in groups of three, the whole sur- 
mounted by a tine billet moulding. The wall 
above this arcade varies in thickness, and it 
was suggested that that indicated a tripartite 
division, but the continuity of the billet mould- 
ing militates against this. In the south wall is 
a piscina of unusual form and a square locker, 
and the arcade rises for sedilia in three arches. 
On the north side this work, which is freely 
executed, has been cut through to allow of the 
construction of .an organ-chamber. The chan- 
cel clerestory seems coeval with the building, 
the openings being deeply splayed inwards, 
revealing thegreat thickness of the walls. Across 
the chancel is a Early Perpendicular rood 
screen, uncoloured. The nave contains traces 
of all classes of work to Late Decorated, the 
arcade and aisle windows being of the latter 
period. Outside the church Mr. Parker 
directed attention to the workmanship of the 
tower, which, he contended, appeared to be done 
by carpenters and not masons — the bracing of 
long and short work, the irregular and crooked 
pieces of stone used as imposts being referred 
to in support of the theory. He should ascribe 
the period of erection to the days of Canute — 
the beginning of the eleventh century — cer- 
tainly anterior to that of Deerhurst, Glos., 
visited by the Institute last year, and which is 
dated lOSfi. Mr. Hartshorne considered the 
latter the older church, and it was pointed out 
that this at Earl's Barton is not mentioned in 
"Doomsday." The theory as to the use for defen- 
sive purposes of these early towers was broached. 
The incumbent stated that it was intended to 
restore the tower, and asked advice on the 
matter ; the general response was to " do as 
little as possible." 


Standing, as it does, on high ground, and 
with an out-look upon trim Italian gardens 
and terraces, and beyond these upon magnifi. 
cent trees in avenues and clumps. Castle 
Ashby is a fine example of an English stately 
hall of the earliest phase of Renaissance. 
The house forms a closed quadrangle three 
stories in height, the fourth side being a screen 
of two stories, with octagonal turret in the court- 
yard at each end of this lower portion. The 
most singular feature of the house is the use of 
lettering in the balustrade which surmounts 
the house, and on the terraces in the gardens. 
The inscriptions are chiefly in Latin, those on 
the house being from Psalm cxxvii., 1, 2, " Nisi 
Dominus ^dificaverit," A;c., the letters of pieces 
of stone nearly 3ft. in height ; those in the 
gardens are, together with the vases which 
occur at intervals, of terra cotta from Blash- 
field, near Stamford. The visitors having 
enjoyed the view from the roof-leads up the 
great avenue to Yardley Chase, and over the 
Nene valley, re-assembled in the great saloon, 

where llr. R. Scriven read a paper upon the 

history of Castle Ashby, tracing it back to the 
Asebi mentioned by chroniclers of Edward the 
Confessor's time. He showed how the estate 
was conferred by William the Conqueror on his 
niece, the Countess Judith, and then followed 
its transfer by marriage or sale from one family 
to another till it was purchased by Sir William 
Compton in 157.'?, since which time Castle 
Ashby had remained in the possession of this 
family. The old castle on the site, three 
centuries since, fallen into ruins, and was 
described by Leland as " now clene downe, and 
made a septum for bestes ;" some of the 
foundations were dug into in 18G0 during altera- 
tions. Henry Lord Compton began the re- 
building of the house in 1583, completing it, as 
three sides of a quadrangle, in 1589. The fourth 
side, containing a long gallery and a chapel, 
was added from the designs of Inigo Jones in 
]fi20. Jones made designs for the reconstruc- 
tion of the whole building, but these were never 
carried out. Two of his floor plans and some 
elevations are engraved in Campbell's " Vitru- 
vius Britannicus," with no intimation that these 
chiefly represented a design and not the actual 
structure. Th(! old estate accounts show that 
in 1719 ten men were at work adding a bow 
window, still existing, and in 1720-22 fourteen 
men were employed demolishing walls and re- 
building, when a recess in north front of court- 
y.ard was filled up. The wages paid in 1723 
were, to carpenters, 1-td., and to labourers, 8d. 
a day. Till 1771 the great hall in which the 
members of the Institute were assembled had a 
high-pitched roof and gable, and the accounts 
showed how 45 men were paid for taking this 
down, laying new floor, making a flatter roof, 
and forming a plaster ceiling. The design of 
that ceiling was very poor, and it has recently 
been replaced. The series of inscriptions had 
been gradually enlarged and completed as 
they now appeared. The accounts showed 
the gradual planting of the estate with 
trees, and the laying out of the grounds 
as they now appeared, by Lawrence ("Capa- 
bility") Brown, in 1760. Lord Alwyne 
Compton remarked upon the portraits on the 
walls of the room, and upon the very fine oak 
chimney-piece, dated IGOl, and brought from 
Sir John Spencer's at Canonbury. Other rooms 
were afterwards. shown, and also the vaults 
beneath the house; the groining is supported 
by round columns, with deep neck to mould- 
ings ; the date was approximately fixed as 
that of the new foundation by the use of the 
Tudor rose in some of the bosses. 

The little church in the park, which has been 
restored by Mr. Street, K.A., was then visited. 
The north doorway is of the latent Norman 
type, and is richly treated with zig.zag mould- 
ing and tooth ornament ; diaper ornament has 
been traced and commenced upon the shafts 
below, but only a few leaf ornaments have been 
executed. The greater part of the church is 
of the Perpendicular period. The pulpit is 
reputedly from Inigo Jones's designs, and as he 
was engaged in the construction of the fourth 
wing to the mansion, this is probably the case ; 
it is a panelled oak structure, with large 
styles and mouldings, but treated in quiet 
Classic spirit. In the north aisle is a cross- 
legged effigy, in Purbeck marble, of David de 
Esseby, c. 1268, which Mr. Hart-shorne con- 
siders the earliest figure of a knight, and 
there is also a very perfect brass, that of a 
priest named Wm. de Erinine, 1-K)1. The 
church is dwarfed by a colossal seated figure in 
marble, of the Angel of the Resurrection, by 
Tenerani, which is placed by the tower arch ; 
it forms a memorial of the second Marquis of 
Northampton, and other monuments to the 
Comptons are to be found in the church. 


Another small church, built, according to the 
inscription in one of the windows, by Anthony 
Catesby, his wife, and son, in 1531-, was next 
seen. It has a very short chancel, and is a good 
example of Late Perpendicular. At 


The members were entertained at tea by the 
rector, the Rev. C. H. Burnham, who after- 
wards pointed out the chief features in the 

founder, Nicholas de Cogenhoe, who died in 
12HU. The chancel is of an earlier church, 
and has deeply-recessed windows. 

In the evening a conversazione was held, at 
which the Kev. W. Monk, rector of Wyming. 
ton, read an exhaustive paper upon "The 
History of Northamptonshire." 


The greater part of the day was gpent in 
a long carriage drive through liockingham 
Forest, now in great part reclaimed and 
cultivated, but still containing many venerable 
trees ; many avenues of elms, planted in the 
middle of the last century, were seen on the 
Buccleuch estate during the earlier part of 
the day ; much of the timber is now past its 
prime, and the avenues, which are of great 
width, and measure in circuit (iO miles, have 
in their decay a melancholy appearance. 

From the station at Kettering — the fine Per- 
pendicular tower and the crocketted spire of 
whose church challenged attention even in a 
drenching thunderstorm — the members drove to 


(or Rowell), where the long collegiate church 
afforded welcome shelter. The chancel is Nor- 
man, with very deeply-sphayed clerestory win- 
dows and arcading beneath ; the nave and 
tower are chiefly Transitional, the caps of 
arcades being carved with crisp free foliage ; 
Mr. P.arker described these arcades as among 
the grandest examples. The b-ose of a central 
tower is visible inside the church, but has never 
been carried above the first stage. The tran- 
septs were destroyed in 1673. The font is very 
peculiar ; it is five-sided, with a smaller basin 
of same shape set into the lower one and 
coupled to it by shafts ; the carving is of the date 
of Richard I. On either side of chancel are 
late 13th century chapels, now shut off and 
used as vestries ; their windows are filled with 
beautiful tracery, and in the north chapel are 
a series of coeval stone cofEns (one 6ft. Sin. 
internal length), with floriated crosses on the 
covers. In the south chapel is a parochial 
chest formed of one piece of oak, 7ft. long by 
1ft. lOin. across, and 1ft. llin. high, with pro- 
portionately heavy slab cover. The nave fittings 
are of the last century. An external feature 
on south is the lofty pyramidal termination to 
the belfry stairs ; it is of the conventional 
Early English type we find at Peterboro' and 
elsewhere, but is carried to the unusual height 
of about 20ft., so a-s to end on a level with the 
tower roof, two stages higher than the stairs. 
Most of the visitors descended to the crypt be- 
neath the south aisle and inspected the musty 
and mouldering piles of human remains, 
packed in parallel rows, more than waist high, 
on either side of o. passage. 

In the town the unfinished market-house, 
begun by the eccentric Sir Thomas Tresham, 
was visited. The design is Free Classic, with 
arched doorways and square-mullioned win- 
dows ; only the massive walls have been built, 
and these are completed as courses to the 
height of two stories, and are adorned with 
friezes, the lower one being occupied by a Latin 
inscription, and the upper by a series of sculp- 
tured shields bearing the arms of Northants 
families. It is said to have been planned by 
John Thorpe, and in it are used several orna. 
mental details uniform with those at Holdenby 
and Burghley. 


Were next visited. Both were built by Sir 
Thomas Tresham, the fourth side of the hall 
being a Doric screen of later date. The but- 
tresses, bays, and oriels, breaking the interior 
fa9ade3, gi vepiquancy to the view in.the quad, but 
the interest of Rushton lies in the extraordinary 
trianguUr lodge at the entrance to the park. 
Every detail and part is based on a system of 
threes, and the whole is a mystery. The 
ground plan is an equilateral triangle, each 
side measuring 33ft. 3in., and divided into 
three floors ; on each side are three gable-s, and 
below each of these a trefoil window with a long 
gurgoyle between. Below are more elaborate 
windows, pierced with twelve circular glazed 
lights, arranged in triplets round central light; 
on each side .are shields of arms and Latin in- 

church, including the arms displayed upon I scriptions of 33 letters each. In the gal)l('s are 
shields on the capitals of the Early English panels containing mystic numbers, and the 
arcades. In the south aisle is the effigy of the 1 seven-branched candlestick, a eun-dial, and 



Aug. 9, 1878. 

stone with seven eyes. Quaint sculptures of 
birds and letters and figures are disposed all 
over the building. The structure is excellently 
built, and further cramped together by irons, 
forming on the faces " T. T.," " 15," " dS." 
The interior is planned as three hexagonal 
chambers, two of the angles being triangular 
cupboards, and the third the staircase. Some 
time was spent in trying to unravel the puzzles 
presented by the numbers, initials, and symbols 
sprinkled over the odd structure. Opinions 
were divided as to whether it was simply an 
architectural folly, or whether Tresham, who 
was persecuted till his death for having joined 
the Koman Catholic Church, did not design it 
as an emblem of the Holy Trinity. 

A brief visit was paid to All Saints Church, 
Eushton, an Early English structure, restored 
by Mr. Law, of Northampton, where the altar 
tomb of Sir Thomas Tresham, grandfather of 
the builder of the lodge and hall, was examined. 
Upon it is a beautifully-executed effigy in 
alabaster of Tresham, who was the last prior of 
the order of St. John of Jerusalem. Over plate 
armour he wears the habit of the order, with a 
cross-fleury on breast. The church contains 
many modern stained-glass windows, by Clay- 
ton and Bell, and Powell and Co. Some modern 
slab memorials of the late rector's family have 
been inserted into ancient stones — in one in- 
stance cutting through the matrix of a fine 


The carriages simply halted at and drove 
round this memorial of Eleanor of Castillo. 
The cross is triangular, and stands on a 
hexagonal base above seven steps of similar 
outline. The lower stages are moulded to 
represent clustered shafts, and covered with 
deeply-cut diapering, the repeated figure 
representing the conventional rose set in a 
square panel ; above, on each face, is a 
statue of La Ch^re Reine, resembling those 
at Northampton and Waltham, but not so well 
executed. Each figure is set in a niche beneath 
cusped and groined canopy. From the centre 
rises a column formed of six square shafts and 
ending in a mass of crocketted pinnacles. It is 
not certain if the memorial was originally 
finished with a cross ; if so, all trace has dis- 
appeared. Grave defects in the use of the 
triangidar form are, that the whole seems dis- 
torted from most standpoints, and that the 
statues can only be viewed in profile, the angle 
shaft which supports the canopy cutting 
through tlie figure when seen full face. No 
record exists of the building of this cross, which 
is supposed to mark the third resting-place of 
Eleanor's body on the progress from Hardby to 
Westminster Abbey, and it is not known 
whether the structure has ever been touched up 
since it was erected in the closing decade of the 
twelfth century. 


A long drive through the forest brought the 
members to this great house, where luncheon 
(at so much a headj was served in the great 
dining-room, the bay window in which formed 
the subject of one of Mr. Langham'sf sketches 
in our photo-litho pages two years since. The 
greater part of Kirby was built for Humfrey 
Stafford by John Thorpe in 1570-2 ; in 
1577 the property passed to Sir Christopher 
Hatton, who employed the same archi- 
tect to form the great quadrangle, and the 
great bay windows on the south were sub- 
sequently thrown out by Thorpe. Inigo Jones 
was employed by Lord Hatton in 1638-40 to 
build the south entrance, outer walls, and 
gateways, and to alter the screen of the inner 
quadrangle. The south front in the quadrangle 
displays the several orders superposed, Doric 
being on ground level. This leads to the 
grand staircase, above which is a fine coved 
ceiling in plaster, also designed by Jones. 
Thorpe's work can be readily distinguished 
by the singular coupled stone chimneys, the 
quaint oriels, with muUioned and transversed 
lights, and the ornamental use of fillets, 
squares, and circles executed in relief upon the 
masonry. The place was inhabited as recently 
as 1820 ; indeed, Mr. Burgess and others said it 

* See illustration and description in BuiLDiNa News 
for August llth, 1876, Vol. XXXI., p. 124. 

t See illustrations in Vol. XXX. of BniLDiKO News, 
pp. 194, 342, 466, published Feb, 25, April 7, and May 12, 

was in perfect condition five and thirty years 
since. It is now being dismantled ; the roofs 
have been stripped off the east and west sides 
of the quadrangle; the floors have been chopped 
up for firewood, the handrailing of grand 
staircase removed, and the whole is woefully 
dilapidated ; and in keeping is the ragged 
grass in the quad, and the weeds in the library. 
Yet the walls are perfect, the carving on 
gables, parapets, and pilasters is almost as 
good as when executed, and the arrises are 
sharp and true. According to the daily papers 
Kirby was offered for sale by auction a fort- 
night since by the trustees of the Earl of 
Winchilsea, and withdrawn at £23,000. 


Mr. G. T. Clark, of Dowlais, escorted the 
members in a perambulation of the outer bailey, 
pointing out the massive entrance gateway, 
dating from 1275, by which they had entered 
the noblo terrace overhanging the Welland, 
artificially scarped so as to render the position 
still more secure, the portion of a bastion still 
existing at the north-west angle, and the divi- 
sions between the outer and the inner courts 
yet marked by a flight of steps and a low wall 
between the gardens. Still following the outer 
line of defence, Mr. Clark said it was probable 
the western mound was thrown up by the 
Britons as a camp, and was long afterwards 
raised and strengthened by the Normans. The 
northern and north-east side is defended by the 
steep hill-side over the river ; the western side 
by a natural ravine which narrows and shallows 
to the southern side. There, therefore, it 
became necessary to make other works, and 
accordingly the valley was deepened, and the 
earth thrown up to make the mound of the 
keep, and outer lines of ditch and earthern 
rampart were provided. Standing on the 
mound of the keep, Mr. Clark gave a r.apid 
extempore sketch of the rise and growth and 
popularity of antiquarian pursuits, and of the 
increasing regard for topography by modern 
historians — Arnold, Macaulay, and Edward 
Freeman being instanced. Turning to the 
keep, on the site of which they stood, Mr. Clark 
detailed its characteristics as a fortress, and 
showed that a deep ditch once ran round the 
inhabited part, jet a residence on the plateau 
beneath. Traces of this moat yet existed on the 
eastern side of the house. The Normans re- 
placed the early banks by ditches, and on the 
highest, where he stood, built a shell keep, 
either round or polygonal, and there were 
great walls round the keep, which inclosed the 
courtyard. All these buildings were gone, but 
there were traces of a curtain wall, between the 
courts ; but besides this there was another in 
front of the house. In all, there were three 
courts. The old castle was slighted during the 
civil wars, and much of the material was then 
carted away, and the ditches and banks were 
levelled. The history of the castle and of the 
royal forest of Rockingham was a very 
interesting one. — Time did not permit of an 
examination of the interior of castle, which 
was chiefly rebuilt in the time of Elizabeth, 
and scarcely of acceptance of the owner's hos- 
pitality, as the members were returning to 
head-quarters by rail. 

At the historical sectional meeting in the 
evening, Mr. S. I. Tucker (" Eouge Croix ") 
read a paper on " The Descent and Varying 
Armorials of the Spencers of "Wormleighton 
and Althoipe." 

On Sunday morning a special service was 
held in the Eonnd Church, and was attended 
by the Mayor and Corporation and members of 
the Institute. The sermon was preached by 
the Eev. Canon Pownall, P.S.A., rector of South 
Kilworth, who took as his text Eev. xxi., 22. 

Fotheringhay and Barnack were the main 
points of this day's excursion, which was 
through the north-east part of the county, the 
journey as far as Oundle being performed 
by rail. 


Interesting because of its associations with the 
poet Dryden, who often visited his cousin, Mrs. 
Stewart, at the Manor-house, and who was him- 
self baptised in the fine spired church of Ald- 
wincle St. Peter's, a few miles south (and seen 
to the right from the train) — was first visited, a 
halt being made in the church while the rector. 

the Eev. A. J. Abbey, read a descriptive paper. 
The west doorway and tower are Transitional, 
with some singular projecting figures on second 
stage. The south porch is groined, the bosses 
being well sculptured with representations of 
the 'Trinity and Evangelists. This is 150 years 
later than the nave to which it is attached ; the 
latter is badly lighted, and has surrounding the 
three internal sides a stone seat. Many of the 
peculiarities in the church are due to its having 
been connected with the college founded by 
John Giffard in 1339 ; the buildings stood on 
the north side, and have been destroyed, a 
farmhouse standing on the site. The church 
was reopened in May last after restoration at a 
cost of .£3,000, from plans by Mr. G. E. Street, 
E.A. ; Messrs. Hale and Sons, Salisbury, con- 
tractors ; and Mr. Hems, Exeter, carver. 


Is as yet unrestored ; the low square tower is 
almost concealed by ivy, and the walls are 
clothed with the same creeper. Inside are old- 
fashioned pews, a late roodscreen, and, in the- 
chancel, a series of stalls removed from Fother- 
inghay Church ; the misereres are carved with 
representations of eagles. 


The Church, formerly collegiate, is Perpen- 
dicular throughout, the nave, aisles, tower, and 
lantern having been rebuilt in 1435, to corre- 
spond with the chancel, now destroyed. Th& 
original contract for building the nave is still 
in existence, and is between the commissaries 
of the Duke of Y'ork and William Harwood, 
freemason, of Fotheringhay. The Duke wag 
to find " carriage and stuff," and Harwood was 
to have, as the work was done, d£300. The oct- 
agonal lantern is better proportioned to the 
tower than most features of the kind, being 
loftier and not so large as to give to its spring- 
ing the aspect of crowding. On the south side 
are very large flying buttresses from the aisles 
to the clerestory. 1'he nave is lofty and well 
lighted ; the east end is walled up. The tombs 
of the members of the royal House of York, 
erected by Queen Elizabeth's order, are expen- 
sive rather than imposing, and only interesting 
as specimens of the dying Tudor style. 

Of Fotherino;hay Castle nothing remains but 
traces of foundations, the ditches and hillocks 
marking the outer and inner bailey, the 
levelled space on the south side, where stood 
the great hall in which Mary Queen of Scots 
was beheaded (the hall was removed by Cotton, 
the antiquary, to Coniugton, Hunts), and the 
great conical mound, whereon the keep was 
built — it is yet moated round and uneven with 
foundations. On the other side of the village 
street is the hostel, containing fifteenth century 
fragments of stone carving. 

At Elton the members should have divided, 
but Barnack and Burghley were generally 
preferred to Peterborough, and the party 
proceeded to the former village. After luncheon 
at the rectory, hospitably offered by the Eev. 
Canon Argles, the visitors saw a torso of Bar- 
nack stone, dug up in 1851 in extending the 
rectory, and pronounced to be late Norman, 
and the collection of paintings and old china in 
the principal rooms. The afternoon was spent 
in and around 


The tower is the most interesting feature of 
the church. It is square on plain brick walls 
of great thickness, built of thick rubble work. 
Upon the faces of the walls are vertical strings 
of stone, alternated with other pieces running 
transversely into the fabric so as to bond it 
together. A plain string-course of the same 
character divides the tower into two stages, and 
just above this, in the centre on each side, is an 
upright slab, on which is carved a series of 
spiral lines set off from a vertical line. These 
few windows are triangular or circular-headed. 
There has never been a western entrance, but 
en the south side the middle course of long and 
short work ends in a keystone which forms the 
centre of a circular arch-moulding, formed of a 
single course of narrow stones, to a doorway. 
Inside, this tower has recently been cleared 
from the debris which had blocked it up since 
the 13th century, and now shows a triangular 
sedilia in the west side, set as a niche in thick- 
ness of wall, and the stone risers for seats car- 
ried around the other sides. The imposts of 
the arches are formed by laminse of stone, with 

Aug. 9, 1878. 



projecting edges, irregularly disposed as to 
one another, and giving an appearance of 
great antiquity and rudeness to the whole. 
The sculpture of this portion of the building 
has never been finished. The church would bo 
remarkable for the beauty of its Early English 
remains were this excellence not eclipsed by 
the tenon-and-mortice masonry of the tower. 
The south porch is one of the most beautiful 
of the 13th century. Beneath a steep gablo 
is a wide entrance arch. This leads 
into a vaulted lobby, with a four-arched 
arcade on each side. The mouldings are 
deeply rimmed and sharply cut. Above 
the original tower has been added an Early 
English octagonal story, dying off into a plain 
and rather short spire; the blending of the 
eight-sided stage, with massive tower and 
conical cap, by large buttresses rising through 
the squinches at the angles, is worth notice.* 
The north arcade of aisle is of the same period ; 
rather stiff curled leaves project from the caps, 
with much approximation to contemporary 
work at Canterbury. 'I'he south arcade columns 
have simple bell-mouldings and bands. There 
is some Decorated work in the church, but it is 
not of ecjual character to the earlier parts, the 
sedilia and piscina being especially heavy. The 
oast window is good and peculiar, almost a 
counterpart of that at Mertou College chapel, 
Oxford ; it is of five crocketted trefoil lights, 
under a four-centred head, the tracery above 
the principal light being pierced. It has been 
filled with stained glass. Some discussion took 
place as to the large and deep hagioscope in 
the south of chancel arch, looking into a 
chantry ; Mr. Micklethwaite contending that it 
served a twofold purpose of enabling the con- 
gregation and the oiBciating priest in the 
chantry to see the elevation of host at principal 
altar — Mr. Parker asserting that the latter was 
the sole purpose. This chantry is a fine Per- 
pendicular addition, and still has the origi- 
nal parclose and other fittings. On the north 
side of chancel is an adjunct now used as 
vestry, and containing, in the windows, three 
heads in stained gloss, of God the Father, a pope, 
and an angel, of about the 14th century. Mr. 
Parker showed where this was formerly divided 
by a floor so as to form a hermit's dwelling; and 
he suggested that its use might be revived if 
the sexton or pew-opener could be induced to 
take up his residence in it. Canon Argles 
hinted that the occupant might require a fire, 
or wish to keep a pig, which would render him 
an undesirable tenant. In the churchyard out- 
side is a remarkable series of stone coffins, two 
of them very small. The dimensions of the 
internal cavity in the least of these are 23in. 
long. Sin. deep. Sin. in breadth at shoulders, 
and oin. at feet. Canon Argles read a paper in 
the church, which we shall give in extenso in 
an early number. In it he advanced the theory 
that the tower was in early times used for trials 
by ordeal, and that the judge occupied the 
central niche, the jury being disposed in the 
side seats. He dwelt upon the " petrified car- 
pentry " of this early portion, detailed works of 
restoration carried out in the church, and 
those still in embryo, referred to the entire 
exhaustion during the fifteenth century of the 
famous quarry of " Bamack stone," of which so 
many chu'ches and several cathedrals were 
built, and showed in the arch connecting the 
chantry with the chancel the period when in 
this church other stone had to be substituted 
for that quarried in the parish. 


Some of the members went on to " Burghley 
House by Stamford town," the palatial mansion 
of the Marquis of Exeter, and one of John 
Thorpe's best designs. The bay windows and 
cupolas, Tuscan columns and parapets, exhibit 
a clever combination of Tudor and Classic 
detail ; the effect in the quadrangle is especially 
good. The walls and ceilings of the principal 
suite of apartments are covered with represen- 
tations of classical subjects by Verrio, Laguerre, 
and Stothard ; and among the art treasures 
hastily scanned by the visitors were the grand 
collection of paintings of the Italian school, the 
portraits in the Pagoda-room, and the almost 
numberless specimens of Grinling Gibbons' 
wood carvings of flowers and fruits. 

• The tower and spire, and south porch, are illustr-ited 
in the BmLDiNo News of June 25, 1875, Vol. XXVIII.. 
p. 416. 

In the evening sectional meetings were held 
at the Town Hall, Lord Alwyne Compton in the 


Mr. J. Tom Burgess, P.S.A., gave an 
address upon " The Opening of the Clarence 
Vault at Tewkesbury Abbey." He alluded to 
the visit that morning to Futheringhay, and to 
the associations of the house of Clarence with 
the castle ; the member of that family, George, 
brother of Edward IV., the one of whom he 
was about to speak, spent his early days 
there. A blue flag stone in Tewkesbury Abbey, 
between the lady chapel and that of St. 
Edmund the Martyr, liad been historically 
known, from the Abbey Chronicle, as covering 
the entrance to the vault wherein, in lt77, the 
body of Isabel Neville, Duchess of Clarence, 
was buried, and there is little doubt that her 
husband, however he may have died, was laid 
beside her. The tomb was opened in 1745, and 
the bodies of a male and female were found 
therein. In consonance with the taste of the 
age, a local alderman, his wife, and daughter, 
were buried therein ; the original bones were 
placed in a 13th century stone coffin, and re- 
placed in a corner of the vault. It was again 
opened four weeks since in the course of resto- 
ration when the bones were found ; the tiles 
which formed the crossing of the floor of the 
vault were those of the Lancastrians, and had 
apparently been removed from the original 
place when it was re-used by "the suns of 
York." Mr. Burgess protested against the 
proposed exhibition of the remains under a 
glass-case. This intention was generally repro- 
bated, and a resolution Was passed, requesting 
the secretary to write to the "Tewkesbury .\bl>ey 
authorities upon the matter. Mr. J. T. Mickle- 
thwaite, F.S.A., followed with a paper upon 
" The State of Churches in 1548," in which he 
minutely detailed the furniture and fittings, 
and their distribution in the churches in 1548, 
one of the earliest years in the period vaguely 
known as " the Keformation." 


The Rev. A. J. Foster read a paper on 
"Easton Maudit." The church of St. Peter 
and St. Paul is all of the later Decorated period, 
and was completed at once, with the exception 
of the Yelverton chapel on north of chancel, 
with its strainer arch, formerly shut off from 
the church, and entered by a private external 
door. The spire is a capital example of North- 
amptonshire type, with three tiers of lights, and 
finished at the angles with pinnacles and flying 
buttresses; it was partly rebuilt in 1832. The 
church was restored 17 years since, at a coat of 
.£3,530. The monuments are chiefly collected 
in the Yelverton chapel, having been removed 
at the time of the restoration. The Yelvertons 
are commemorated by some magnificent Jaco- 
bean tombs, besides slabs and mural tablets. 
The effigies of Sir Christopher Yelverton, 
Speaker of the House of Commons in the reign 
of Elizabeth and James I., and Lady Yelverton 
are of coloured alabaster and life-size ; they 
exhibit the most minute detail of dress and 
ornament, executed in the delicate sculptural 
style of the period. On the sides of the tomb 
kneel the children — four sons on one side, and 
eight daughters on the other. Another of the 
monuments is that of Henry Y'elverton, first 
Viscount Longueville, who died 1703. His effigy, 
in black gown and ruff, looks down from one of 
the shelves of a bookcase and surrounded by 
books. These books seem to commemorate his 
bequest of his library to Christ Church, Oxford. 
On a lower shelf lies his wife, and beneath kueel 
the sons and daughters. The canopy is sup- 
ported by hooded mutes, upon whose cushioned 
heads rests the ponderous pediment of the 
monument, and between are emblems of death 
and burial. The colouring of the whole is very 
perfect, and notwithstanding the quaint con- 
ceit of the bookshelves, with their clasped 
volumes turned edge outwards, the monument 
is a remarkable specimen of the time when the 
Italian style had pervaded the island. In the 
course of a discussion which followed, Messrs. 
Tucker and Law deprecated, on historical and 
personal grounds, the removal of monuments ; 
but admitted that where, as at Easton Maudit, 
such memorials obstructed light from windows 
or hid architectural features, they might be 
removed to another part of the church. 

The Eev. J. H. Hill, of Cranhoe, exhi- 
bited a copy of a fresco painting discovered 
on the previous Tuesday in the manor-house of 
Medboume, near Market Harborough. Parts of 
the manor-house date back to the reign o£ 
Henry HI., but the fresco was executed, at the 
earliest, in James I.'s time, the subject being an 
esquire in feathered cap, doublet, and trunk 
hose, and the details of the frieze were drawn 
from Classic sources. 

A concluding meeting was held at the Town 
Hall in the morning, Lord A. Compton in the 
chair, when votes of thanks were proposed to 
the Mayor and Corporation for their hospitable 
reception and the use of the Town Hall, to the 
local secretaries and committee, to those who 
entertained the members of the Institute on 
their excursions and in the town, to the readers 
of papers, to the local president, and to the 
secretary of the Institute, with special mention 
of his descriptive pamphlet. 


In the afternoon many of the members 
accepted Sir Henry Dryden's invitation to visit 
his seat, proceeding thither by road. Canons 
Ashby is an " unrestored " mansion of various 
dates, in part constructed out of remains of the 
priory of Augustinian canons near by, about the 
middle of the 16th century, and greatly enlarged 
in Queen Anne's time. The buildings, the 
earliest of which seems to be the octangular 
tower, inclose a small quadrangle. A very 
singular series of pipes, which conveyed water 
to the monastic buUdings, remain in use. A 
series of terraces, overhung by cedars, descend 
from the house to the park and fish-ponds. 
Within, the chief apartments are the hall, 
hung with old armour and weapons ; the dining- 
room, floored and wainscotted with the timber 
of a single oak, which grew in the park ; the 
library, which is fire-proof, and above this the 
drawing-room, which has a fine ceiling and fire- 
place, dating from the middle of the 17th 
century. The church of Canons Asliby was a 
part of the priory establishment, and now con- 
sists only of nave, north aisle, and lofty pinnacled 

It was decided last week to accept the plans of 
Mr. Dreive for the erectioa of the new ward of the 
Cottage Hospital at Ramsgate, and Messrs. Paramor 
and Sod's tender for the work at .£5'j5. 

A mission school chapel was opened at St. Thomas, 
near Launceston, on Tuesday. The design is by 
Mr. J. Piers St. Aubyn, architect. 

The new school buildings for the Middle School, 
Warwick, were opened on Thursday week. These 
buildings, which are of the Tudor period, embrace 
a master's house, a school-room capable of accom- 
modating 125 beys, three large class-rooms, and 
crypt for a covered playground, and have been 
erected from the design of Mr. J. Cundall, architect, 
the Parade, Leamington. The work has been 
carried out by Mr. Thomas Mills, contractor, of the 
same town, at a cost of ^62,638. 

A memorial tablet, to the late Lieut. Leos, has 
been erected in York Minster by Messrs. W. H. 
Burke and Co. It is a simple Early English arched 
canopy of grey marble, relieved with alabaster 
bosses, and surmounted by a carved finial of white 
marble. The canopy is supported by two small 
columns of Irish red marble, with white carved 
thirteenth century capitals, and these rest upon a 
grey marble base, which again is supported by 
trusses of the same material. 

The ancient parish church of Child's Ercall, 
Salop, is being restored by Messrs. Carpenter and 
Ingelow. Mr. Whittinghara, of Newport, is the 

A party of members of the Derbyshire Archaeolo- 
gical Socity visited Lichfield on S.itur<iay week. An 
interesting paper on the shrine of St. Chad was read 
by Bishop Abraham. 

New baths were opened in Lodge-lane, Liverpool, 
last week. The cost of the building has been 
jgl.SOO. The building is of brick, ia the Tudor- 
Gothic style. It has been erected under the super- 
vision of Mr. A. Duncanson, the contractors and 
sub-contractors being respectively ^lessrs. Thornton 
and Sons and Messrs. Haigh and Co. Mr. Hugh 
Davies was the clerk of the works. 

The excavations are rapidly removing the last 
traces of AUhallows Church, Brea<l-9treet. Four 
new buildings are about to be erected thereon, the 
design of which is Renaissance, with some features 
of the Queen Anne period. Mr. Alexander Peebles, 
Salters' Hall-court, is the architect, and Messrs. 
Scrivener and Co., Fitzroy-road, the builders. 



Aug. 9 ' 878. 


The Archax)IogicftI Inetitute and Bestoratdon 123 

Bnilding in Brighton „ 123 

Bojal Archeological InBtitat« ... ... 12i 

Our Lithofmphie IlIartr»tion« _ „ „. 130 

Arohitoctnr&l and ArchGMlOjpoal Societies „. 130 

Bnilding on StUts „ 1« 

Precantione AgainBt Storm Overflows « _. 143 

The Transfer of Gaa Worki to Local Authoritiea .„ 143 

A New Method of Detecting OverBtraijtt in Iron 144 

Power of Rnuning Water 144 

Competitions « 144 

Building Intelligenee ... .„ 145 

Oorreepondenoe „ „ 146 

Legal Intelligence , ... .„ „. 147 

Interoommnnication „, 147 

Our Office Table „ 148 

Chipe 148 



Our Lithographic Illustrations. 


A PAPER read by Sir Gilbert Scott at the Thirty- 
third Annual Congress of the Eoyal ArchEeolo- 
gical Institute, held at Hereford last year, and 
reported by ua in the Bdildino News of 
August 10, 1877 (p. 137, Vol. XXXIII.), will 
afford the best description of this illustration. 
The members of the Institute, whose Congrees 
at Northampton we are reporting this week, 
will remember how Sir Gilbert Scott supple- 
mented his paper by the remarks delirered 
while he accompanied them round the building 
itself, which will also be found reported in the 
Dumber of the Building News referred to 


Messes. Bell and Eoobes are the architects 
of the above house, buUding as a summer resi- 
dence for E. R. Heap, Esq., at Formby, which 
is situated in Lancasiiire, midway between 
Sonthport and Liverpool. The shore portion of 
the estate is being laid out by the above archi- 
tects, who have recently constructed some miles 
of new road, breakwater, and esplanade, and it 
is anticipated that in a short time Pormby will 
become a suburb of considerable importance to 


Me. Glutton thus describes his design, which 
we illustrate herewith. The plan is that of a 
church belonging to a community — viz., a cross 
with a dome, 60ft. in diameter, at the inter- 
section. It also resembles the plan of St. 
Philip Neri, in Rome, as also " The Gesu," and 
the church of St. Charles Borromeo in the same 
city. The three doors of entrance open into a 
spacious loggia, which can be screened off or 
not at convenience ; whilst to enhance the pro- 
portion, attitude, and dignity of the sanctuary 
and transepts, the vaulting is contracted con- 
siderably by the introduction of columns, as 
shown by the plan. The architecture is that 
used in the before-named churches, and is the 
Kenaissance of the 16th century. The motive 
of the architectural treatment is based on the 
principle used by Michael Angelo in the build- 
ing of the basilica of St. Peter — externally as 
well as internally — namely, in both cases, one 
lofty order with an attic. At the same time 
reference has been made to another work of 
that great architect in the application of a 
smaller order of architecture, interlacing inter- 
nally, as well as externally, the greater or main 
order. I refer to the masterly buildings of the 
Capitol, at Rome, which now contain the Capi. 
toline Museum. The advantage internally of 
this minor interlacing order is that it affords 
the very best development for the subsidiary 
parts of the plan, such as the side chapels, 4c. ; 
it preserves their proper scale in the desigTi, 
makes each one an architectural unit of its own, 
and reduces to a proper proportion its architec- 
tural parts to make the introduction of paint- 
ing, sculpture, and architectural decorations a 
consistent whole. At the same time the dignity 

of the main order is left in repose, and it fulfils 
its functions by a series of vertical lines 
throughout the entire leng^th of the building, 
nearly 60ft. of unbroken height. A vault of 
60tt. diameter, springing from that level, can- 
not fail to secure a majestic interior. It should 
also be a matter of observation that, as in the 
great church of St. Peter's, the exterior is the 
reflex of the interior ; and although the exterior 
may suffer from the enforcement of so logical a 
treatment, it ia better to accept such a sequence, 
even at the sacrifice of exterior effect, than 
attain a result, perhaps superior, but open to 
grave criticism, as in the case of the false 
lateral walls of St. Paul's Cathedral, and the 
peristyle treatment externally to a Roman 
thermae internally, as in the case of the great 
Church of the Madeleine at Paris. Like the 
churches in Rome this design has no roof of 
wood. It is covered with a vaulting of brick- 
work, which becomes at once ceiling and roof, 
being covered externally with asphalte, and in- 
ternally with stucco. The dome is of Portland 
stone, as are also the coverings to the chapels. 
The flooring is paved, so that it may be said not 
a particle of combustible material is used to 
carry out the design. The transepts, besides 
expressing a church belonging to a community, 
afford the very best arrangement for the organ 
and choir, and the several arrangements con- 
nected with the house. The materials to be 
used, subject to what has already been said, are 
open for consideration. Any stone for exterior 
purposes can be nothing but Portland, although 
the design lends itself to the use of terra cotta 
and brick. Internally a soft limestone mijht 
be advantageously used. The ceiling decoration 
in stucco— carvings, mosaic, and marbles can 
be added to any extent. The contemplated 
outlay to carry out this design is jeiOO,000. 

R4ftreates to PUn. 

A Corridor of honse. I Btairs to organ. 

B Corridor. J Calvary chapel. 

C Chief sacriBty. KK BaptiAtrj chapel and 

D&B Spacei allotted for font. 

working aacristiea, L L L 20 oonfeuionali. 

Btow.ige rooms, Bac- M Pulpit. 

riitan's rooms (aa N Sanctuary. 

may be required). P Stairs to cngine- 

F F P Six chapels. room. 

G Organ raised above 8 Phitform at back of 

floor on a tribune, altar for benedio- 

with passage under tions. 

same. T T Parlours. 
H Space for singers. 


In the Building Nbws for March 22 last we 
illustrated the exterior of the Royal Pavilion of 
the British Commission, and commenced our 
series of plates illustrating the English build- 
ings in the Rue Internationale. To-day we are 
enabled to give a double-page view of the 
council chamber or dining-room in which the 
Prince of Wales holds his receptions to the 
commissioners of other countries. The apart- 
ment has a height of 22ft., and is lighted from 
a central light in the ceiling. This is filled 
with stained glass. The soflit of the ceiling is 
coppered and gilt, the panels being of enriched 
plaster. The cornice ia supported by a deep 
cove of walnut, the whole being carved in a rich 
manner. The centre of the long side of the 
room is occupied with the mantel-piece, which 
is an elaborate example of finished workman- 
ship. The upper portion contains a portrait of 
the Queen, by Angeli, executed in tapestry at 
the Royal Windsor Works*, from the original 
portrait in oQs, which was lent expressly by 
her Majesty. The work is life-size, and the re- 
production in tapestry is an admirable likeness. 
We are assured that this is the first occasion on 
which any portrait has been attempted in 
tapestry in England — at any rate in modern 
times. A wrought steel and brass stove is 
placed in the fireplace, the sides of which are 
lined with encaustic tiles. The walls over the 
dado are covered with tapestry, executed at the 
same works, representing eight scenes from 
" The Merry Wives of Windsor," and the whole 
series form one of the most important works of 
the kind yet produced. The scenes shown in 
our view show " Slender and Anne Page," " Te 
Merrie Wives," and " Sir John Falstaff." The 
dado is massively treated, and extends round 
the room at the height of the mantel-piece 

* A view of the new works was given in the Building 
News, May U last. 

shelf. The panels are inlaid with marquetry, 
and the pilasters are carved, aa are the trusses 
over. A rich Axminster carpet, of special 
design, covers the floor. The chairs and por- 
tieres are covered with English velvet, and like 
the side and centre tables were made expressly 
for this apartment. Beyond the dining-room a 
view is obtained of the boudoir, where the deco- 
rations are more after the style known as that 
of the Brothers Adam. The table in the front 
of the picture has some of the specially-de- 
signed plate, executed by Messrs. Elkington 
and Co. The designs for the entire work of 
the Pavilion were prepared by Messrs. Henry 
and Hay, the artists, engaged by Messrs. Gillow 
and Co., who have executed the works of this 
as well as in the other rooms of the Royal 


Bristol and Gloucebteeshirb Aech.eo. 
LOGICAL Society. — The proceedings of the 
third annual meeting of this society were con- 
tinued last week on Thursday and Friday. 
On Thursday the members visited Bristol 
Cathedral, when Mr. E. J. King read a paper 
on the architectural and other features of the 
structure. He remarked that there was 
nothing quite like this cathedral either in 
England or on the Continent. It stood in 
many respects alone, and a minute acquain- 
tance with other English churches of the same 
period enabled even an unprofessional student 
like himself to recognise and appreciate its 
remarkable peculiarities. The great beauty 
of the edifice had not always been recognised. 
The great originality of the design seemed to 
him to have resulted in nothing but what was 
admirable. It was quite true that nothing pre- 
cisely like the church was to be found anywhere 
else. The great distinj^uishing features were 
the lofty main arcade, with triforium or 
clerestory, the aisles of equal height, with 
nave and choir, and consequently admitting 
to those lofty and magnificent windows, which 
quite compensated for the absence of the 
usual stages above the arcade, the roofing, or 
rather the vaulting of the aisles, and the dis- 
position and design of the sepulchral recesses. 
Altogether, none of those features were to be 
found anywhere else. There was no one church 
which contained them all except the Cathedral 
of Bristol ; and if not one of the largest, yet, 
perhaps, it was the most peculiar, and by no 
means the least interesting, of English cathe- 
drals. At the close of the paper, the members 
went round the cathedral, and the various 
details were examined. Vivrious other places of 
interest in the city were also visited. On Fri- 
day the final meeting was held to pass votes oj 
thanks, &c, 

Bucks Aech^ological Society. — The 
Bucks Architectural and Archseological Society 
had a pleasant excursion last week. Special 
excursion tickets were issued from Aylesbury 
t« Bourne End, whence the members were 
driven in four-in-hand breaks, waggonettes, &c., 
to Hedsor, where they were received by the 
rector. The party first proceeded to the 
church, and then to Hedsor House, the features 
of which were explained by Mr. Lynn. Passing 
on to the Duke of Westminster's property, the 
Rev. C. Lowndes read a paper on " Clieveden." 
Leaving Clieveden, the party drove to Hitcham 
Church, where the Rev. Mr. Frewer pointed 
out the features of interest. The company 
passed on to Burnham Abbey, of which only 
some fragments remain, now used as farm 
buildings. Mr. W. L. Button, C.E., read a 
paper upon the abbey, which is supposed to have 
been founded by Richard of Cornwall, in 1256. 
At Bumham Church a paper giving some par- 
ticulars of the history, &c., of the parish was 
read ; and, having looked at Burnham Beeches, 
Dropmore Park and Gardens, and Wooburn 
Church, the party sat down to dinner at Woo- 
burn House. 

Kent Abch^ological Society. — • The 
annual meeting of this society was concluded 
last week, on Thursday. Visits were made 
from Bromley to Orpington, to the priory 
and parish church, and next to Cudham, then 
to High Elms, the seat of Sir John Lubbock. 
The Roman Camp in Holwood Park, and 
Wickham Court were afterwards inspected- 


























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IFo ti •:■ 







N\cWof- the 

:hc -PARIS • EXHIBITION 'AD- 18/8 • 



















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THF. B^'ILDINC I>EWS, Al-I^^' B. I/X77v, 


Restoration by the late S'" G.G.Scott. R. A. 

Are. 9, 1878. 




AS it is almost a necessity in large towns 
to preserve as clear a space as possible 
on the ground floor, and to utilise every 
inch of frontage for shop display, it becomes 
of some importance to know what provisions 
for stability and public security we have. 
Go where we will wo find large houses — 
many of sevenil stories iu height — built 
upon frames of timber or iron resting upon 
mere stilts, high above the ground level. 
These erections are literally houses built 
in the air — superimposed above our heads, 
and cannot by any explanation be con- 
sidered really bond fide buildings. At the 
present moment one may see a dozen of 
these erections -ivithin a walking distance 
anywhere in London, and the most extra- 
ordinary thing is that there appear to be 
no definite regulations respecting them. 
Some are built on frames of wood, others 
of iron; there is no apparent security 
guaranteed to the public farther than that 
a hoarding surrounds the site, and that a 
builder has his name prefixed thereto. It 
is true there is a Building Act, but the 
operation of that Act as often as not comes 
into force after it is of little use — that is to 
say, it is more curative than preventive in 
its action : instead of assisting, it finds fault 
and comes to the rescue when it is too late. 
During the last quarter of a century the 
old street buildings of London have suffered 
considerably from a process of undermining, 
known in the trade as " putting in a shop 
front," the consequence of the process being 
that the houses of many old streets look to 
be tumbling inwards. The centre portions of 
the fronts have settled in many instances 
eeriously, the windows have been thrown 
out of line, and the appearance is too well 
known by every omnibus traveller who 
passes in monotonous rotation such miles 
of street frontages as the Pentonville or 
Walworth roads. Mr. Alfred Bartholomew, 
in his well-known work on " Practical 
Architecture," has graphically described 
and illustrated the weakness, but the rage 
for new fronts has increased immensely 
since his day. It is unfortunate that the 
Building Act of 1855 did not take this very 
common transformation, created by the 
efflux of town residents, into account, and 
provide for it, as it is obvious if this had 
been done the Dangerous Structures clauses 
would not have been so necessary as they 
are now. The Building Act only provides 
that every bressummer shall have bearings 
at each end of 4in. at the least, and that, if 
bearing upon any party wall, templates of 
stone or iron must be provided ; but nothing 
IS prescribed as to the maximum length of 
unsupported bearing, the scantling of the 
bressummer itself, or what size of story 
posts or piers are required. From this un- 
certainty, no doubt, many errors have been 
committed. But the case of corner build- 
ings demands even greater precautions. 
We often .see a building supported on a 
frame of iron or timber, upheld by a single 
angle stanchion of iron, and by about two 
other pillars in the frontage. Now these 
Bupp<irts may be strong enough, though 
they do not so satisfy the eye in many 
instances ; but other questions, of which 
we are left in complete ignorance, relate to 
the foundations of the story posts, their 
fixing to the bressummer, and the connec- 
tion of the latter at the corner. These are 
points, we are bound to say, for which a 
Building Act in every town should specially 
provide. In London they are supposed 
to come under the jurisdiction of the sur- 
veyor, though we have frequently observed 
very faulty and inadequate fixing of the 
piUars to the girders, and of the girders 
themselves at the angle. The usual kind 
of bressummer in ordinary buildings con- 
sists of a balk of timber sawed in two or 
thi'ee, and converted into a flitched beam 

or trussed. We contend this is inadequate 
guarantee of strength and efficiency, and 
that it would be far better to make it com- 
pulsory to use beams of concrete and iron, 
the iron being introduced as tensile bars in 
the lower half of the section, as we have 
lately recommended. Such beams would be 
not only stronger and more reliable than 
iron beams, but would be fire-proof as well, 
and would admit of architectural treatment 
and decoration to a degree not contemplated 
undffr the present sham mode of casing up 
and forming counterfeit entablatures. In 
corner buildings, too, we should make it 
imperative to carry up one angle pier of 
brick and cement, or, if the corner has to be 
left open for a doorway, to erect side stan- 
chions of iron encased in concrete, with a 
cross or head-piece to connect them below 
the beams. We venture to think these sug- 
gestions, if carried out, would obviate a 
very serious defect in our building regula- 
tions, and insure that immunity from danger 
in our commercial towns to which we are 
imminently exposed if a general conflagra- 
tion were to break out. 


THE very heavy rains of the last week 
have taught the residents of our low- 
lying localities that ordinarily efficient 
drainage is not always to be relied upon. 
From various southern districts of the me- 
tropolis we learn that basements have been 
flooded, while even floors on the ground 
level have been submerged. The same 
complaints reach us from Sheffield and 
many of the midland districts. The incon- 
veniences of these overflows point to a few 
very simple means of obviating them, which 
builders, curiously enough, overlook, apart 
from the capiicity of drains and efficient 
outlets. If we examine into the causes of 
overflooding, we shall find many defects of 
omission. One of the greatest is the ease 
with which water can enter the house. In 
nine cases out of ten, the levels of the base- 
ment are such that water is actually invited 
— the paved areas fall towards instead of 
away from the house ; the ground has not 
been laid out with proper currents ; if sinks 
or grated cesspools exist they are placed in 
positions that do not intercept the main 
streams, or the pavement is so irregular 
that little surface water can pass away by 
them. Then the feet of stack pipes generally 
pour their contents near some threshold, 
and no provision is made for sudden rain- 
falls. To ob%-iate these defects it is neces- 
sary, first, to place our yard gulleys in the 
very lowest part of the adjoining areas or 
ground, which should have a cui-rent away 
from the house of at least 2in. to 10 feet, 
and to bring the feet of the rain water pipes 
as near as possible to them; to avoid all 
unnecessary bends to the pipes, and to turn 
the outlets or shoes well away from the wall ; 
to lay the paving nearest the walls and 
thresholds with a steeper incline than the 
remaining portion, so as to throw off the 
water quickly ; and lastly, to place as many 
checks and impediments as we can to the 
outer doorways, such as steps, weather 
boards, &c. It must be remembered that 
the thresholds of doors get worn below the 
level of the ground, and that water soon 
finds its way in if not thn)wn off a sufficient 
distance by the means of weather boards, 
&c. Too little attention is paid to these 
details by architects and builders, and in 
heavy rainfalls the inmates of houses suffer 
the consequences They attribute fault to 
the drain, whereas, in numerous cases, the 
mischief arises from the insufficient inclina- 
tion given to the ground, and from not 
taking precautions to check the ingress of 
the surface water to the house. The best 
smk traps are undoubtedly those with 

movable Uds of stoneware or iron that can 
be readily cleansed, and the openings 
should be large enough not to l>e»'0me 
quickly choked up by silt aud rubbish when 
a heavy rainfall occurs. The common per- 
forated stones are faulty in this respect. 
Iron box-traps are not so clean as stone- 
ware, of which there are many kinds, such 
as those manufactured by Doulton, the 
Buchan gulley-trap, Ac. The less space 
there is for lodgment of solid matter the 
better. One of the simplest remedies 
against flooding by excess of rainfall is to 
store it, and it is strange that provision is 
not made in modem houses for storing the 
water. A rain water tjink may be sunk 
about 4ft. or 5ft. in diauieter, and 10ft. 
deep, lined with brick and cement, and 
would be of considerable use to the tenant 
of every house, and its cost need not be 
more than from £5 to £8. 


SOME time ago we noticed a work written 
by Mr. Arthur Silverthome, C.E., on this 
subject. A new and enlarged edition has just 
been published, in which the author continues 
the history of the transfers of gas works from 
1808 to 1878, and adds a chapter on the London 
Gas Supply of 1878. From the facts stated by 
the author there is abundance of evidence to 
show the economy and advantages accruing 
from the transfer of gas works to municipal 
bodies. We have before alluded to the history 
of gas works and to many towns where the 
control of the works are vested in the Local 
Board, Corporation, or Improvement Commis- 
sioners. Mr. Silverthorne says, " the number 
of towns that have already adopted the system 
of directing their own gas works, does not bear 
an inconsiderable proportion even to the 
number of companien incorporated under 
special Acts of Parliament. The latter reckon 
at the present moment in England and Wales 
about two hundred and forty.eight, and it ia 
well to add that the proportion of unincorpo- 
rated gas companies to the former is in the 
ratio nearly of four to one." Gas companies 
without statutory powers are still to be found 
in important towns in Scotland. In many 
towns the transfer has been negotiated pri- 
vately ; in other cases, as Sheffield, Notting- 
ham, Ramsgate, ic, the compulsory transfer 
has been opposed successfully, while in a 
few large towns — Glasgow, Kotherham, Aber- 
deen, Stafford, Ac. — the compulsory prin- 
ciple has been sanctioned by Parliament. For 
precedents referring to gas Mr. Silverthorne's 
work will be found of value. Gas companies, 
we all know, like to keep the price of gas as 
high as they can, in order to guard against a 
rise in the price of coals, and through an 
omission in the Act of 1847 an excess of profits 
has been devoted not to give consumers a 
cheaper supply, but to create new capital for 
the shareholders. These two facts should be 
sufficient to induce local authorities to apply 
for powers if no other reasons existed. The 
author states that a well-managed gas company 
is certain to pay 10 per cent., a dividend that 
compares well with that of other investments ; 
but unfortunately the consumer does not share 
in the profits at all. It is true Mr. Raikes' 
recent proposal mends matters a little, and it 
is now provided that in every bill by which a 
gas company raises additional capital provision 
shall be made for the ofter of such capital by 
public auction or tender, at the best price which 
can be obtained ; but still the fact remains that 
the opposition of a public body on purely 
philanthropic ground, as the author observes, 
" instead of being met in a respectful 
manner is usually characterised by the pro- 
moters as an offensive interference with con- 
stituted rights, and the legitimate claims of 
the ratepayers are overruled by the eloquence 
of the Parliamentary Bar." Again, our author 
fairly argues no corporation is being fairly 
dealt with by a gas company which charges 
at the rate of JE4 per bimp per annum for 

• The Transfer of tlie Ga3 Works to Local .Vuthoritiea, 
with Statistics, &c. By Aethuk Siltbethoese, CoDSolti- 
ing Engineer. London : Crosby Lockwood and Co. 



Aug. 9, 1878. 

public lighting, which charges 5s. per 1,000ft. 
of gas, when in London it is actually sold for 
3s., or which supplies gas below the standard of 
16 candles. These are legitimate grievances 
which entitle any public body to be heard. 
The means by which corporations or local 
authorities are empowered to purchase gas 
works are the Municipal Borough Funds Act, 
1872, which sanctions the application of 
borough funds, to promote bills for the estab- 
lishment of gas or water works, if not in com- 
petition with any existing companies and to 
promote purchases, and the Public Health Act, 
1875, sec. 102, which affords the local authority 
the privilege of purchasing works " by agree- 
ment," provided the area supplied by the com- 
pany is within the borough district. 

The author rebuts the idea that the com- 
panies are in a better position to manage gas 
works than local boards ; he observes with 
truth that a corporation does not incur the 
repeated expense a company does in applying 
to Parliament for increased powers and capital. 
It can purchase coal at an advantage, it can 
effect a great saving in respect of management, 
it can reduce the burdens of the petty rates, 
and can extend the works out of surplus profits, 
all of which a company cannot do. Again, the 
demand for gas is doubled every ten years, 
a constant accession of capital is needed, and 
a corporation can borrow at 4 instead of 74 per 
cent. It can be shown by figures that this 
advantage is a great annual saving to the con- 
sumer. Mr. Silverthorne says it is strange 
that gas companies should have any objection 
to part with their works when the offers made 
are of the most advantageous kind. We know 
many companies have refused most liberal offers ; 
and on this the author observes " the principle 
of giving maximum guaranteed dividends to 
the shareholders of gas companies for the sake 
of acquiring the works without opposition is a 
gross miscalculation, and the highest amount 
the companies are really entitled to claim in 
that way is the market price of a secured 
corporation annuity, equal in value to that of 
the company's stock before any rise in price 
arising out of the prospective purchase." We 
are glad to find the author condemning the 
usual mode of borrowing the purchase-money, 
and paying off the companies, and that he pro- 
poses purchase by means of redeemable annui- 
ties, and that borrowing be confined to neces- 
sary extensions. Sir Stafford Northcote's 

mission, selected from the Common Council 
and the Metropolitan Board of Works, as the 
only assemblies competent to deal with the 
gas supply of London. The facts brought 
forward indicate the great economy that would 
result from a transfer of the gas companies of 
the metropolis to local authorities, such as the 
saving in law and parliamentary costs paid in 
fighting the metropolitan bodies, and the 
author believes there is a prospect of an im- 
mediate saving of at least ^6151,620 per annum 
by the acquisition. 

present remains a " mystery " in building 
casualties may be explained by the law of the 
exaltation of the elastic limit we have re- 
ferred to. 

pROF. R. H. THURSTON, in a paper read 
'- before the American Society of CivU 
Engineers, and printed in the " Transactions " 
of that society, shows that it is possible to 
detect in the overstrained members of a broken 
structure the amount of such overstrain at any 
later time, and to determine, with a fair 
degree of certainty, the overload to which an iron 
bridge has been subjected. Hodgkinson, Clark, 
and Mallett, French and German investiga- 
tors, have established the fact of change of 
form and variation of the elastic limit under 
gradually increased loads. Prof. Thurston, in 
America, has devoted much attention to this 
behaviour of metal under strain, and has dis- 
covered that with metal of the iron or tin class, 
and under the same conditions of manufacture, 
the rate of elevation of the normal elastic limit 
by intermittent strain may be expressed by a 
simple formula. The effect of intermittent 
strains considerably exceeding the primitive 
elastic limit has been determined also by Com- 
mander Beardslee, U.S.N., by direct experi- 
ment in the laboratory of the Stevens' Institute 
of Technology. The author of the paper says : 
— " From a study of the results of such re- 
searches the writer has found that, with such 
iron as is here described, the process of exalta- 
tion of the normal elastic limit, due to any 
given degree of strain, usually nearly reaches 
a maximum in the course of a few days of rest 
after strain, its progress being rapid at first, 
and the rate of increase quickly diminishmg 
with time. For good bridge irons the amount of 
the excess of the exalted limit above the stress at 
which the load had been previously removed may 
be expressed approximately by the formula- 

recent observations on the too great facilities E' = 5 log. T + 1'50 percent., in which T, the 

given to local bodies to borrow at moderate 
rates, and Mr. Gladstone's reply are printed by 
the author, and are apropos. 

The statements of various transfers are of 
great value to local authorities, as they show 
great differences in the cost of purchase. The 
case of Leeds is enough to prove the benefits to 
be derived by municipal management. The 
Corporation paid ^£140 for every .£100 of G per 
cent stock, or 23i years' purchase, and the 
results are highly satisfactory. Through the ad- 
vantageous coal contracts made by the Corpora- 
tion, a reduction was made for gas in 1877, 
from 3s. 3d. to 23. 9d. This is probably the 
cheapest gas supplied. Limerick has a bill 
in Parliament to purchase the gas company's 
works, and already the price of gas has been 
brought down by the opposition from 15s. to 5s. 
per 1,000 feet. Here the company and corpora- 
tion have each had works of their own, and 
have worked in fierce opposition, the result 
being that neither paid. In nine out of 
ten cases enumerated, the consumers have been 
compelled to take the supply into their own 
hands, owing to the dissatisfaction with the 
price and quality of gas supplied. At Stoke- 
on-Trent the paid-up capital of the gas com- 
pany is ^£34,000 ; it has paid 10 per cent., and 
an agreement has been come to by the Corpo- 
ration to pay 25 years' purchase of the dividend ; 
and we could mention many other cases to show 
the desirability of the purchase, on the grounds 
alike of economy and elEciency. 

Some very interesting particulars are given 
respecting the London gas supply, which may 
be aptly compared with large corporation 
undertakings. Mr. Silverthorne strongly op- 
poses the transfer of the London gas companies 
to any untried body of representatives, such as 
that proposed under the " municipality 
scheme," and considers the control of the 
gas supply should be confided to a gas corn- 

time, is given in hours of rest after removal of 
the tensile stress which produced the noted 

The paper of Professor Thurston further 
shows that strain diagrams, autographically 
registerad, become the loci of successive limits 
of elasticity of iron at different positions of 
" set." An imaginary case is given of a 
Howe truss or similar bridge, from which 
it is inferred that tha destruction of such 
a bridge can be explained upon the above 
principles, and that, in short, very many 
failures of this kind, " involved in mystery," 
are to be attributed to a sudden load, capable 
of straining the metal to about one-half of its 
ultimate strength if slowly applied, but which 
has the effect of doubling it. It will thus be 
learnt from the facts brought before us by the 
author that a structure of iron may be capable 
of sustaining the largest load ever likely to 
come upri it, if that load be applied gradually; 
but that it may snap in two like a reed if the 
same lead is suddenly brought to bear upon it 
— a maximum stress, equal to twice that of the 
gradually applied load, being the effect. The 
same risk may arise when a railway train or 
sudden load results in loosening a nut or in 
breaking some part, by which the load falls a 
distance, and causes a sudden impact. It would 
be interesting to know if similar results have 
been discovered in wooden and other structures. 
We know quite well that a sudden stampede of 
cavalry over a bridge tries it far more than the 
same weight at rest or moving in unmeasured 
time ; that a sudden gust of wind has blown 
down walls and shafts that have withstood 
heavier gales ; and that a sudden accession of 
load imperils a building far more than a steady 
or slowly increasing load. The effect of sudden 
jar or impact, we are inclined to think, is not 
usually taken into account in the construction 
of our pillars and girders, and much that at 


IN a paper by Mr. Clemens Herschel, C.E., of 
Boston, published in the Journal of the 
Franklin Institute, some interesting experi- 
ments on the power of water in moving various 
substances is given. Allusion is made to a 
record of experiments made in 1857 by Mr. 
Thomas E. Blackwell, C.E., Commissioner on 
Metropolitan Drainage, from which it is in- 
ferred, first, that for objects of the same kind, 
the velocity of stream required to start them, 
increased with the mass of the object ; second, 
for different objects the velocity increased with 
the specific gravity ; third, that the nearer the 
object assumed a spherical form the less velocity 
it took to move it, whereas a flat object like 
slate required a current of considerable velocity 
to disturb it ; and, fourth, as the velocity of 
current increases after the object is in motion, 
the velocity of such object increases in pro- 
gressive ratio. As a general conclusion a velo- 
city of 2ft. to 35ft. per second will remove aU 
objects of the nature and size of those likely 
to be found in sewers. Mr. Herschel, however, 
says that no relation can be discovered from 
these experiments between the mass and the 
velocity, or between specific gravity and velo- 
city, and he points out the want of regularity 
in the action of currents of this kind. The 
conclusions of the author are : first, that water 
in motion tends to act upon its channel by 
direct friction, tending to drag materials along 
its bed, or down its banks if these have a steep 
slope, and, by lifting iijj materials, holding them 
in suspension, and thus carrying them along in 
the body of current. Direct friction produces 
shoals, but no expression by formulae is practi- 
cable of the force which abrades banks and 
beds, and lifts material, and the effects of the 
inner movement of the particles of water must 
remain a matter for judgment. Second, for 
either kind of motion, and for every amount of 
it, there is a limiting size of individual objects 
of a certain specific gravity, which will no 
longer be affected by such motion ; therefore, 
just as soon as the beds and banks of a water- 
course are covered with bodies of this size and 
quality, the smaller and lighter having been 
washed away, the beds and banks remain per- 
manent. Speaking of remedies for the erosive 
action of streams and rivers, and the consequent 
undermining of bridge piers and simUar 
masonry, the author points to that diminishing 
the velocity and the relative motion of the 
particles of water ; that of making the stream 
regular and uniform, or of protecting the parts 
affected from erosion by stone pitching, fas- 
cines, &c. 


GKEAr Yarmouth. — We are requested to 
say that the Town Council of Great Yarmouth 
cannot return the drawings sent in for the recent 
municipal buildings competition held here, of 
" East Coast " and " B with Arrow in a Circle," 
as the authors have not forwarded their names 
with the sealed letters that should have accom- 
panied the designs. 

The first public park in W:gan was opened on 
Monday. The town offered prizes for the best de- 
sign for laying out the park, and after competition 
Mr. Maclean, of Derby, was awarded first prize, 
and upon him has devolved the duty of superintend- 
ing the work. The park is laid out in the Italian 
style. At the principal entrance there is in course 
of erection a lodge, in the Swiss style, from the 
designs of Mr. Fletcher, of London. 

On Saturday afternoon the memorial stone of the 
St. John's Wesleyan chapel, in course of erection 
in Park View-road,, was laid. The 
estimated cost of the new building is .£10,000. 
Seats for 750 persons will be provided on the ground 
floor, and for 250 in the gallery. The style will be 
Early English, freely treated. The architect is Mr. 
C. O.Ellison, F.E.I.B. A., Liverpool. The contract 
for the works has been let to Messrs. Wm. Ives 
and Co., Shipley. 

New Board Schools at Howdon were opened on 
Tuesday. They were built by Mr. Robert Harbottle, 
of Shieldfield, from desigrs prepared by Mr. John 
Johnstone, of Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Arc. 9, 187.S. 



Builtiiug JnttlUgcucc. 

Blackbdbn. — On Saturday last the new 
Independent Schools, Aiidley Kange, were 
formally opened. These schools are one story 
in height, and contain accommodation for up- 
wards of COO scholars, which number will be 
increased to 850 when the whole design has 
been carried out. The plan contains a large 
room, 90ft. X 40ft., the height to the square 
being IGft., and to the ceiling line 30ft. ; four 
class-rooms, 18ft. x 18ft., and of corresponding 
height ; book closet and front and back porches. 
The style of architecture is thirteenth century 
Gothic, simply treated. The outside walling is 
Yorkshire pierpoints, h:>ving a cavity and brick 
lining ; the ashlar dressings to doors, windows, 
&c., are also of Yorkshire stone. The roof is 
open timbered, stained and varnished, and 
slated with blue and red Velinheli slates in 
band. The contract was let in July last year to 
Messrs. Thomas Higson and Sons, Blackburn. 
The work has been carried out (at a cost of 
about i;3,200) under the supervision of Mr. 
William S. Varley, architect, Blackburn, whose 
design was selected in a limited competition. 

Ceewe. — The restoration of Christ Church, 
Crewe, has just been completed. The church 
was originally built by the London and North 
Western Railway Company in 1845, and was a 
cruciform brick structure with stone facings in 
the Anglo-Gothic style of architecture. Since 
that time it has been twice enlarged, the pre- 
vious occasion being 14years ago.when the aisles 
and gallery were added. The church, which 
has been re-built for the third time, now con- 
tains vestibule, nave, chancel, transept, and 
gallery, and is a specimen of the Early Pointed 
style. The improvements, which have been 
carried out by Messrs. Cul)itt and Co., of 
London, will cost about .£5,000, exclusive of the 
new bells and a new organ. The front is of 
Granshell freestone and Yorkshire rubble. The 
Norman tower, the feature of the west front, is 
9Gft. from base to summit, all of carved Gran- 
shell freestone, with the exception of the clock 
portion, which is of terra-cotta work. Mr. 
Stansby, arcliitect of the London and North- 
western Eailway Company, drew the plans. 
The inside of the church has also been entirely 
renovated. The west portion, in addition to 
the vestibule with opened roof and carved 
corners, has been enlarged to hold 300 addi- 
tional sitters, and this portion of the church 
and gallery is entirely new. 

HoLBOBN. — The foundation stone of a new 
board-room and offices for theHolbom District 
Board of Works was laid on Saturday, the 3rd 
inst. The building will occupy a site of land at 
the comer of Liquorpond-street and Gray's-inn- 
road, having a frontage to the latter street of 
100ft., and a return depth next Liquorpond- 
street of 121:ft. The ground-floor story will 
contain a public office for the conduct of the 
general business of the board, and immediately 
adjoining are offices for the clerk, surveyor, and 
medical officer of health. In the rear of the 
site on this floor will be found a mortuary, post- 
mortem room, md disinfecting room. The 
board-room is approached through a doorway 
and entrance hall at the corner of the site, 
leading to the principal staircase which is 
wholly composed of stone, and is 6ft. wide. 
With the exception of the entrance to the rate- 
payers' gallery at the east end of the site the 
whole of the area on the ground floor, exclusive 
of the rooms we have named, will he devoted to 
the purposes of a stoneyard and depot. On the 
first floor will be found the board-room, 90ft. 
long, 45tc. wide, and 30ft. high. There is also 
a committee-room, 48ft. long x 30ft. wide ; as 
also a sub-committee room, and the usual lava- 
tory and retiring rooms. The favade next 
Gray's-inn-road is carried up one story higher. 
The style is Italian, freely treated, a noticeable 
feature in the composition being a clock tower 
at the corner of the site, which will rise to a 
height of 100ft. The materials employed in 
the elevation will be red brick and Portland 
stone ; the doorway forming the approach to 
the board-room being composed of polished 
Aberdeen granite. The works are being carried 
out from the drawings and under the superin- 
tendence of Messrs. Isaacs and Florence, archi- 

tects, of 3, Verulam.buildings, Gray's-inn, the 
contract being let to Messrs. Brown and Robin- 
son, for the sum of i;25,987. 

Manchestee. — Last week the new Church 
of St. Bride, Shrewsbury-street, Brooks's Bar, 
Manchester, in course of erection for the past 
16 months, was consecrated. When finished, 
the church will consist of nave and aisles, to- 
gether with north and soutli transepts and an 
apsidal choir. The internal dimensions of the 
nave and aisles are — length, !)Oft. : breadth, 
52ft. ; height from floor to apex of roof, which 
is open, 5tift. It will, when completed, seat 
SOO persons. The style of architecture is Geo- 
metrical middle pointed. The walls externally 
are of Yorkshire parpoints, with dressings of